multiple choice at 330

question

18. Which of the following can be marketed? a. people b. places c. products d. ideas e. all of the above
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e. all of the above
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19. ________ can simply be described as “how we see the world around us.” a. Knowledge b. Perception c. Motivation d. Attitude e. Understanding
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b. Perception
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20. Products, packages, brand names, advertisements, and commercials are examples of ________. a. sensations b. receptors c. realities d. stimuli e. intensities
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d. stimuli
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21. The point at which a person can detect a difference between “something” and “nothing” is that person’s ________ for that stimulus. a. adaptation level b. absolute threshold c. just noticeable difference d. differential threshold e. sensory adaptation
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b. absolute threshold
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22. Purchases that are made impulsively, and usually as a result of emotional stimulus, are referred to as: a. unanticipated buying b. unsought goods c. unplanned goods d. unneeded acquisitions
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b. unsought goods
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23. Which of the following is true of j.n.d.? a. Decreasing prices below consumers’ j.n.d. is likely to cause a significant rise in sales. b. Making product improvements that far exceed consumers’ j.n.d. is likely to maximize company revenues. c. There is no j.n.d. for decreased product volume sold in existing packaging d. Making drastic changes to a company’s logo to an extent well beyond just below consumers’ j.n.d. allows companies to update their image without losing their ready recognition. e. Increasing prices below consumers’ j.n.d. is likely to go unnoticed by consumers.
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b. Making product improvements that far exceed consumers’ j.n.d. is likely to maximize company revenues. e. Increasing prices below consumers’ j.n.d. is likely to go unnoticed by consumers.
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24. Individuals express their need for ________ by organizing their perceptions so that they form a complete picture. a. closure b. interpretation c. grouping d. figure-ground patterns e. exposure
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a. closure
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25. Learning is pervasive in our lives, but there are two different theories on how people learn – the ________ theories and the ________ theories. a. behavioral; affective b. cognitive; rational c. behavioral; cognitive d. emotional; affective e. experiential; intentional
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c. behavioral; cognitive
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26. ________ is based on the premise that observable responses to specific external stimuli signal that learning has taken place. a. Perceived learning b. Behavioral learning c. Cognitive learning d. Associative learning e. Modernist learning
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b. Behavioral learning
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27. If you usually listen to the 6 o’clock news while waiting for dinner to be served, you would tend to associate the news with dinner, and eventually the sound of the 6 o’clock news alone might cause your mouth to water even if dinner was not being prepared. This is known as ________. a. instrumental conditioning b. classical conditioning c. conditional learning d. behavioral learning e. perceptual learning
answer

b. classical conditioning
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28. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, protection, order, and stability are examples of ________. a. self-actualization needs b. egoistic needs c. social needs d. safety and security needs e. physiological needs
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d. safety and security needs
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29. ________ motivations drive people toward some object or condition, whereas ________ motivations drive people away from some object or condition. a. Avoidance; affirmative b. Positive; negative c. Ought; ideal d. Acquired; innate e. Primary; secondary
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b. Positive; negative
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30. In a consumer behavior context, ________ are learned predispositions to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way with respect to a given object. a. attitudes b. beliefs c. values d. feelings e. intentions
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a. attitudes
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31. Which of the following is true of attitudes and their relationship with behavior? a. Attitudes are permanent, but the behaviors they reflect change over time. b. Consumers always demonstrate consistency between their attitudes and their behaviors. c. There is no demonstrable link between attitudes and behavior. d. When consumers are free to act as they wish, we anticipate that their actions will be consistent with their attitudes. e. Attitude change is always followed by behavior change.
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d. When consumers are free to act as they wish, we anticipate that their actions will be consistent with their attitudes.
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32. According to the ________, attitudes consist of three major components: an affective component, a behavioral component, and a cognitive component. a. dual mediation model b. ABC attitude model c. self-perception theory d. multiattribute attitude model e. functional approach
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b. ABC attitude model
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33. Roy is looking to buy a new HDTV set. He knows from friends that LCD set screens reflect less light than plasma set screens, but that LCD sets are also more subject to blurring than plasma sets. This is an example of the ________ component of his attitude toward HDTVs. a. conative b. behavioral c. cognitive d. affective e. situational
answer

c. cognitive
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34. The series of steps in attitude formation that consumers go through in the experiential hierarchy of effects is as follows: a. cognition > affect > behavior b. affect > behavior > cognition c. cognition > behavior > affect d. behavior > affect > cognition e. affect > cognition > behavior
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b. affect > behavior > cognition
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35. ________ portray consumers’ attitudes with regard to an attitude object as a function of consumers’ perceptions and assessment of the key attributes or beliefs of that object. a. Multiattribute attitude models b. Functional models c. Dual mediation models d. Cognitive dissonance theories e. Tricomponent attitude models
answer

