Novel Interaction Techniques for Manipulating Remote Displays Essay Example
Novel Interaction Techniques for Manipulating Remote Displays Essay Example

Novel Interaction Techniques for Manipulating Remote Displays Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4137 words)
  • Published: October 21, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The use of remote control devices for home entertainment systems has become increasingly complex, with multiple controls and numerous buttons. This makes navigating these systems challenging for users. To address this issue, physical shortcuts in the form of hand gestures have been created as a tangible user interface. These gestures are translated into control commands compatible with consumer electronic devices. Researchers studied human hand movement mechanics, grips, and their relation to object size and shape to develop these shortcuts. They also analyzed geometric designs for the physical interface to determine their suitability as shortcuts and complementary remote controls. The research explored cuboid and cylindrical shapes in various sizes, as well as hybrid forms, to assess their usability and affordance as physical shortcut interfaces.

The action possibilities of an artifact are readily perceivable by an operator. A touchable interf


ace design, similar to a regular hexahedron, was used for this project. The design includes microcontroller-based electronics that include a 3-axis velocity detector and a gyroscope. These electronics have low power radio communication capabilities. A finite state machine-based package architecture was used for the artifact-based manual communication acknowledgement. Additionally, an IR remote control system was incorporated into the design. The result is a fully functional regular hexahedron remote control system, known as the TA regular hexahedron. This device can be used to control an IPTV set-up electronic box.


A remote control, also known as a clicker, didge, flipper, or modifier, is a wireless device used to operate electronic devices such as television sets, stereo systems, DVD players, and dimmers. It is typically a small hand-held object with various buttons for changing television channels, adjusting volume,

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and selecting different modes. The term "remote control" can be linked to "remote" or "controller". Remote controls are commonly used to transmit commands from a short distance to these consumer electronics devices.

Modern electronic devices with this type of control have a remote control that contains all the map controls, while the controlled device itself only has a few necessary control functions. These remote control devices typically use infrared (IR) signals or sometimes radio signals to communicate with their devices. An adaptable remote control can imitate the IR signals of popular television remote control brands. They are usually powered by small batteries like AAA or AA.

Remote controls for home entertainment systems, such as televisions, sound systems, and set-top boxes, are designed with one button for each function. However, the complexity of modern entertainment systems can make button-based remote controls confusing for users.

Some buttons on remote controls are seldom utilized, while others are more frequently employed. Frequently used buttons encompass those for altering channels, adjusting volume, and powering the device on and off. However, newer television platforms like IPTV set-top boxes often necessitate additional buttons or even an extra remote control to navigate through menus. Acknowledging the limitations of button-centered designs, we have been exploring alternative control options. One such option entails implementing physical gestures to execute command actions. These gestures would be instinctive and effortless for users to perform with their hands. They would be executed as touch-based gestures on tangible objects that should possess clear indications and a range of uncomplicated yet diverse gesture possibilities. The conventional operation of remote controls adheres to a specific sequence, demonstrated by the example of watching television: (1) acquiring

the remote control to power on the television, (2) pressing buttons while viewing TV content, and (3) stowing away the remote control upon completion.

The analysis reveals that before starting a bid, the human hand performs various actions like holding, keeping, or turning it face up. These gestures indicate the intention to bid and have the potential to enhance the bid. To facilitate a quicker and more convenient bidding process, tangible objects that can be manipulated by hand with a "grab-to-switch-on" feature are proposed. When designing a tangible remote control, it is important to consider how the human hand operates in terms of grip and control. This can be categorized into two types: power grip and precision grip.

There are various types of electronic device remote controls, such as wireless, supersonic, optical laser, mechanical, and infrared controls. The radio control button is used to manipulate remote control vehicles like boats, cars, or helicopters. The ultrasonic control button is used in telephone answering machines and also in some televisions. Laser control is commonly used in controlled weaponry such as bombs and missiles. Mechanical control is primarily used in handling radioactive materials. Infrared control functions as a photo sensor in most televisions, VCRs, stereos, and car sound systems. Remote controls were first used in World War I. Further discussion on remote controls will be addressed in the following chapters.

