Nigeria as a democratic state like every other state needs the media to drive or prolong good administration and breed national development. But the media frequently regarded as the 4th estate of the kingdom have an tremendous undertaking to carry through this function as the watchdog of the society. The undertaking or function of the media has to a big extent non been efficaciously accomplished. It is of import here to province that the primary function of the media in any given society is to inform. educate and entertain.
This was encapsulated by Nwabueze ( 1982 ) when he stated that. “the media enable corruptness. maltreatment of office and other error by public retainers to be publically exposed” . Apart from these traditional maps. the media perform other sophisticated functions. such as surveillance. agenda-setting through persuasion and position bestowal. This was stressed by Tony Momoh ( 1988 ) when he said that “the responsibility of the imperativeness in Nigeria is to supervise governance” . You can hold with me that these maps can non be carried out without an enabling environment.
In Nigeria and other African states. the media operate under a really rough status. For case. about 80 % of journalists in Nigeria do non gain wages. non to speak of attractive rewards. The few that are privileged to work in authorities media constitutions receive wages that are non commensurate with their work. Ukpabi ( 2001 ) . Other jobs like uncooperative attitude of functionaries in the public and private organisations in volunteering information to the media.
Public/civil retainers frequen...
tly hide under the Secret Act to deny journalists information even if such information is of public involvement. Despite the transition of the Freedom of Information ( FOI ) Bill into jurisprudence. journalists and so the general populace are still happening it hard to entree information in Nigeria. This has confirmed the frights expressed by Dr John Idumange on 8th March. 2013 while presenting a talk on Journalism Practice And The Constitutional Demands On Journalists-An X ray Of The FOI Act during the International Institute of Journalism ( IIJ ) Port Harcourt Annual Lecture Series.
Dr Idumange captured it therefore. “virtually all authorities information in Nigeria are classified as top secret. This civilization of secretiveness will do it hard to acquire information from any Ministry. Department or Agency ( MDA ) ” . This is farther complicated by the debut of brown envelope in news media pattern in the state. Brown envelope could be defined as a sort of satisfaction given to journalists after a media coverage by the organisers of such events. either to act upon them or acquire favorable studies.
This new found civilization has really dealt a awful blow on the independency and the effectivity of the journalists in executing their responsibilities as the watchdog of the society. How do you accommodate a state of affairs where a intelligence beginning gives a journalist payoff ( brown envelope ) at the terminal of a media assignment? What sort of study do you anticipate from that journalist? The brown envelope syndrome has resulted to every Dick and Harry going publishing houses because they believe
that newsmans will convey back money from the returns of the brown envelope at the terminal of every assignment.
All the alleged publishing houses now do is to publish the newsmans with individuality cards frequently referred to as “meal-tickets” to fend for themselves and even feed the publishing houses. Toure ( 1996 ) . The effect of this is the outgrowth of empiricism in the news media profession. In Nigeria today. everybody that has a note-pad and a pen on his custodies can exhibit himself as a journalist. No admiration the news media profession is fast skiding into an all- comers matter and pitiably the regulative organic structures. such as the Nigeria Union of Journalists ( NUJ ) and the Nigerian Press Council are non making anything to look into the ugly tendency.
Apart from the aforesaid jobs. other challenges like exclusion or favoritism of journalists from private sector by authorities ministries from go toing their events. thereby making room for guess. as these private journalists resort to describing authorities activities from the exterior. This of class is non in the best involvement of ministries. journalists and the society. This research will try to follow the generation of these hiccoughs. particularly the brown envelope syndrome as they affect the function of Nigerian media in lending to national development.
Attempt will besides be made in this survey to propose or happen solution to the myriad of jobs facing media pattern in Nigeria. The overall end is to guarantee that the media discharge their responsibilities efficaciously as the watchdog of the society and major subscriber to national development. 1. 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The media are said to hold a function that is frequently described as indispensable in determining the society and by so making directing the people. The media guarantee that people are treated reasonably. societal control is in topographic point and functions are shared equitably. thereby lending to the national development of the state.
It is the responsibility of the mass media to inform and educate the people on the worlds of the environment to enable them take appropriate and informed determinations. It is one thing to hold the function and yet another thing to execute it. There are so many factors that affect the public presentation of this function of the media. For case. the media require a conducive ambiance to execute this responsibility. But it is an unfastened secret that the ambiance with which the media operate in Nigeria is far from being comfy. Ukpabi ( 2001 ) .