a. Multiattribute attitude models
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36. Which of following tricomponent attitude models are related to involvement paradox which the less important the product is to consumers, the more important are many of the marketing stimuli? a. Standard learning hierarchy b. Experiential hierarchy c. Low-involvement hierarchy d. Attitude hierarchy
answer

c. Low-involvement hierarchy
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37. Ben has a positive attitude toward Nova Hiking Gear because a pair of Nova hiking boots he owns has proven to be very durable and to provide good support during long hikes. Ben has formed this attitude based on the boots’ ________. a. ego-defensive function b. utilitarian function c. value-expressive function d. knowledge function e. intention function
answer

b. utilitarian function
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38. When Ralph Lauren introduced the American Living brand to J. C. Penney, the company wanted to be certain that Penny customers would feel comfortable buying and using the brand.This is an example of ______ in action. a. market segmentation b. balance theory c. a multi-attribute model d. TORA
answer

b. balance theory
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39. If an undergraduate student was considering getting a tattoo and stopped to ask herself what her parents would think of such behavior, such a reflection would constitute her ________. a. internal attribution b. subjective norm c. direct experience d. external attribution e. niche
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b. subjective norm
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40. When HP challenges the notion that computers do not have to be difficult to use by stating that their product “is as simple as duh,” it is altering a component of the multi-attribute model to change attitudes. Which attitude change strategy is it using? a. changing the relative evaluation of attributes b. adding an attribute c. changing the overall brand rating d. changing consumers’ subjective norms
answer

a. changing the relative evaluation of attributes c. changing the overall brand rating
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41. ________ is how consumers see actually see themselves, whereas ________ refers to how consumers would like to see themselves. a. Ideal self-image; ideal social self-image b. Actual self-image; ideal self-image c. Social self-image; self-image d. Actual social self-image; ideal social self-image e. Ideal self-image; actual social self-image
answer

b. Actual self-image; ideal self-image
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42. How can marketers use an understanding of consumers’ personalities to market their products? a. Marketers can rely on consistent consumption behavior over time because consumers’ personalities are consistent over time. b. Marketers can change consumers’ personalities to conform to their products. c. Marketers can attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers. d. Marketers can use an understanding of consumers’ personalities to create consumer needs. e. In creating marketing messages, marketers can accurately presume that consumers’ personalities constitute the single factor that influences how consumers behave.
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c. Marketers can attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers.
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43. Collectivism culture such as Korean and China stress the importance of – The collective self (person’s identity comes from group) and the interdependent self (person’s identity defined from relationships with others). a. actual self b. social self c. ideal self d. multiple self
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b. social self
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44. According to trait theory of personality, consumers who prefer ads featuring celebrities rather than ads with extensive copy may: a. have low self-esteem b. be compulsive buyers c. be introverts d. have low need for cognition (NC)
answer

d. have low need for cognition (NC)
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21. The term refers to the age segmentation of the population that was born between 1946 and 1964 and accounts for nearly one-fourth of U.S. consumers. a. Baby Boomers b. Generation X c. Depression Generation d. Generation Y e. Pre-depression Generation
answer

a. Baby Boomers
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22. Generation Y, Generation X, baby boomers, and seniors are four subcultural segments based on ________. a. race b. age c. gender d. geographic location e. religion
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b. age
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23. According to the textbook, ________ is the age segmentation that was born between 1965 and 1980, is currently in its peak reproductive years, and is often centered on family and home. a. Baby Boomers b. Generation X c. Depression Generation d. Generation Y e. Pre-depression Generation
answer

b. Generation X
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24. Which type of reference group influences is illustrated by the following example:Buying clothing that bears the “Made in the USA” tag, reflecting the value of national loyalty. a. membership influences b. value-express influences c. informational influences d. utilitarian influences e. dissociative influences
answer

b. value-express influences
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25. A husband and wife and one or more children, together with at least one grandparent living within the household, constitutes a(n) ________. a. empty nest b. married couple c. extended family d. single-parent family e. nuclear family
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c. extended family
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26. For each life cycle stage, marketers who do this will become/remain successful: a. develop new products to meet needs. b. develop new and appropriate marketing strategies. c. determine which products and services appeal to those in each phase. d. create more generic products that will appeal to people at any stage. e. a, b, and c
answer

