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Nutrition Chapter 3

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The process by which food is broken down into absorbable components
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Digestion
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What is mastication
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The act of chewing
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What is the lumen of the GI tract
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The inner space
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In what organ does the digestion process begin?
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Mouth
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What is umami?
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The flavor of monosodium glutamate
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About how many more times sensitive is the sense of smell compared with the sense of taste?
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1000s
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What is not considered a basic taste sensation?
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Hot
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The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate is believed by some scientists to promote a unique taste sensation known as?
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Umami
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What describes the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract?
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A flexible muscular tube
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What is not a sphincter muscle?
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Duodenum
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Where is the epiglottis located
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Throat
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What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
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Epiglottis
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Which of the following is a characteristic of the appendix?
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It stores lymph cells
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What is a bolus?
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Portion of food swallowed at one time
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A bolus is conducted past the diaphragm through the?
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Esophagus
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What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?
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Epiglottis
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What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
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Prevents the contents of the small intestine from backing up into the stomach
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What structure controls the passage of material from the small intestine to the large intestine?
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Illeocecal valve
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Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?
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Duodenum
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After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
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Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
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Which of the following is a description of chyme?
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A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small intestine
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What is the primary function of the rectum?
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Stores waste material prior to evacuation
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What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
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Chyme
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What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
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Ileocecal valve
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Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
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It consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
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What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
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Pyloric sphincter
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What is meant by the term “motility” in reference to the GI tract?
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The ability of the GI tract muscles to move
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During the process of digestion, at what point does the stomach begin to release chyme?
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When the chyme is liquefied
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Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?
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Stomach
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Which of the following is a feature of the muscular actions of digestion?
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Segmentation in the intestines allows periodic squeezing along its length, resulting in momentary reversal of the movement of intestinal contents
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Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
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Control the passage of food through the GI tract
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The lower esophageal sphincter is also known as the?
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Cardiac sphincter
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What is reflux?
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Backward flow of chyme
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What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in foods?
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Proteases
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All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except
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Saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and proteins.
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What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
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Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
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What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
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Creates an optimum acidity
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Which of the following best describes the normal pH of the stomach?
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Very acidic
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Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
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Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment
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What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
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Hydrolyzed in the GI tract
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What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
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Mucus
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Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all the following except?
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It activates pancreatic lipase.
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Which part of the GI tract contains highly acidic digestive juices?
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Stomach
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The usual pH of gastric juice is approximately
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2
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What is an important function of mucus?
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Protects the stomach walls from digestion
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After chewing and swallowing a portion of food, what becomes of the salivary amylase in the stomach?
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It is inactivated by gastric juice
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Enzymes are…
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Are proteins and proteins are destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract.
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Which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?
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Liver
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The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can attack the fat is known as?
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Emulsification
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A solution with a pH of 7 is how many times more alkaline than one with a pH of 6?
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10
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The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to?
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Raise the pH of chyme
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After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
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Approximately neutral
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What would not be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?
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Fiber
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What is not a component of pancreatic juice?
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Bile
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The colonic fermentation of certain fibers produces all of the following except?
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Secretin
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What is one function of the gallbladder?
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Stores bile
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An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of
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Salts
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Which of the following is not a typical component of stools?
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Starch
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What class of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
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Vitamins
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What nutrient requires the least amount of digestion?
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calcium
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What is a significant property of dietary fiber?
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Promotes water retention of stools
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What is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions?
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Fiber
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What is the function of bile?
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Emulsifies fats
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What is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts?
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Secretion of juices into the small intestine
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What is the name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine?
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Villi
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What is a function of the intestinal microvilli?
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Transport of nutrient molecules
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What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
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Microvillus
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What are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
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Enzymes
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Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except?
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Transmigration
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Why is surface area an integral part of the absorption of nutrients?
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Through the presence of the enormous number of villi and microvilli
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To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to?
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Combine different types of food to enhance the absorption process
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When nutrients are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?
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Liver
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Which of the following products of digestion is not normally released directly into the bloodstream?
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Fats
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What is the first vessel to receive absorbed water-soluble vitamins?
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Hepatic portal vein
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What vessel carries blood from the liver to the heart?
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Hepatic vein
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The hepatic portal vein empties into the?
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Liver
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Exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place across the walls of small vessels called?
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Capillaries
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When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the?
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Liver
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Which of the following conducts lymph into the vascular system?
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Subclavian vein
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Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
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It carries fats away from the intestines
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What is the first major organ to receive nutrients that are absorbed into the lymph?
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Heart
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What are lacteals?
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Intestinal lymphatic vessels
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Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats?
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Lymphatic
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The living bacteria found in yogurt are known as?
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Probiotics
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Microorganisms in food that are viable when consumed and that are beneficial to health are known as?