Nigeria like every other state requires a vivacious imperativeness to do headroom. It is frequently said that the imperativeness. merely like the tribunal is the hope of the common adult male and so the full society. The inquiry now is under what conditions have the media in Nigeria performed this statutory responsibility? This survey will try to x-ray the functions of the media in Nigeria in national development. How they have faired in executing that responsibility. The consequence of brown envelope on the media and the extent it has militated against the ends of lending to national development.
Attempts will be made in this
survey to propose ways of restricting or eliminating the effects of this cankerworm called brown envelope. The purpose is to see that the media live up to outlook as the watchdog of the society and pacemaker in breeding national development. 1. 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The negative consequence of brown envelope syndrome does non let the media contribute to national development in Nigeria. This survey seeks to follow the generation and causes of “this encroachment” and urge ways of undertaking the job.
In other words. efforts will be made in this survey to propose ways of stoping brown envelope syndrome in news media pattern in Nigeria. The media no uncertainty command all facets of our lives. locally. nationally and internationally. Therefore. there is an inter-relationship between the people and the media. The media dictate to the people what they read and hear and by extension how they behave. The populace is hence sharpened by the information from the media. The populace has so depended on the media that it is by and large believed that the society will be dead without the media.
This was examined by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw ( 1972/1973 ) when they emphasized that “the mass media has the ability to mentally order or form the universe for the people” . Daramola ( 2003 ) besides corroborated this by saying that “the agenda-setting theory is of the position that the media frequently present to the audience certain basic socio-political and economic issues that dominate popular treatment and debate even at interpersonal degree at some period of their history” . For the media to populate up to this duty. a favorable ambiance must be put in topographic point.
As the media contribute their quota to the well-being of the society. it is expected that the people reciprocate by collaborating to the full with the media. Nigeria is a complex state like every other state ; this complexness has besides robbed off on the media in the state. Ownership and control. censoring. column policy. bullying. infliction by governments. prohibition. ictus of printed stuffs. captivity. prohibition of media houses. objectionable Torahs. deficiency of subvention and motive are some of the legion jobs facing media pattern in Nigeria. which no media organisation wants to run in.
These challenges have hampered the public presentation of journalists in the state and given birth to the hydra-headed monster of brown envelope or satisfaction before a journalist could execute his responsibilities. Therefore. this survey seeks to cognize the consequence of brown envelope syndrome on the function of the media in national development. 1. 3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The aims of the survey are as follows: 1 To find the functions of the media in national development. 2 To follow the cause and consequence of brown envelope on the media.
3 To find the conducive effects of brown envelope syndrome on the media against national development. 4 To determine make ways of stoping the threat ( brown envelope ) . 1. 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 What are the functions of the media in national development in Nigeria? 2 What are the causes and effects of brown envelope
on the media in Nigeria? 3 To what extent has this brown envelope syndrome militated against the media from lending to national development?
5 How do we stop the brown envelope syndrome in news media profession in Nigeria? 1. 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The survey of this subject. called Role of the Nigerian Media in National Development and the Effectss of Brown Envelope Syndrome is important in that the part of the Nigerian media to national development would be ascertained. The beginning and consequence of brown envelope on Nigerian media will besides be established. with a position to kill offing the threat in news media pattern in Nigeria.
The overall end is to invest a more efficient and responsible media in Nigeria that would efficaciously play their statutory function as the watchdog of the society. 1. 6 DELIMITATION/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Due to the fact that the resources available for this survey was limited. coupled with the clip frame allocated to finish this survey. this research was restricted to Port Harcourt. the Rivers State capital. 1. 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS MEDIA: Communication channels through which intelligence. amusement. instruction. informations are disseminated.
Function: Part. responsibility or map performed to accomplish a undertaking. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: The procedure of growing in all domains of human enterprise within a national boundary over a period. Consequence: Result or consequence of something on another. BROWN ENVELOPE: Kind of satisfaction given to journalists after a media map to either act upon their study or appreciate them. 1. 8 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Agenda Setting Theory: The Agenda-Setting Theory was propounded by Maxwell McCombs and Donald L. Shaw in 1972/1973 ) .