Background And Literature Review

The expected outcome of this project is a error-free and user-friendly remote control system that can perform complex tasks. We will evaluate the project by conducting repeated tests with various users and assessing its performance in all possible ways. Ultimately, this system should become simpler and more flexible

for end users.

The objective of this research project was to gain insights into the needs and expectations of users who are likely to face challenges with digital television equipment. The aim is for these findings to contribute to the design and development of user-friendly digital television equipment by manufacturers, rather than creating standard design information for easy-to-use equipment. The research sought to answer questions about button usage and preferred functions on existing remote controls, prioritized functions on digital television remote controls, perception of easier-to-use remote controls as essential, necessity of very simple remote controls with reduced functionality, and the optimal design approach for meeting their needs.The objective of this survey was to examine the usability of three remote controls designed for a specific digital set-up box (Logic LDR V3) among UK consumers who prioritize accessing and utilizing digital telecasting features. The participants were divided into three groups: 1. Individuals over 75 years old with sensory, physical, or cognitive impairments. 2. Individuals under 45 years old with learning difficulties. 3. Individuals under 45 years old without any sensory, physical, or cognitive impairments.

Using a replicated steps design, the participants were instructed to complete various everyday tasks using remote controls paired with digital telecasting equipment. Both subjective and objective data were collected in order to evaluate the ease of use and desirability of the remote controls, as well as determine how subjective preferences aligned with objective performance data.

The survey shows that user interfaces that meet the UK Digital Television receiving system recommendations (V1.3) for digital terrestrial television (subsection 5: remote controls) better meet the needs of users who may have difficulty using digital television equipment. The project focuses

on remote controls for home entertainment systems such as TVs, sound systems, etc., which are designed according to a one button per function approach. The excessive number of functions in modern entertainment systems makes button-based remote controls a confusing user interface. Out of all the functions, we only commonly use skipping channels/stations (TV or radio), controlling the volume, and turning on/off. Additionally, with recent television platforms like IPTV set-top boxes, they also provide a graphical user interface for navigating through a hierarchical menu structure.

Many attacks with Remote Displays for users using phidgets are available. Phidgets are electronic instruments used in music engineering. The main focus is on designing new musical interfaces, including touchable music instruments and musical applications for telecasting devices. Nowadays, companies want to integrate computer and television technologies.

As a result, novel television concepts like Interactive Television (ITV) have emerged, posing challenges in user accessibility. ITV application developers offer supplementary features to the medium, including email, chat, polls, games, and web browsing. Additionally, ITV offers a wide array of television channels. Existing interaction designs for ITV rely on traditional television models and devices, such as the remote control. Remote controls facilitate basic functions like channel navigation and volume adjustment.

Remote controls, which are frequently challenging and unnatural to operate, particularly for complex tasks such as programming VCRs and searching for television schedules, pose a problem in terms of usability for interactive television (ITV). The existing methods of interaction are inconvenient and not intuitive. Nikola Tesla created one of the first remote control devices in 1898 and detailed it in his patent, U.S. Patent 613,809, titled "Method of an Apparatus for Managing Mechanism of Advancing One

or More Vehicles."

For more than 50 years, we have offered inactive castanets that don't require awakening to power on televisions or media players, activate the AC, open shop doors, adjust curtains, and more. Although initially created as a TV control device, remote controls have become widely used in recent years for easier operation of electronic devices. However, these devices were originally developed for military purposes. In World War 1, German naval forces employed radio-controlled motor boats to attack enemy ships. Similarly, in World War 2, remote-controlled bombs and other weapons were utilized. Following the wars' conclusion, American scientists explored non-military applications for remote control technology.

However, the pre-occupations mentioned above have existed long before the battles. Therefore, Nikola Tesla developed some of the earliest cases of distant control in 1898. This was demonstrated in his U.S. Patent titled "Method of an Apparatus for manipulating Mechanism of Traveling one or more Vehicles." Furthermore, Leonardo Torres Quevedo introduced the Telekino in 1903 and obtained a patent for it in France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. The Telekino was an automaton that carried out commands transmitted through electromagnetic motions.

