MKT 302 Final

Individual differences have little effect on the value experienced by consumers and the reactions consumers have to consumption
The core concept of consumer behavior is value
Price is the best indicator of value.
The Just Meaningful Difference represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same
On his way to work, Hank passes many billboards and many ads play on the radio while he is driving, but he only uses and hears a few of them. This is an example of selective labeling
All things equal, a consumer is more likely to pay attention to stronger stimuli than to weaker stimuli
A researcher measuring consumers attitudes toward different brands on a scale of 1 to 10 is using qualitative research
Data generated from quantitative research are considered “researcher-dependent”
The Ritz-Carlton Hotel has a culture that embodies the importance of creating value for guests among all employees. One way this is implemented is giving the front desk employees the authority to correct a problem presented by a guest without having to have approval from a manager. Which type of orientation does this company embrace?
market orientation
value is derived from a product that helps a consumer solve problems and accomplish tasks
When consumers fail to attach meaning to certain stimuli that are not personally relevant, this is known as:
Selective perception
Black and Decker is well known for power tools. However, if the company thinks of itself merely as a power tool company instead of a company that delivers the benefits users want, it could be taking a short-sighted focus of its business. If a technologically-advanced device is developed that could replace the need for power tools to deliver those benefits, this company could go out of business. That is, Black & Decker could suffer from:
Marketing Myopia
Tom goes to the grocery store to buy snacks for his tailgating party. When in the chips aisle, Tom sees a sign next to the Doritos that says “2 for 1”. Tom understands that this marketing message means the Doritos are on sale, and he can buy two bags for the price of one. Tom’s understanding demonstrations which step in the perception process?
A company embracing differentiated marketing will:
serve multiple market segments each with a unique products offering
Every Disney employee is thought of and trained to be a host or hostess with the express goal of making sure all guests fell good when they are there. Which of the following refers to the feelings visitors experience while they are there and long after they’ve left?
A “slow” fast food restaurant represents which of the following?
Low utilitarian value, low hedonic value
Consumer behavior is the set of value-seeking activities that take place as people go about addressing realized needs.
Community Trust Bank is analyzing its customer data to determine if groups other than simply consumer and business customers can be identified. It is looking at the frequency of branch visits, use of ATMs, online banking activity, loan activity, and account balances for each customer. The bank has identified three groups of customers based on these factors and is considering offering different products to better meet the needs of each group. What marketing concept do these different groups of customers represent?
market segmentation
Which of the following is an external influence on consumer value?
social influences
Kayla is engaged in research that seeks to explain the inner meanings and motivations associated with purchasing clothing. She records and analyzes the words that consumers use to describe events and observes shoppers in stores. From that, she develops an understanding of what motivates shoppers. What types of research is Kayla performing?
qualitative research
Hanna believes that Mac computers are better than Windows-based computers because they are not as vulnerable to computer viruses. This thinking or mental process that Hannah is engaged in represents which psychological element?
Which of the following is an example of a fixed reinforcement schedule?
Delta Sky Miles gives a free flight every 35,000 miles earned
All of the following are elements of the marketing mix EXCEPT:
Which of the following is NOT a discipline in which consumer behavior has roots?
Which of the following represents the value equation?
Value = what you get – what you give
Energizer batteries used to feature the Energizer Bunny in television commercials, often in unexpected ways to catch viewers off-gaurd. Commercials seemed to be boring commercials about a fake brand of a mundane product, when all of a sudden the Energizer Bunny would come on the screen banging a drum. After a while though, consumers had been exposed to the commercial so many times that they began to expect the bunny to march into the picture beating his drum so they tended to tun the commercial out. Consumers response to this over-exposure represents the process of:
Which theory proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the match between a consumers self-concept and the image of typical uses of a product?
self-congruency theory
Which of the following is a way to enhance consumers attention?
all of these choices
Harley Davidson is portrayed as a rugged, exciting brand. These dimensions make up Harley Davidson’s:
Brand personality
Which of the following is a typology that assesses consumer psychographics?
Emotions are considered ______ because they involve both psychological processing and physical responses
Which of the following is a description of the “C” component the OCEAN Personality inventory?
persevering, orderly, and trustworthy
Utilitarian motivation is the desire to acquire products that can be used to accomplish things
“Emotional labor” is performed by service workers who must overly manage their own emotional displays as part of the requirements of their job.
Human motivations are oriented toward two key groups of behavior: homeostasis and self-improvement
_____ refers to a change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction.
Classical conditioning
A network of mental pathways linking knowledge within memory is called a(n):
associative network
Coca-Cola is a(n) ________ of the soft drink product category because it is the brand within the soft drink scheme that is the single best representation of that category.
_____ refers to the personal relevance toward, or interested in, a particular product
______ is the totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently
Which topic reflects the ideas that consumers perceive themselves in one way, and that there may be a gap between that perception and how they want to be seen by others?
