The affected child may make some noises, secretions, creation of airways that are artificial and coughing (Parke, 2016). This should be attended to at an early stage to avoid further complications. Airway obstruction is a medical emergency and therefore should be treated as one. Untreated cases may lead to lowering of PaO2 and can even cause severe damages to the brain, the heart, kidneys, and arrest of the cardiac and under some cases death (Patel et al, 2016).
The obstruction of the airways may be partial where the entry of air is diminished or complete where the breath sounds are completely absent in the mouth and the nose. Simple ways such as suction of the airways, the nasopharyngeal insertion can be used to open the blocked airways. In the cases where these simple ways fail, intubation of the trachea may be necessary for the treatment of the airway obstruction.
The movement and entry of air is bilateral, breathing sounds vary from normal to adventitious, the respiratory rate characteristics should be checked, modes of delivery and oxygen demands should be checked as well. The breathing work could be spontaneous, laboured or supported and dependent on the ventilator.
The diagnosis of life threatening conditions like severe cases of anaemia and massive haemothorax should be given immediate assessment as well as attention to avoid the damages and loss of life they can cause (Brody, 2016). In the breathing assessment parameters, general signs that are associated with respiratory distress like sweating and abdominal breathing should be looked into. The depths as well as the patterns and r...
hythms for each breath should be assessed as well. The normal respiratory rate is usually between 12 and 20 breaths in a minute and anything below or above that should be investigated further.
The pulse rate which encompasses its location, the strength, rhythm and rate is considered a major factor in circulation. Other factors that hold weight when considering the circulation are the peripheral temperatures, the moisture and colour of skin which is affected by the melanin level, the turgidity of the skin as well as time taken by the blood capillaries to refill.
The CRT should be less than two seconds under the normal circumstances. The hypovolaemia is under most medical emergencies considered to be the main cause of shock different patients even infants and children. The state of veins should be assessed to see if there are signs of being under filled in the presence of hypovolamia and the infants pulse rate counted. When there is persistent occurrence of symptoms and signs of cardiac failure, the infusion rate f the fluid should be stopped or decreased or alternative means obtained to improve the perfusion of the tissue.
The level of blood sugar should be as indicated by the clinician. Any aids that are required for the mobility or transfer of the patient from one point to the other are also key considerations. The major parameters for assessment in this case include the main causes of unconsciousness which include cerebral hypoperfusion, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and even the administration of certain types of drugs called sedatives or analgesic. The amount of glucose in the blood is measured
using a device called rapid glucose meter or the stick method which is also common.
The colour of the skin which may be pale, cyanotic or even burnt tissue should be inspected. If any rashes appear, the size, texture, colour and the lesions shape which may appear as flat or raised or filled with a fluid should be noted. The distribution pattern as well as the number present should be noted as they are also key and vary from disease to disease.
Bruises and wounds which are existing or new should be assessed and the areas of higher risks examined more regularly. For proper examination of the infant’s body, exposure of the whole body is considered so that no details will be missed. The level of the patients care is also another parameter that should be considered whether the ward, HDU or ICU.
The characteristics to be considered include abdomen symmetry which could either be flat, scaphoid, distended or rounded the contour and distension. This assessment includes the aspects of auscultation, inspection and the final step, light palpation which identifies the abnormalities which are visible in the abdomen, the softness or tenderness of the faeces and bowel sounds that are produced. The stomach should not be full during the time assessment s being done so that the best results can be obtained.
In the treatment of acute failure of the respiratory system without the insertion of tubes like the endotracheal the method of Non Invasive Ventilation is used as it plays a major part especially for infants and patients with the orders of do not intubate. NIV tries to eliminate the risks that are associated with the older method of mechanical ventilation and therefore becomes of importance to many patients especially infants. With the NIV, the use of endotracheal tube is replaced by a nasal or a face mask which is used to deliver support in terms of ventilation to the patients (Brody, 2016). It has always been applied in various modes of ventilation which gives it more weight than the mechanical methods.
The method however has various disadvantages as it is not appropriate for all groups of patients but only a certain group of patients. The patients both adults and infants with a problem of the respiration system are usually kept in the general wards provided that the conditions and the criteria for the admittance in the NIV are not met. In addition to these, the NIV is not appropriate for patients who have respiratory arrests, multiple failures of the organs or even excess production of sputum (Patel et al, 2016). Above all, NIV is associated with leakage which is its major disadvantage. Provide a brief discussion regarding the value of High Flow Nasal Therapies in contract to CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure).
The CPAP which deals with the application of air pressure which is mild on a basis that is continuous for the purpose of keeping the airways open, throughout especially for the people who are in a position to do breathing on their own (Paeke, 2016). This method is typically used in people who have problems with breathing like patients with sleeping apnea.
It is also