The PhilcoMystery Control (1939) was the first wireless control device in the universe and a groundbreaker in remote control technology. In the 1930s, several wireless manufacturers offered remote controls for their latest models, but most of these controls were connected to the device by wires. The PhilcoMystery Control, however, was a battery-operated low-frequency wireless transmitter, making it the first remote control for consumer electronic devices. Channel changing was introduced five decades ago with the development of the first electronic television remote control, known as "Inactive Boness," which was created

in 1950 by Zenith Electronics Corporation, later known as Zenith Radio Corporation.

Inactive Bones used a wire that connected the Television set to the visitors. The tuner in the Television set was controlled by a motor through the remote control. By pressing the buttons on the remote control, viewers could change the channel to a higher or lower number. The remote control had buttons for turning the Television on and off. However, some customers faced problems as they would trip over the unsightly cable that was scattered across the living room floor. Commander Eugene F.

Both McDonald Jr., the founder-president of Zenith, and Eugene Polley, one of its engineers, believed that television viewers would not tolerate technical difficulties and were convinced that commercialized television would eventually be detrimental. While anticipating the emergence of commercial-free subscription TV, McDonald hoped for a connected remote control that could mute technical glitches. Zenith's first radio TV remote control was developed five years later by Polley.

The remote known as 'Flashmatic' was used by four exposure cells located in each corner of the television screen. To activate the control functions, the viewer used a directional torch. By using this torch, they could change the image on the screen, adjust the volume, and switch channels by turning the tuner clockwise and anti-clockwise. However, despite being an early example of a connected television remote, Flashmatic had some notable flaws. It lacked safety circuits and if the television was in direct sunlight, the tuner would often start turning on its own. In 1956, Robert Adler improved upon this design with the Zenith Space Command remote control. This new remote was automatic and used ultrasound technology to

navigate channels and adjust volume. Also referred to as a 'clicker', the Space Command emitted a distinct sound when a button was pressed, which was detected by circuits in the television.

The initial version of the remote control device included four rods, each measuring approximately 2.5 inches in length. One rod controlled channel up, another handled channel down, a third controlled sound on and off, and the fourth operated power on and off. These rods were cut to different lengths, resulting in slightly varied frequencies for each function. To activate the rods, a trigger mechanism resembling that of a gun was utilized. This mechanism stretched a spring and transferred the energy so that a small lever would crush the end of the aluminum rod.

However, this original Space Command remote control system was costly because it required an intricate receiving system within the television set. This receiving system utilized six additional vacuum tubes to amplify and interpret signals. Although this increased the television set's cost by approximately 30%, manufacturers embraced this technical success and adopted it in subsequent years.

In the 1960s, transistors (solid-state circuitry) began to replace vacuum tubes, allowing for the creation of handheld, battery-powered remote controls to produce sound electronically. Adler's supersonic remote control invention continued to be used until the 1980s. In the 1990s, as semiconductors advanced and infrared technology improved, remote controls gradually transitioned to this new technology, which has been predominantly used up until 2005. Other radio technologies used in remote controls, such as those found in audio systems, are also being introduced to the market. Infrared remote controls assign each button its own command, allowing for sequences of signals to be

sent to televisions.

Each button on a remote control has a unique digital code. The remote control also contains a small infrared beam detector called a photo sensor. This sensor detects the infrared beam and converts it into a command. In the 1980s, Steve Wozniak from Apple was one of the individuals who was interested in improving universal remote controls. In 1987, he created the Controller of Remote Equipment (CORE), which greatly improved remote control capabilities. The CORE could learn signals from various other devices.

The remote accountant not only had the ability to create individual or multiple plants at different times using its integrated clock, but it could also be connected to a computer and loaded with different software codes as needed. However, the remote equip accountant was not widely successful in the market because it was difficult for the average consumer to program, despite occasional studies from experts in the field. By the early 2000s (IMG=8), the number of user electronic devices in rural areas had significantly increased.

It used to be rare to have only one or no remote controls for devices. However, it is now unusual to have just one remote control in a household. In order to use a home theater system, you typically need as many as 5 or 6 remote control devices.

Not to mention the latest trend of having remote-controlled lighting, toys, showers, and even drapes. While it may improve our ability to control the electronic devices around us, remote operators could soon become a nuisance and a barrier to manipulating the appliances that we heavily rely on.

