OAE School Counseling (040)

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Erikson Birth-18 months
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Trust vs Mistrust -Children develop trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. -Lack of trust will lead to mistrust
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Erikson 1-3 years
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Autonomy vs Shame -Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and sense of independence. -Success=Autonomy -Failure=Shame
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Erikson 3-5 years
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Initiative vs Guilt -Children must assert control and power over their environment. -Success in this stage leads to sense of purpose. -Children who try and exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt
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Erikson 5-12 years
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Industry vs Inferiority -Children need to cope with new social and academic commands. -Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure makes children feel inferior
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Erikson 12-18 years
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Identity vs Role Confusion – Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. -Success leads to an ability to stay true to self -Failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self
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Erikson 18-40 years
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Intimacy vs Isolation -Adults need to form intimate loving relationships with others. -Success leads to strong relationships -Failure leads to loneliness and confusion
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Erikson 40-65
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Generativity vs Stagnation -Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. -Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment -Failure leads to shallow involvement in the world
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Erikson 65+
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Ego Integrity vs Despair -Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. -Success leads to feelings of wisdom -Failure leads to regret, bitterness, and despair
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
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Developing child builds cognitive structures -Mental Maps. -Schemes. -Networked Concepts. -Used to understand and respond to physical experienced within his or her environment
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Piaget Cognitive Development Birth-2 years
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Sensorimotor -Child learns by doing: Looking, touching, sucking. -Child learns they are separate from their environment and aspects of the environment continue to exist outside their senses
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Piaget Cognitive Development 2-7 years
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Preoperational -The child uses language and symbols, including letters and numbers. -Egocentrism is present. Inability to take someone elses view -Oriented to present, difficulty conceptualizing time.
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Piaget Cognitive Development 7-11 years
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Concrete Operational -Can work through problems in their head. -Demonstrates conservation, reversibility, serial ordering, and a mature understanding of cause-and-effect relationships
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Piaget Cognitive Development 11 years-Adulthood
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Formal Operational -Demonstrates abstract thinking, including logic, deductive reasoning, comparison, and classification. -Capable of hypothetical reasoning
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Mean
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The average
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Mode
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Most frequent value
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Median
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Middle score
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According to Lev Vygotskys theory of Cognitive Development, children acquire language primarily as a result of:
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Social Interactions
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Elementary educators who incorporate Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence’s into their planning are most likely to
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Vary instructional methods used throughout the school day
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What’s a benefit of discovery learning?
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Prompts students to construct their own knowledge through direct interaction with objects and environments
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When implementing classroom guidance lessons, a school counselor best promote student’s motivation to learn by:
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Relating the content of each lesson to the student’s lives and experiences
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Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development *Pre-conventional Morality*
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Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment -All children start here, rules are seen as being fixed and absoulute. Obeying rules is important because it means avoiding punishment. Stage 2: Self-Interest Orientation -Children learn that other people have their own goals and you can negotiate. “What’s in it for me?” mentality.
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Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development *Conventional Morality*
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Stage 3: Social Conformity -By adolescence most individuals have developed this stage. Sense of “good boys” and “nice girls” living up to social expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships Stage 4: Law and Order -By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole when making judgments. Focus on maintaining law and order by following rules.
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Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development *Post-conventional Morality*
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Stage 5: Social Contract -Differing opinions on what is right and wrong and that laws are social contract based on majority decision. People at this stage sometimes disobey rules if they find them inconsistent with personal values. Stage 6: Universal Ethics -Few people operate at this stage. Moral principles seen as more important than the laws. Abstract thinking .
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The primary purpose of incorporating group counseling into a school counseling program is to:
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Provide a supportive environment where students can practice new behaviors and exchange feedback
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In a school counseling program that employs a differentiated staffing model, the most effective way to provide services would be to
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Assign tasks by area of expertise
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It is recommended that a school counselor evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school counseling program every:
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Year
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A school counselor conducts a program evaluation close to the end of each school year. The primary purpose of this practice is to
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Identify counseling services that will likely be necessary to meet new areas of need for the following year.
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Explain Standard Deviation Scores
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The average amount of variation around the mean in original terms. Score allows us to measure the difference in distribution of numbers. 1 SD = 68% of population 2 SD = 95% of population 3 SD = 99% of population
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What is the Zone of Proximal Development
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Created by Lev Vygotsky -Skills too difficult for a child to master on their own, but can be done with guidance and encouragement from a knowledgeable person. -Examples usually given
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Who created the multiple intelligence?