The push of the theory is that the mass media have “the ability to mentally order or form the universe for the people. ” Daramola ( 2003 ) . Advocates of the agenda-setting theory were of the sentiment that the media frequently present to the audience certain basic socio-political and economic issues that dominate popular treatment and debate even at inter-personal degree at any given period in their history. For case. the mass media can concentrate on an issue daily. thereby pulling the attending of the audience to the affair.
Presently in Nigeria. the mass media have bit by bit focused on the demand for the convocation of Sovereign National Conference ( SNC ) to find the continued being of Nigeria as a state. No admiration the Senate President. David Mark few hebdomads ago threw his weight behind the call and merely on October 1st. 2013 during the 53rd independent day of remembrance of Nigeria. President Goodluck Jonathan constituted a commission to that consequence. thereby corroborating the power of the agenda-setting theory of the media.
Since the media is the basic beginning of information for an mean individual on the street and it is by and large believed that what the media study or concentrate on is of import. The media through the agenda-setting map influence or command the idea of the people. Whatever the media focal point on becomes what dominates public treatment. No admiration Combs and Shaw ( 1976 ) stated that the “media accent on the event that influences the
audience to see the event as important… media non merely inform us. but besides influence us as to what is of import to cognize.
” Cohen ( 1963 ) besides emphasized that the agenda-setting power of the media is non peculiarly successful in stating people what to believe. but it is spectacularly successful in stating its readers what to believe about. ” The epoch of combativeness in the Niger Delta Lent acceptance to the agenda-setting power of the media when they drew the attending of the full universe to the part. It is frequently argued that the combativeness was grandiloquent beyond proportion by the media. thereby doing it more of import than anything else.
The recent confrontation between President Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria and the Chairman of Nigerian Governors Forum and Governor of Rivers State. Rt. Hon Chibuike Amaechi was ( is ) a instance in point. when the media once more displayed and are still exposing their power of ordering to the people what to believe and discourse approximately. The province forgiveness granted the former governor of Bayelsa State. Diepreye Alamieseyegha besides falls among the incidents where the media commanded the attending of the populace or audience to their dictate.
This work will look at the extent this agenda-setting power of the media has contributed to national development in Nigeria. Chapter TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0CODE OF ETHICS FOR NIGERIAN JOURNALISTS Harmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary moral principle is system of moral rules. regulations of behavior. While Chamberss Dictionary defines moralss as the survey of right and incorrect. Code of moralss for Nigerian journalists took the forepart burner on March twentieth 1998 when the Nigerian Press Council organized a forum in Ilorin. the Kwara State capital and officially ratified the new ( current ) codification for Nigerian journalists.
Code harmonizing to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary is aggregation of Torahs arranged in a system or system of regulations and rules that has been accepted by society or a category or a group of people. The Ilorin declaration came on the heels of Decree No. 85 of 1992 as contained in the Nigerian Press Council. where eligibility standards for entry into and pattern of news media in Nigeria were spelt out. The kernel is to guarantee that journalists adhere to high ethical criterions and professionalism. bearing in head that their occupations entail high grade of public trust. Delegates at the said forum affirmed and declared as follows: That we:
Accept the jussive mood of a Code of Ethics as a critical pillar of news media and the necessity for the application of moralss to heighten criterions ; AFFIRM that self-regulation through a Code of Ethics and other constructions drawn up by professionals would outdo function the involvement of both the profession and the populace ; ENJOIN the Nigeria Union of Journalists. the Nigerian Guild of Editors and the Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria to guarantee the execution of the eligibility standards for entry into and pattern of news media in Nigeria. as contained in the Nigerian Press Council Decree No 85 of 1992 ; PLEDGE to stay by the Code of Ethics and to advance
the observation of its commissariats by all journalists ; and Urge the Nigerian Press Council to join forces with the Nigerian Press Organization to publicise the Code of Ethics for the benefit of the imperativeness and the populace. and guarantee conformity with its commissariats afterlife. Preamble
Journalism entails a high grade of public trust. To gain and keep this trust. it is morally imperative for every journalist and every intelligence medium to detect the highest professional and ethical criterions. In the exercising of these responsibilities. a journalist should ever hold a healthy respect for the public involvement. Truth is the basis of news media and every journalist should endeavor diligently to determine the truth of every event. Conscious of the duties and responsibilities of journalists as purveyors of information. we. Nigerian journalists. give to ourselves this Code of Ethics. It is the responsibility of every journalist to detect its commissariats as follows: 1. Column Independence
Decisions refering the content of intelligence should be the duty of a professional journalist. 2. ACCURACY AND FAIRNESS I. The populace has a right to cognize. Factual. accurate. balanced and just coverage is the ultimate aim of good news media and the footing of gaining public trust and assurance. two. A journalist should forbear from printing inaccurate and deceptive information. Where such information has been unwittingly published. prompt rectification should be made. A journalist must keep the right of answer as a central regulation of pattern. three. In the class of his responsibilities a journalist should endeavor to separate facts from speculation and remark. 3.