Which of the following was NOT a heuristic that we discussed in class and was on your handout?
frequency heuristic
Which of the following consists of product alternatives that are top of mind for consideration in decision making?
evoked set
When consumers make a decision regarding which laptop computer to purchase, they consider things such as hard disk size, weight, screen size, and so on and the benefits received from each of these features. These attributes, features, and benefits form the consumer’s ______ when comparing alternatives.
evaluative criteria
Lance is trying to be the top salesperson in his company because he wants the increased income and the recognition he’ll receive for achieving that goal. Which type of power is influencing Lance’s behavior?
reward power
Which psychologist is famous for his experiment involving three lines, which demonstrated the prevalence of conformity in humans?
Social ties in secondary groups are very strong.
Social power can be classified into three categories: natural, imagined, and earned.
Shilling is the practice of compensating consumers to talk about, or promote products without disclosing that they are working for the company
Meaning transference begins with culture
Attribution theory proposes that consumers enter into a consumption experience with predetermined cognitive expectations of a products performance.
Hans is considering three criteria when selecting a laptop computer: weight, memory, and speed. The criteria that are related to his actual choice are called:
determinant criteria
The De Beers diamond company advises men to spend two months salary for a diamond engagement ring for their beloved because “A Diamond is Forever”. Interestingly, diamond engagement rings didn’t have much meaning in the US prior to 1930 or so. Therefore, diamond engagement rings derive their value from culture, which is a process called:
meaning transference
Which type of decision rule allows consumers to select products that may perform poorly on one attribute by compensating for the poor performance by good performance on another attribute?
compensatory rule
What is difference between consumer misbehavior and consumer problem behavior?
Consumer misbehavior describes behavior deliberately harmful to another party in an exchange process, whereas consumer problem behavior refers to behaviors that are seemingly outside of a consumers control
The Consumer Bill of Rights includes all of the following EXCEPT:
the right to fair prices
Meg went to a local nail salon for a pedicure, and got a nail infection on her left foot the next day. She didn’t go back to the shop to complain, but she told all of her friends about it and said never to go there. One of her friends suggested she should go back there and complain and demand compensation for her medical expenses and at least get her money back for the pedicure. Meg was just disgusted and didn’t even want to go back there to complain. If she ever decides to get another pedicure, she certainly won’t go back to that shop. Why might the nail shop want Meg to complain about her problem as a result of their service?
Meg’s complaint will be a vulnerable source of information if the shop does not know customers are getting infections after their services
Perceptual attributes are not easily recognized
Superordinate categories represent the highest level of catergorization
Penny bought a dress to wear to a wedding. She did’t cut the price tag out, and the day after the wedding, she took the dress back to the store where she purchased it and returned it for her money back. Penny’s behavior is called:
retail borrowing/deshopping
Tess is comparing dishwashers and has decided to select the brand that she believes is the quietest, which is the most important attributes for her. Which decision rule is Tess using?
Complete the following quote form Russell (2011) that was discussed in class: “A _____ is what you are selling; a _____ is what the customer is looking for.”
features; benefits
Gwen was not satisfied with her last visit to Starbucks and she attributed the cause to the other customers that were present while she was there. Which element of attribution theory does this represent?
For the FTC to consider an ad to be deceptive, which of the following must occur?
both b and c
In class, which discussed example of the marketing misbehavior of planned obsolescence?
e-waste in Hong Kong and how planned obsolescence contributes to the problem
David is selling a set of knives that is very expensive for the entire set. One tactic he uses is to ask people to try the paring knife and then ask them to purchase it for $5.00. Then he asks them to try other knives until he eventually works up to asking consumers to purchase the entire set of knives. Which selling technique is David using?
foot-in-door technique
In which of the following conditions is a consumer more likely to experience cognitive dissonance?
The decision is difficult to reverse
Which of the following is an underlying attribute of an automobile?
new car smell
Rocco’s Seafood restaurant claims to have the “best shrimp in town”. This is an example of:
Many consumer researchers propose that consumer cognitively compares their own level of inputs and outcomes to those of another party in an exchange. Which theory are these researchers advocating?
equity theory
Less than half of customers experiencing some dissatisfaction complain to management
Switching is a possible post consumption behavior
A negotiable product is one that has little of no potential to create value of any type
The Consumer Bill of Rights stand as a foundation of the consumerism movemnt
Disney tries to create a magical experience for guests visiting its parks and resorts. The company knows that positive emotions can become stored as part of the meaning visitors have for Disney, and the company wants consumers to come back again and again. Positive emotion that becomes stored as part of the meaning of Disney for consumers is called:
schema-based affect
Kayli was going to have a baby and was upset when the nurse attending to her had purple hair, tattoos, and a pierced nose. She didn’t seem to fit the type of person Kayli expected in this environment, which means the nurse did not match Kayli’s _____ for a nurse
social schema
Most consumers in the United States have a schema representing a wedding that has the bride coming down the aisle with her father, who gives her to the waiting groom. After the ceremony, the groom then kisses the bride. A scheme representing an event such as a wedding is called a:
The looking-glass self is another term for a consumer’s ideal self
Lifestyles are completely determined by personality
Personality is made up of all the emotions consumers experience
The best way to really learn something is to repeat it over and over.