e. a, b, and c
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27. Household decision-making roles: a. are essentially the same in traditional and non-traditional families. b. usually do not change. c. are behaviors that are often performed automatically. d. have little to do with determining what to buy. e. all of the above
answer

c. are behaviors that are often performed automatically.
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28. Which type of social influence is defined in the following statement: “A type of pressure that requires a person to conform to the expectations of others.”? a. absolute social influence b. contemporary social influence c. informational social influence d. normative social influence e. conformance social influence
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d. normative social influence
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29. The three responses to social influence are: a. conformity, consensus, compliance b. conformity, continuity, consensus c. conformity, compliance, obedience d. conformity, compliance, confusion e. conformity, consensus, confusion
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c. conformity, compliance, obedience
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30. All of the following variations can occur during Stage IV (Mid-Adulthood) of the twenty- first century family life cycle except: a. deciding not to have children b. re-coupling c. blending d. parenting e. there are no exceptions; all are feasible
answer

e. there are no exceptions; all are feasible
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31. During the ________ stage of the traditional family life cycle, married couples tend to be most comfortable financially. a. bachelorhood b. honeymooner c. full nester d. empty nester e. dissolution
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d. empty nester
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32. Which of the following statements is false? a. empty nesters are not necessarily retired. b. children under 18, still living with parents, are not counted as consumers. c. unmarried partners with children are considered families by today’s marketing professionals. d. blendedstep-families are considered families by today’s marketing professionals. e. both a and c
answer

b. children under 18, still living with parents, are not counted as consumers.
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33. All of following factors influence the shift in household decision making process today except: a. growing influence of young people on household decision making b. older household members having more information of new products c. change in the makeup of the U.S. household d. daily barrage and evolution of media which young members feel more comfortable with than older members do e. today’s marketing and advertising targeting directly at children
answer

b. older household members having more information of new products
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34. In reference to consumer characteristics, can be determined from direct questioning and categorized by a simple objective measure, whereas ________ are abstract and can be determined only through more complex questioning. a. consumption-specific features; consumer-rooted features b. demographics; psychographics c. psychographics; demographics d. cognitions; facts e. consumer-rooted features; consumption-specific features
answer

b. demographics; psychographics
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35. All of the followings explain primary group influencers except: a. their opinions are very powerful b. they are not included in your circle of closeness c. they are direct influencers d. they are groups with which you have the most contact e. they include family or close friends
answer

b. they are not included in your circle of closeness
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36. The age group of consumers that is expanding most rapidly is: a. infants and children b. teenagers c. senior citizens d. both b and c e. both a and c
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c. senior citizens
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37. All of the following are demographic measurements used by marketers, except: a. population b. gender c. income d. values e. occupation
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d. values
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38. The size of a given population depends on all of the following factors except: a. immigration b. birthrate c. citizenship d. life expectancy e. both a and d
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c. citizenship
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39. The VALS psychographic system uses a framework based on the dimensions of: a. ideals and principles b. motivation and resources c. achievement and self-expression d. values and lifestyles e. motivation and values
answer

b. motivation and resources
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40. Trends in the markets, such as shifts in age, gender, and income distribution, are often detected through ________ information. a. demographic b. sociocultural c. psychological d. physiological e. use-related
answer

a. demographic
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41. In the study of psychographics, marketers are interested in consumers’: a. values b. activities c. interests d. opinions e. all of the above
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e. all of the above
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42. The theory behind geodemographic segmentation is that ________. a. people who have the same activities, interests, and objectives will purchase the same products b. people with the same cultural heritage will have similar needs and values c. people who live in the same area share some similar needs and wants that differ from those of people living in other areas d. people who speak the same language have very similar needs and values e. all people living in the same country will have very similar needs and can be best served by a single advertising campaign
answer

c. people who live in the same area share some similar needs and wants that differ from those of people living in other areas
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43. In the VALS psychographic system all of the following forces motivate consumers except: a. resources b. ideals c. achievement d. self-expression e. both c and d
answer

a. resources
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44. Regarding the distribution of income throughout the United States: a. it is uneven and has become more polarized b. retailers such as Neiman Marcus and Bloomingdale’s target all income groups c. half of the population has an income of less than $80,000 annually d. the average income of some 20,000 Americans is $3 million e. both c and d
answer

a. it is uneven and has become more polarized
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45. When conducting primary research, marketers may seek to gather information from: a. potential customers b. existing customers c. vendors d. target consumers e. all of above
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e. all of above
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46. The most common tool of quantitative research is: a. focus group interviews b. surveys c. blogs d. trunk shows e. a and b
answer