PRIVACY As a general regulation. a journalist should esteem the privateness of persons and their households unless it affects the public involvement. A. Information on the private life of an person or his household should merely be published if it impinges on public involvement. B. Printing of such information about an person as mentioned above should be deemed justifiable merely if it is directed at: i. Exposing offense or serious misdemeanors ; two. Exposing anti-social behavior ; three. Protecting public wellness. morality and safety ; four. Preventing the populace from being misled by some statement or action of the person concerned. 4. Privilege / NON-DISCLOSURE I.
A journalist should detect the universally recognized rule of confidentiality and should non unwrap the beginning of information obtained in assurance. two. A journalist should non transgress an understanding with a beginning of information obtained as “off-the-record” or as “background information. ” 5. DECENCY I. A journalist should dress and behave himself in a mode that conforms with public gustatory sensation. two. A journalist should forbear from utilizing violative. opprobrious or coarse linguistic communication. three. A journalist should non show lurid inside informations. either in words or image. of force. sexual Acts of the Apostless. abhorrent or horrid scenes. four. In instances affecting personal heartache or daze. questions should be carried out and attacks made with sympathy and discretion. V.
Unless it is in the promotion of the public’s right to cognize. a journalist should by and large avoid placing relations or friends of individuals convicted or accused of offense. 6. DISCRIMINATION A journalist should forbear signifier doing dyslogistic
mention to a person’s cultural group. faith. sex. or to any physical or mental unwellness or disability. 7. REWARD AND GRATIFICATION I. A journalist should neither beg nor accept payoffs. satisfactions or backing to stamp down or print information. two. To demand payment for the publication of intelligence is unfriendly to the impression of intelligence as a carnival. accurate. indifferent and factual study of an event. 8. Violence
A journalist should non show or describe Acts of the Apostless of force. armed robberies. terrorist activities or vulgar show of wealth in a mode that glorifies such Acts of the Apostless in the eyes of the populace. 9. CHILDREN AND MINORS A journalist should non place. either by name or image. or interview kids under the age of 16 who are involved in instances refering sexual offenses. offenses and rites or witchery either as victims. informants or suspects. 10. ACCESS OF INFORMATION A journalist should endeavor to use unfastened and honest agencies in the assemblage of information. Exceptional methods may be employed merely when the public involvement is at interest. 11. Public Interest
A journalist should endeavor to heighten national integrity and public good. 12. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY A journalist should advance cosmopolitan rules of human rights. democracy. justness. equity. peace and international apprehension. 13. PLAGIARISM A journalist should non copy. sweeping or in portion. other people’s work without ascription and/or consent. 14. Copyright I. Where a journalist reproduces a work. be it in print. broadcast. art work or design. proper recognition should be accorded the writer. two. A journalist should stay by all regulations of right of first publication. established by national and international Torahs and conventions. 15. Imperativeness FREEDOM AND RESPONSIBILITY
A journalist should endeavor at all times to heighten imperativeness freedom and duty. 2. 1Instances Of Unethical Practices In Journalism Sensationalism in authorship by journalists is one of the cases of unethical patterns in news media. A state of affairs where a journalist deviates from the truth for grounds best known to him is to state the least unethical. In the class of sensationalizing the narrative. the journalist exaggerates and distorts the facts. which leads to misleading the populace. Nyamnjoh ( 1996 ) . This sort of pattern is non merely incorrect. but unfriendly to the growing of sound news media pattern in the state. Libel is another case of unethical pattern.