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Probiotics
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When consumed on a regular basis, which of the following foods promotes healthful changes of the microflora of the GI tract?
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Yogurt
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The intestinal flora are comprised primarily of?
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Bacteria
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What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
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Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system
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Which of the following is known to be produced by small intestinal bacteria?
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Vitamins
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The maintenance of the body’s constant internal conditions is guided by the principle known as
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Homeostasis
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What two systems coordinate all digestive/absorptive processes?
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Nervous and endocrine
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What is the normal pH of stomach juice?
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1.5-1.7
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Which of the following regulates the pH of the stomach?
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Gastrin
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Which of the following substances functions to control the release of hydrochloric acid to prevent excessive acidity?
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Gastrin
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Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
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Secretin
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Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
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The pancreas can increase the activity of fat-degrading enzymes in response to more fat in the diet
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What nutrient requires the greatest time for digestion?
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Fat
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What is/are the primary target organ(s) for the action of cholecystokinin?
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Gallbladder and Pancreas
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The chief functions of cholecystokinin include all of the following except
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Triggering release of gastrin
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What are the usual consequences of removing a diseased gallbladder?
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Delivery of bile directly to the duodenum
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Jenny has just has undergone a cholecystectomy. After recovery, Jenny will no longer
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Have an extra reservoir for bile
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The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release?
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Cholecystokinin
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Nancy is having difficulty digesting fatty foods. After seeing her doctor, who found no evidence of inflammation, she says that she must now see a specialist to determine why she is having trouble releasing bile from her gallbladder. What hormone is most likely functioning improperly for Nancy?
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CCK
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What substance controls the release of bile into the small intestines?
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Cholecystokinin
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What is a zymogen?
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An inactive enzyme precursor
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Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract?
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Slowing of the process of absorption and digestion
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The chief purpose of the gallbladder is to store a substance that is required for the assimilation of dietary?
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Fat only
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All of the following are important enterogastrone hormones except?
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Pepsin
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A decrease in the flow of blood to the intestines is known as?
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Intestinal ischemia
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Which of the following results from reverse peristalsis?
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Vomitting
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What is the very first thing you should do if you suspect someone is choking on food?
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Ask the person to make sounds from the throat
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Choking occurs when a piece of food becomes firmly lodged in the?
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Trachea
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The Heimlich maneuver may be helpful in conditions associated with?
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Choking
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A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for which of the following?
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Dehydration
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Inflammation of the large intestine is known as?
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Colitis
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What organ is affected by colitis?
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Large intestine
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Which of the following is a feature of irritable bowel syndrome?
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Effect treatment usually includes peppermint oil
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A person on a low-fiber diet is at increased risk for experiencing elevated rectal vein pressure leading to formation of?
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Hemorrhoids
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One of the signs of constipation is?
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Fewer than 3 bowel movements per week.
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People are said to be constipated when they experience?
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Painful or difficult bowel movements
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Colonic irrigation is a popular practice for treatment of?
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Constipation
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Therapy for constipation would include all of the following except?
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Decreasing fiber intake
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Which of the following is most likely to result from insufficient intake of fiber?
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Constipation
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In general, which of the following is associated with the fewest adverse effects from the treatment of constipation in adults?
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Ingestion of prunes
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Which of the following is a common cause of constipation?
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Lack of physical activity
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All of the following dietary measures are known to help relieve constipation except?
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Eating less fat
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What is the primary cause for belching?
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Swallowing air
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All of the following are common causes of heartburn except?
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Eating too slowly
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Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim’s condition?
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Defective lower esophageal sphincter activity
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Holding the breath for as long as possible is considered an effective treatment for?
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Hiccups
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People who have frequent, regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as?
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Gasteroesophogeal reflux
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Which of the following is a prominent feature of the expulsion of gas from the anus?
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It is normal
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Antacids were originally developed to treat?
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Active ulcers in the stomach
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Which of the following nutrients is most associated with increased production of intestinal gas?
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Carbohydrates
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Untreated gastroesophageal reflux increases the risk for the more serious condition known as?
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Barrett’s esophagus
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The primary treatment for ulcer caused by the presence of H. pylori is?
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Antibiotics
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All of the following are features of stomach acid except?
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Its potentially destructive action on stomach cells is prevented by the presence of bile
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All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except?
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Gastric acid release should be suppressed
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A peptic ulcer resides in the?
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Stomach or duodenum only
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All of the following are the chief causes of ulcers except?
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Excessive caffeine consumption
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A person with chronic GI bleeding is at risk for deficiency of?
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Iron
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All of the following are major causes of ulcer formation except?
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Excessive use of antacids
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Which of the following is least likely to aggravate an existing ulcer?
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Raw carrots
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The organism H. pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of?
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Gastric ulcers
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The most common cause for the development of ulcers is?
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Infection from H. pylori