b. surveys
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47. Observational research can be done by: a. watching consumers in a store b. tallying information from frequent-shopper cards scanned at the cash register c. using “cookies” to store and later retrieve information about consumers’ Web site purchases d. observing celebrities and other people attending fashion show e. all of the above
answer

e. all of the above
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48. Fashion marketers are keeping pace with new media by communicating with consumers through: a. web sites b. blogs c. e-zines d. text messaging e. all of the above
answer

e. all of the above
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49. If a company hires a celebrity as their spokesperson or a model to appear in ads, what type of membership influences does the company want to generate? a. disassociative group membership influence b. aspirational group membership influence c. associative group membership influence d. conformity group membership influence e. obedience group membership influence
answer

b. aspirational group membership influence
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50. The geodemographic measurement system called PRIZM NE has which marketing advantage? a. it surveys consumers quickly via cell phone or the Internet b. like the government census, it makes a physical count of all citizens c. it combines demographic and psychographic consumer statistics by ZIP codes d. it is used extensively by retailers but is not applicable to other industries e. it measures the motivation and resources of consumers
answer

c. it combines demographic and psychographic consumer statistics by ZIP codes
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21. Extensive, limited problem solving, and routinized are three specific levels of ________. a. Conjunctive decision rules b. Economic problem solving c. Consumer decision making d. Affect referral rules e. Gifting behavior
answer

c. Consumer decision making
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22. Which is a right process of consumer decision making? a. Information search/collection – Problem recognition – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Best alternative selection – Evaluation of decision/purchase b. Problem recognition – Information search/collection – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Best alternative selection – Evaluation of decision/purchase c. Problem recognition – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Information search/collection – Best alternative selection – Evaluation of decision/purchase d. Problem recognition – Information search/collection – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Evaluation of decision/purchase – Best alternative selection e. Problem recognition – Information search/collection – Best alternative selection – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Evaluation of decision/purchase
answer

b. Problem recognition – Information search/collection – Review/evaluate the alternatives – Best alternative selection – Evaluation of decision/purchase
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23. In cases of ________, the consumer needs a great deal of information to establish a set of criteria on which to judge specific brands and a correspondingly large amount of information concerning each of the brands to be considered. a. Extensive problem solving b. Economic problem solving c. Limited problem solving d. Passive problem solving e. Routinized response behavior
answer

a. Extensive problem solving
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24. A consumer is most likely to use ________ when buying an expensive, important, or technically complicated product or service for the first time. a. Extensive problem solving b. Economic problem solving c. Limited problem solving d. Passive problem solving e. Routinized response behavior
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a. Extensive problem solving
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25. A consumer is most likely to use ________ when purchasing at moderate priced product and/or purchasing a product periodically. a. Extensive problem solving b. Economic problem solving c. Limited problem solving d. Passive problem solving e. Routinized response behavior
answer

c. Limited problem solving
question

26. Which of the following is not an example of internal recognition? a. You run out of breakfast cereal b. You realize the heels on your shoes are badly worn c. You see a TV ad that catches your eye d. You hear your coach talk about wearing a certain brand of shoes e. C and D
answer

e. C and D
question

27. Which of the following is not an example of external influences in collecting information? a. TV commercials b. My past experiences and memory c. Advertisements in magazines d. Close friends’ past experiences e. Window display
answer

b. My past experiences and memory
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28. Maria needs a new pair of jeans. She knows that pants from American Eagle, in size 10, tend to fit her very well in the waist and hips and are long enough, so she goes to American Eagle and picks up a pair with minimal search effort. Maria’s is a case of ________. a. Extensive problem solving b. Economic problem solving c. Limited problem solving d. Passive problem solving e. Routinized response behavior
answer

e. Routinized response behavior
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29. The following risk area(s) may be of particular concern to consumers when considering a purchase: a. Functional and monetary b. Physical and psychological c. Social d. All of the above e. a and b
answer

d. All of the above
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30. Consumers often develop shortcut decision rules called heuristics to facilitate the decision making process and to cope with ________. a. Lack of information b. Too much information c. Contradicting information d. Negative information e. Inconsistent information
answer

b. Too much information
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31. The followings are examples of ways consumer make decision making process more organized and efficient except: a. Cybermediaries b. Price and quality c. Country of origin and quality d. Past experiences e. Advertisements
answer

e. Advertisements
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32. Which selection best describes habitual decision making? a. Don’t really give it too much thought b. Involves some thought c. Requires considerable thought d. Requires sporadic thought e. None of the above
answer