A calumniatory publication is a publication either in print or electronic media that defames the image of a individual or corporate organic structure. It is an straight-out falsity on a person’s image intentionally done by a journalist for selfish involvement. Sedition is yet another unethical pattern in news media pattern in the universe today. It is an act of utilizing publication or broadcast to motivate the populace against the authorities. This is unethical by all branchings. Accepting satisfactions of any sort by a journalist to print narrative against his scruples is unethical and should be condemned by all unthreatening individuals. Name-calling in journalistic coverage is to state the least unethical.
Some journalists for grounds best known to them name people names such as stealer. fraudsters. coward. amongst others without any grounds. Soola
( 1996 ) . This is unethical and unprofessional and should be discouraged by all unthreatening Nigerians. 2. 2Primary Causes Of Unethical Practices In Journalism To be unethical merely means to move unprofessionally. Many factors have been adduced as causes of unethical patterns in Journalism. particularly in Nigeria. First is deficiency of public assistance for practising journalists in Rivers State and in Nigeria. It is an unfastened secret today that most journalists pattern or run under unfriendly welfare bundle. In fact. seven out of every 10 journalists practising. in Nigeria are either non paid or paid peanuts as wages.
This unfavorable working status no uncertainty affects the judgement of the journalists in the discharge of their responsibilities. Most journalists particularly from the private ( independent ) media organisations are non paid wages at all. non to speak of being paid good. Some that are employed have no retirement benefits. as their opposite numbers in the other sectors. Cole ( 1995 ) . This sort of battle has bred poorness in the full system. A hungry adult male they say is an angry adult male. Journalists. who fall under this unfortunate class. impotently and easy fall quarry to unethical patterns merely to last. Quackery has besides crept into news media pattern in the state.
Though non curious with news media. but for the fact that the regulative organic structures of the media tend to be weak or are non populating up to outlook. quacks capitalize on this failing to infiltrate the rank and file of news media practicians to perpetrate all kinds of offenses which in most instances are blamed on journalists. The major job here is that since the regulative organic structures. such as the Nigeria Union of Journalists ( NUJ ) and Nigerian Press Council have non been able to efficaciously modulate news media pattern in the state. largely as it concerns manner of employment for journalists and criterions to be adhered to by private publishing houses. moralss of news media pattern now becomes hard.
What you now have are bunch of people who parade themselves as journalists when they are truly non and of class anarchy and unethical pattern now become the order of the twenty-four hours. Anyakora & A ; Potiskum ( 1996 ) . Other factors include uncooperative attitude of people placed in governments to volunteer information for journalists when sought. This has created room for guesss. when the required information are non given to journalists. Again. the deliberate effort by authorities and its agents to except the private sector journalists from their maps. consequence to journalists describing authorities activities as foreigners. thereby theorizing or at times sensationalizing virtually everything refering authorities.
The deliberate attempt of authorities at all degrees to impoverish journalists through unfavorable policies that are unfriendly to news media pattern in the state. for illustration the media is constitutionally regarded as the Fourth Estate of The Realm. which makes it the 4th arm of authorities. but while the other three weaponries. the Executive. Legislature and Judiciary enjoy budgetary commissariats. the imperativeness is allowed to wallow in poorness. The flimsy ground frequently adduced for this arrant disregard is
that the pen is already excessively powerful and hence if the imperativeness enjoys fiscal support. it will tread on other weaponries of authorities. Toure ( 1996 ) . 2. 3Role of the Nigerian Media In National Development National Development as has earlier been defined is the procedure of growing in all aspects of human enterprises within a national boundary over a given period.
The function of the Nigerian media in national development like any other media globally revolves around its primary maps of informing. educating and entertaining the public or better still aggregate audience. The media function in national development comes through development communicating. which centres on carrying mark audience in following the right attitude towards realizing development program in the state. In making that. the development media theory as espoused by Combs and Shaw ( 1972 ) that drives the docket puting theory comes to play. This states that the media tell us non what to believe. but what to believe about. What this means is that the importance the media topographic point on an issue. determines the degree of attending the audience give such issue.
The kernel of this docket puting theory is that though the media may non wholly change 1s point of position. on a peculiar issue. but it tends to alter his perceptual experience of what is good. The power of the media in act uponing issues is seen as importance instrument in national developmental policies. The function of Nigerian media in national development can non be over emphatic. Right from 1914 when the Northern and Southern associated states were amalgamated by the colonial authorities. the media have been playing a polar function in national development in Nigeria. Since the primary function of the media is to inform. educate and entertain. they besides use these maps to carry the people on the demand to ship on certain procedures that can breed national development.