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Howard Gardner
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Name the multiple intelligence levels
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1. Muscial-rhythmic 2. Visual-spatial 3. Verbal-linguistic 4. Logical-mathematical 5.Body-kinesthitic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Natrualistic 9. Existential
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A needs assessment employs:
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Surveys Observations Data analysis
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A comprehensive guidance program is data-driven. The use of data is mainly related to issues of what?
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Accountability
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In regards to school counseling, what is termination?
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The time where growth of the group and individuals is looked at.
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In speaking to a student whose academic performance does not measure up to his ability, a counselor says, “It seems like you’re not putting much effort into your school work.” This statement could best be described as
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Judgmental
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In what subjects does the No Child Left Behind Act require annual testing?
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Math and Reading
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ASCA describes a comprehensive guidance program in terms of three broad topics:
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-Academic development, -Career development, and -Personal/social development
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What is disaggregated data analysis?
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Studying test results for specific subgorups of students
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Ms. Parker, a teacher, tells a counselor that one of her students has a hard time staying in his seat and concentrating on his work. What steps can the counselor take?
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-Offer to observe the student in class -Discuss the student’s behavior with the student’s parents -Suggest behavior management techniques
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What theory of development believes learning is viewed as a personal act to fulfill one’s potential?
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Behaviorism
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At-risk student programs are created to do what?
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Provide at-risk students with the same benefits as those who are not at-risk. When creating an at-risk student program, it should provide at-risk students with the same benefits as those who are not at-risk. It should provide opportunities to at-risk students that they otherwise would not have.
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The ASCA has identified how many components of an effective counseling delivery system?
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The ASCA has identified four components of an effective counseling delivery system. They include: guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, and system support.
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Result reports look to show what?
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The actual change in student behavior and learning Results reports show the actual change in student behavior and learning. These reports are used to determine if a counseling program is effectively doing what it set out to do
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A teacher administers a personality inventory that uses multiple choice and true-false questions. This type of personality test is called
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An objective personality test contains controlled response questions. Its results can be analyzed impartially with no need for subjective interpretation. The best known objective personality test is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
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If a school declines to change a student’s record that a parent thinks is inaccurate, and a formal hearing upholds the school’s position, what further right does a parent have?
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The right to place a statement with the record After a formal hearing has declared that the school does not have to change the student’s record, a parent still has the right to place a statement with the record. In this statement, a parent can explain his or her view about the contested information.
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In Solution focused breif therpy(SFBT) there are three different client therapy relationships. Name them.
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They are the visitor, complainant, and customer.
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What are responsive services provided by a comprehensive guidance program?
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Small group counseling. Individual counseling. Teacher consultations.
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School districts are required by law to provide disabled students with FAPE. What does FAPE stand for?
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Free Appropriate Public Education.
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What type of validity would be most important in evaluating a school’s curriculum?
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Content
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A teacher asks a counselor for advice on how to manage a particularly rowdy class. The counselor observes the class and suggests some classroom mangement techniques. In this situation, the counselor is assuming the role of
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Helper In this situation, the counselor is assuming the role of helper by providing the teacher assistance in managing the class. The counselor is not assuming the role of evaluator, supervisor, or administrator because all of these roles suggest that the counselor is the teacher’s superior. The counselor is not assuming the role of collaborator because the counselor is providing assistance, not working with the teacher.
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A guidance counselor works with a therapist from a community agency to design a program for a student with obsessive compulsive disorder. The counselor is assuming what role?
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Collaborator A counselor who works together with another professional to provide services to a student is taking on the role of collaborator. In this role, the two professionals treat each other as peers, sharing their expertise and experience.
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Abraham Maslow is often called the father of humanistic psychology. What does humanistic psychology focus on?
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Humanistic psychology focuses on each individual’s potential and stresses the importance of growth and self-actualization
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Social learning theory focuses on how people learn from each other through
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Observation, imitation, and modeling. According to this theory, most learning occurs through continuous social interaction
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A negative correlation coefficient means that
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As one variable increases, another variable decreases, and vice versa
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If a school counselor is using the *existential counseling* approach, the counselor’s approach is based on what type of knowledge?
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Humanistic knowledge.
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What are Bruce Tuckmans stages of group development
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-Forming -Storming -Norming -Performing
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A comprehensive guidance program is results-oriented. This means that the guidance program is focused on what?
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Student Success

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