a. Don’t really give it too much thought
question

33. A marketer’s job is to make it easy for the consumer to: a. Understand the differences between competing brands b. Relate to and visualize the sizable improvements gained with a specific product or brand c. Minimize the difficulty in decision making d. a, b, and c e. None of the above
answer

d. a, b, and c
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34. The objective of understanding cross-cultural differences is to ________. a. Develop effective targeted marketing strategies to use in each foreign market of interest b. Be informed as good citizens c. To fulfill a societal marketing aspect d. To be considered a global company e. To fulfill their social responsibilities
answer

a. Develop effective targeted marketing strategies to use in each foreign market of interest
question

35. _________ is the process of adapting to a new primary or main stream culture. a. Enculturation b. Acculturation c. Multicultural adoption d. Cultural convergence e. Cultural divergence
answer

b. Acculturation
question

36. Companies that want to sell their products to consumers in a foreign country must assess that country’s: a. Financial/economic forces b. Consumer preference c. Cultural values d. Transportation networks e. All of the above
answer

e. All of the above
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37. A ________ marketing perspective stresses the similarities among consumers worldwide. a. Diverse b. International c. Global d. Comprehensive e. Localized
answer

c. Global
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38. A ________ marketing strategy stresses the diversity among consumers in different nations. a. Diverse b. International c. Global d. Comprehensive e. Local
answer

e. Local
question

39. A ________ advertising strategy involves standardization of both the product and the communications program. a. Local b. National c. Restricted d. Global e. Mixed
answer

d. Global
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40. A ________ advertising strategy involves glocalization of both the product and the communications program. a. Local b. National c. Restricted d. Global e. Mixed
answer

e. Mixed
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41. An upscale wristwatch such as Patek Philippe, used exactly the same advertisement across the world, would be best marketed through a ________ strategy. a. Global b. Local c. Adapted marketing d. Mass marketing e. Direct marketing
answer

a. Global
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42. In 2004, Nike made a mistake in China by treating Chinese cultural symbols not respectfully in the Nike commercial, resulting in Chinese consumers’ hostility toward Nike. It is a market example shows that consumption patterns _____________. a. Are instinctive b. Mirror cultural values c. Determine product benefits d. Are determined by marketers e. b and c
answer

b. Mirror cultural values
question

43. The means-end chain links a consumer’s knowledge about product attributes with the desired cultural value state he or she wants to achieve. This implies that: a. Means = risks and end = benefits b. Means = product benefits and end = desired outcome(s) c. Means = effort and end = the customer’s contentment d. Means = attraction and end = satisfaction e. Means = value and end = ideal image
answer

b. Means = product benefits and end = desired outcome(s)
question

44. Guess, a U.S. apparel brand, sells its different items and designs in the global markets. However, it uses same advertisement to keep its brand image. Guess’ marketing strategy would be best described as a ________ strategy. a. Global b. Mixed c. Homogenous d. Local e. Individualistic
answer

b. Mixed
question

45. _____________ include standards for working conditions, environmental responsibility, and fair pricing. a. Fair-trade practices b. PETA c. UNICEF d. Textile Exchange e. Environmentalist
answer

a. Fair-trade practices
question

46. All of the following are examples of fraudulent returns except: a. Wearing a garment once and returning it to the store b. Shoplifting merchandise and returning it for cash or credit c. Returning a garment that shrank after laundering according to instructions d. Returning an item to a store where it was not purchased e. a and b
answer

c. Returning a garment that shrank after laundering according to instructions
question

47. Sales of counterfeit merchandise are of concern because: a. They take business from legitimate companies b. Manufacturers of counterfeit goods may use unethical labor practices c. Profits may support criminal or terrorist organizations d. Factory conditions may be unsafe e. All of the above
answer

e. All of the above
question

48. Purchasing goods that you know are counterfeit is: a. A way to get a branded product b. Unethical c. A way to get a bargain d. b and c e. All of the above
answer

b. Unethical
question

49. Examples of unethical labor practices include all of the following except: a. Obliging workers to work long hours b. Not paying a fair wage c. Maintaining unsafe working conditions d. Employing children e. None of the above
answer

e. None of the above
question

50. The Followings are the ways fashion and design companies explore to be more environmentally friendly except: a. Reducing use of harmful chemicals b. Using more sustainable natural resources c. Use of blends of cotton and recycled plastic soda bottles d. Reducing carbon emissions e. None of the above.
answer

e. None of the above.

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