Notes – American Pageant Essay

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The Canadian Shield is a zone undergirded by ancient rock and is probably the first part of what became the North American landmass to have emerged above sea level. Incas Incas were located in Peru with an elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. Aztecs Aztecs were located in Mexico.

They shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations. Their advance agricultural practices were based primarily on the cultivation of maize. Nation-States A Nation State is a state that self-identifies as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign entity for a nation as a sovereign territorial unit.It is also a state or country with defined borders and racially or culturally similar people. Cahokia Cahokia is Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis , home to as many as 25,000 Native Americans.

Three-Sister Farming The three-sister farming is an agricultural system employed by North American Indians as early as 1000 A. D. Maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields. Middlemen Middlemen are those dealers who operate between the originals producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to the consumers.After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods without paying heavy toll to Muslim middlemen. Caravel Caravel is a small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails.

Caravels could sail more closely to the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey. Plantation A plantation is a large-scale agricultural enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor.European settlers’ established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South. Columbian Exchange The Columbian exchange is the transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492. Tordesillas, Treaty of (1494) The Tordesillas, Treaty of 1494 was signed by Spain and Portugal dividing the territories of the New World. Spain received the bulk of the territory in the Americas, compensating Portugal with titles to lands in Africa and Asia.

Conquistadores Conquistadores were sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across theAmericas, from COlorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztecs and Incan empires. It also means conquerors. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment in business ventures in order to make a profit. Encomienda Encomienda is a Spanish government’s policy to “comment” or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a border Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland. Noche TristeNoche Triste, “sad night’, is when the Aztecs attacked Hernan Cortes and his forces in the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, killing hundreds.

Cortes laid siege to the city in the following city, precipitating the fall of the Aztec Empire and inaugurating three centuries of Spanish rule. Mestizos Mestizos were people of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico. Acoma, Battle of (1599) Acoma, Battle of 1599 is the battle between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in the present-day New Mexico.Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo peoples and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609. Pope’s Rebellion 1680 The Roman Catholic mission became the central institution in colonial New Mexico until the missionaries’ efforts to suppress native religious customs provoked and Indian uprising. The Pueblo Indian’s rebellion drove Spanish settlers from New Mexico.

Black Legend The Black Legend was a false notion that Spanish conquerors did little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ. Ferdinand of AragonFerdinand of Aragon was the King of Spain and was wedded to Isabella of Castile. Together they brutally expelled the Muslim caliphate of Cordoba from Spain during the Reconquista. They also funded the expeditions of Christopher Columbus. Isabella of Castile Isabella of Castile is the Queen of Spain that is also wedded to Ferdinand of Aragon.

Alongside her husband, they both expelled the Muslim caliphate of Cordoba from Spain during the Reconquista. They also funded the expedition of Christopher Columbus. Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus is an Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the “New World,” even though at his death he believed he had made it to India.

He made four voyages to the “New World. ” The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503. Francisco Coronado Francisco Coronado was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what is now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold.

Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro is the New World conqueror. A Spanish conqueror that crushed the Inca civilization in Peru and took gold, silver, and enslaved the Incas in 1532. Bartolome de las casas Bartolome is a Spanish missionary who was appalled by the method of encomienda, calling it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan. ” He also fought for Native American rights.

Hernan Cortes Hernan Cortes was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.Malinche (Dona Marina) Malinche is a female Indian slave who knew Mayan and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec. Moctezuma Moctezuma is an Aztec chieftain.

He also encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses. Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries. Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) Giovanni Caboto is an Italian who sailed for England and touched the coast of the current U.

S. Robert de La SalleRobert de La Salle sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area “Louisiana” after his king. This started a slew of place-names for that area, from LaSalle, Illinois to “Louisville” and then on down to New Orleans which is the American counters of Joan of Arc’s famous victory at Orleans. Father Junipero Serra Father Junipero Serra is the Spanish missionary whom founded 21 missions in California, in 1769, he also founded Mission San Diego, the first of the chain.

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