Requirements Specification

For this project, we require certain resources such as a software design environment

and hardware requirements. Additionally, we need a skilled software programmer with efficient skills. The project can be implemented using any programming language like Java and any databases.

An electronic telecasting remote control device offers a range of benefits, including:

  • Easiest physical form: It serves as a tangible representation for transferring the interface from the RCD to the display using a touchpad insert device. This simplification aims to make RCDs more user-friendly.
  • Flexible interaction methods: Supported interaction logics include drop-down menus, pie menus, soft keyboards, and unistrokes. These methods are expected to be useful given the convergence of computing and television technology.
  • Reduced manufacturing complexities: Currently, when new features are added to electronic devices, the RCD undergoes re-engineering to support these new methods. This section provides a summary of the overall study findings.

The current research identified the general maps of digital telecasting equipment that all types of consumers need after the digital telecasting switch over. These maps include power on/off, volume control, deaf-and-dumb person, channel entry, and channel up/down. According to the research, most users are able to use remote controls for telecasting equipment that have buttons with unfamiliar or unknown functions. They can easily ignore or avoid unnecessary buttons. The research suggests that grouping remote control buttons into functional zones could be beneficial. This includes grouping maps within easy-to-use digital telecasting receiving systems, remote control models, and methods of maps used by different operators.

The text below highlights the importance of using specific remote control buttons for different functional areas when watching television. The research identified

four main functional areas: 'basic', 'interactive', 'recording', and 'accessibility'. To ensure user convenience, a list of recommended buttons for each functional area is provided:


  • power on/off
  • volume control
  • Mute
  • channel entre
  • channel up/down


  • EPG
  • digital text services
  • ruddy button interactive services
  • coloring material buttons
  • pilotage buttons (up, down, left, right, OK)


  • drama
  • halt
  • intermission
  • fast-forward (and jump forward)
  • rewind (fast-rewind and skip backwards)
  • record
  • list of recorded programmes


  • digital captions
  • audio description

The research shows that younger participants are more interested in and motivated towards digital recording and common functions compared to older participants.All participants in the research stated that they could avoid unused buttons. However, certain categories of older users, such as

Individuals with cognitive impairments, a lack of interest in digital technology, or low confidence in using technology may encounter difficulties in learning how to operate new equipment. One way to minimize these difficulties is by providing very simple remote controls that offer only basic functionality. The components, circuits, and mathematics involved in remote control devices for electronic devices typically use a near-infrared diode to emit a beam of light that is not visible to the human eye but can be detected by sensors on the receiving device. The diode emits invisible infrared light and includes a rectifying tube that emits visible violet light so that video cameras can detect it. With single function remote controls, there is a specific carrier signal associated with the button press.

The use of a trigger map allows for the activation of gestures by the bearer. When it comes to remote controls with multiple channels (normal multi map), a more complex procedure is necessary. This involves playing signals with opposite frequencies to the bearer. Once the sensed signal is demodulated, the appropriate frequency tips are applied to separate

the independent signals. Currently, the digital procedure is widely used.

To operate a remote control device, one may encounter interference when the device is in close proximity to a wireless signal that is not tuned to any station. Different manufacturers of infrared remote control devices use different protocols to transmit the infrared commands. The remote control 5 protocol, which originated from Philips, uses 14 spots for each button press. These spots are modulated onto a specific frequency that can vary for different manufacturers. In this example, we can use a 36 kilohertz carrier frequency for the remote control 5 protocol.

The various protocols that can be used include SIRCS and remote control 6 or NECTC 101. These protocols are used by Sony and Philips respectively. In order for the remote controls to reach their target devices, they rely on infrared, line of sight, and running angle. Visible light is used by IR remote controls to transmit signals, which are reflected by mirrors and can be affected by any source of light.

If line of sight is not possible, the process becomes necessary, particularly in cases where the manipulation needs to be done in another room or situated in a shop room. For this procedure, various brands of infrared boosters are available in the market. Most of these brands include an infrared receiver that captures the infrared signal and transmits it through wireless wave signals to the remote control unit. The wireless wave signal includes an infrared transmitter that replicates the original infrared manipulation device. Infrared receivers also typically have an adjustable travel angle, which is important for precise control, and the optical characteristics of the exposure transistor

depend on the infrared receiver. To easily change the travel angle, we can use an object called matte-transparent, which is placed in front of the receiver.