In add-on to these basic maps of the media. besides comes their persuasive function. This persuasive function enables the media to act upon the society towards a peculiar way. And in most instances the people are driven towards lending to national development. Harmonizing to Nwabueze ( 2003 ) . the media besides chart a class for the populace in line with the docket puting theory. thereby making in the heads of the people issues that should be viewed as precedence issues. including development programmes and policies. Example of such functions are the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGS ) and Vision 20 ; 2020 in line with United Nations. which has been domesticated by states. including Nigeria.
The Nigerian media have been in the fore-front of sensitisation of the people against the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To the recognition of the media in the state. the rate of spread of HIV/AIDS has reduced drastically. The media in Nigeria have tried to incorporate the negative impact of the Boko Haram insurgency as it borders on the country’s national image. This is apparent on the manner foreign media perceive and describe the Boko Haram insurgency saga. The thought is to play down on the consequence of the security challenge and promote
national development. On the political domain. the recent Nigeria Governor’s Forum election that about metamorphosed into a national crisis has been contained by the function of the media.
That is. the Nigerian media have been careful in describing the controversial election in order non to heat up the civil order. In short. it is the diplomatic manner the media handled the state of affairs through their coverage that sustained the predominating peace in the state. The latest is the People’s Democratic Party split. Bing aware of the sensitive nature of the affair. the media have been careful on describing it. The ultimate end is to guarantee that national development is non disrupted. 2. 4Origin of Brown Envelope In Nigerian Journalism Practice Brown envelope which can be defined as satisfaction given to a journalist to obtain favorable study.
The brown is said to hold started in Nigeria during the Second Republic ( 1979-1983 ) when journalists started demanding brown envelope as a status for carry oning interview Uko ( 2004 ) . The ignoble act was allegedly started by authorities imperativeness who claimed that their wages were low. This shortly spread to the full news media pattern and has now become the regulation. A study conducted by LICADHO ( 2008 ) showed that journalists tried to warrant the brown envelope act and went in front to reason that it does non impact their professional judgement ( study ) . Ukpabi ( 2001 ) in his survey on the same issue revealed that merely 30 % of Nigerian journalists believe that bribe no affair the type should non be taken. In other words. brown envelope syndrome was by and large accepted and embraced by bulk of journalists in Nigeria since so.
A random study on brown envelope syndrome in the universe shows that the pattern is in trend in virtually every portion of Africa and Asia. except South Africa. Brown is nevertheless said to be forbidden in the United States of America. where journalists would non even let a intelligence beginning to purchase them a cup of java. 2. 5Effect Of Brown Envelope On Journalism Practice In Nigeria Brown envelope syndrome has truly cover a awful blow on the unity of journalists in Nigeria to the extent that journalists now relegate objectiveness in describing to the background and alternatively play up prejudice and subjectiveness in their intelligence narratives. This has paved manner for averageness in the full procedure. Brown envelope forces journalists to abandon the ethical pattern for selfish involvements.
The consequence is that Nigerian journalists can no longer vie favorably with their opposite numbers in the western states or even in South Africa where Brown envelope has no topographic point in their news media pattern. Brown envelope syndrome has hence dwarfed Nigerian journalists from international competition. The independency of the media or freedom of the imperativeness has suffered a great reverse as a consequence of brown envelope. It has become hard or even impossible to divide the journalists from intelligence beginnings because of the brown envelope fond regard. The state of affairs has become so bad that journalists now relegate their map of informing. educating
and entertaining the populace to advancing public dealingss ends. The brown envelope syndrome has brought about disregard in intelligence from the rural communities.
It is assumed that every intelligence narrative attracts brown envelope and most good – to- do intelligence beginnings that can afford brown envelope live in urban metropoliss. therefore the journalists do non hold any concern coverage occurrences in the rural countries. since the beginnings of such intelligence are fundamentally hapless. The deduction is that the rural communities remain unreported in the present dispensation. Another consequence of brown envelope is that journalists in Nigeria have shunned fact-finding intelligence narratives and concentrated more on events and imperativeness briefings where brown envelopes are guaranteed. This of class has about eroded the kernel of the media as the watchdog of the society.
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