Using remote control devices has numerous advantages. In most cases, remote controls serve as lifesavers and valuable investments. They play a crucial role in safeguarding people's health, especially when dealing with radioactive materials. Furthermore, remote control vehicles such as cars, boats, and planes are commonly used for hobbies and entertainment purposes. One significant advantage of wireless control is its application in military operations. Currently, military trials involve using wireless-controlled aircraft for surveillance and stopping hostile air activities, ultimately protecting soldiers' lives.

Using remote controls, people can travel faster with telecastings. The joystick is a type of remote control. The first game to utilize control sticks was a simple game based on ping-pong. With control stick technology, television owners could now control their own pellet on the screen for the first time. In various industries, remote control is used to manipulate substations, pump storage power stations, and HVDC-plants.

Sometimes the extended frequency range is used for these processes to operate PLC systems. In the military, we can locate the counter measures and the jammers using remote controls. This is only possible in the military field. The counter measures are deployed against the jammers. Additionally, these jammers can be used to disrupt or disable the enemy's remote control functionality. IED jamming systems, radio interference, and electronic warfare extend the range for remote controls used in military operations. These distances can reach global distances like satellite-connected remote controls used by the United States for their unmanned aircraft in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iraq.

Insurgents in Iraq and

Afghanistan are using remote controls to detonate improvised explosive devices (IEDs) against alliance and political military personnel. The proximity of the enemy and the arms race have made it difficult and expensive to create wireless remote controls for roadside weapons that are immune to jammers. The more basic types of wireless remote controls have been largely ineffective against advanced jammers, but they are still being used in attacks on vulnerable Iraqi and Afghan targets. One solution to counter the wireless jammers is to use the jammer itself to trigger the weapon. Remote controls that utilize light-based wireless technology are currently immune to the jammers. It has been reported in the media that insurgents in Iraq are using modified television remote controls to detonate the weapons.

Military history: In World War 1, the Imperial German Navy employed FL-boats against coastal transportation. These were powered by combustion engines and operated remotely from a shore station using wire on a boat's bobbin. An aircraft was used to relay signals between the shore station and the boats. The FL-boats carried explosives and traveled at a speed of 30 knots. The Winter War, fought against Finland, saw the use of remote-controlled tanks by the Soviet Red Army. These remote-controlled tanks were also utilized at the start of World War 2.

From a manned armored vehicle to a remote controlled tele armored vehicle, the two established atele mechanical group. The Red Army operated at least two tele armored vehicle battalions at the beginning of the great patriotic War. The Red Army also had remote controlled cutters and virtual remote controlled planes. Space: Space travel also utilizes remote control technology, with the Russian Lunokhod

vehicles being remotely controlled from the base, serving as an example for space exploration. Direct remote control of space vehicles at greater distances from the Earth is not practical due to increasing signal delay times. Video games: Video game consoles did not use wireless controllers until recently, primarily due to the difficulty in playing the game while keeping the infrared transmitter aimed directly at the console.

Previous affiliated operators were cumbersome and needed to be changed after just a few hours of use when powered by alkaline batteries. Some third-party wireless controllers used a wireless connection instead of infrared, but these were often incompatible and had transmission issues, making them practically useless. The first reliable wireless controller designed by the original manufacturer was the WaveBird for Nintendo Gamecube, which revolutionized connected technology in video game accessories.

In the current generation of gambling amenities, connected operators have transformed the conventional personal computer control. Existing infrared remote control devices are now able to manage PC applications. Any application that supports shortcut keys can be controlled using infrared remote control devices from other audio devices such as televisions and VCRs. This is particularly useful for multimedia applications in Personal computer-based home theater setups.

To make this function, you will need an electronic device that can alter the signals from an infrared remote control, as well as a software application on a personal computer that can communicate with this device. The connections can be made using a serial port, USB port, or the motherboard's infrared data association (IRDA).

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