The process of comprehension is influenced very little by internal factors within the consumer.
A schema represents a consumer’s entire associative network.
Humor appeal is a ______, and endorser attractiveness is a _____.
message effect; source effect
The speculation that teenagers around the world are more similar to each other than to people from other generations in the same culture is called:
world teen culture
The phenomenon in which consumers choose membership in micro-cultures in an effort to stand out of define themselves from the crowd is called:
Which of the following describes the hierarchy of effects that is most common for impulse purchases?
affect-behavior belief
Jill is an active member of her very conservative church. However, on the weekends, she likes to ride Harley Davidson motorcycles with her friends. One day, while out on a motorcycle ride, she sees some people from church that act surprised to see her riding a motorcycle. Jill feels uncomfortable, because she is experiencing:
role conflict
Mitch is a sales representative for Caterpillar, the world’s largest manufacturer of heavy equipment. He is moving to China because of the rapid expansion in that country and the opportunity it offers Caterpillar. He is undergoing extensive training, however, because the business is conducted differently in China compared to the U.S. For Example, Mitch is learning that business relationships are backed by reciprocity, or doing each other favors. This cultural norm is known as:
Which term refers to specific attempts to change attitudes?
According to the ABC approach to attitudes, attitudes are made up of three important components. When an individual thinks, ” This car gets good gas mileage.” which ABC component has taken place?
According to Gilbert’s social stratification classifications, _______ are considered to be the highest social class (most education/income) and ________ are the lowest (least education/income)
Capitalist class; under class
Which of the following is NOT one of the “Nine Nations of North America”?
all of the above are included in the Nine Nations of North America
According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion the term “elaboration” refers to what?
the degree to which the message recipient thinks about product-related arguments and information within the ad
On the first day of a new semester of classes, you notice a student very nosily eating potato chips during class. The students is disrupting the lecture, and you notice many fellow students nearby giving him annoyed looks. The professor asks the student to save the chips for after class. The reaction to the fellow students and professor is an example of a(n):
cultural sanction
The elaboration likelihood model proposes two routes to to persuasion. The _______ route is used with high message involvement and the _______ route is used with low message involvement.
central route and peripheral route
The video clip in class about Appalachia focused mostly on the influence that this micro-culture has on:
Ken is purchasing a new computer for his family. To make this purchase, he learns as much as he can about companies, and then decides which one he likes based on that information. Only then will he actually purchase a computer. According to the hierarchy of effects approach the attitudes, which hierarchy best describes Ken’s actions?
high involvement
Brand X is inexpensive, but is not very durable. Assumer that research has shown that consumers care more about low price than durability. According to the Fishbein Model, which of the following would be the best strategy for Brand X to help consumers from positive attitudes about their products?
Emphasize their low price through advertising
According to the ABC model of attitudes, attitudes posses three important components: affect, beliefs, and cognition.
According to the PBS video “People like Us” America is made up of different tribes.
Jill, an American, recently moved to Germany. She is slowly learning German culture, a process which is called ethnocentrism.
Reflection is a process of imitating others’ behavior.
Generally, Western societies (e.g. USA) tend to be more collectivist, whereas Eastern nations (e.g. Asia) tend to be more individualist.
Income and age are the two most recognizable determinants of social class.
The “Big 3” micro-cultures in the U.S. are Asians, African-American, and Italians.
Most teens worldwide have similar political and religious ideals
Conner is preparing to take the Certified Public Accounts (CPA) exam. He has spent five years in college and now wants to be accepted into this group of professional accountants. For Connor, CPA’s represent which type of group?
associative group
A dissociative group is a group:
to which a consumer does not want to belong
Vince is really into cars and seeks out information on cars simply because he is interest in them. Which type of search does this represent?
ongoing search
Using online technologies to facilitate WOM by having consumers spread marketing messages by forwarding emails to their friends is known as:
viral marketing
On her weekly grocery shopping trips, Anna buys orange juice for her family. She does a medium amount of search fro information regarding prices and also looks at packaging while evaluating orange juice brands. She usually chooses Tropicana, but is open to other alternatives. Which type of decision making is Anna using for this product?
limited decision making
All of the following are a type of risk EXCEPT:
functional risk
Which of the following is NOT a situational influence?
enduring involvement
Epistemic shopping activities are oriented toward a specific, intended purchase or purchases.
Heuristics are used to make better, more optimal purchase decisions.
Situational influences can be classified into on of two categories: utilitarian and hedonic.
Physical risks is the type of risk associated with how other consumers will view the purchases.
The rational decision-making perspective fits very well with the concept of utilitarian value.
With limited decision making, no comparison between brands is done.
______ occurs when an individual yields to the attributers and behaviors of other consumers.
Many consumers shop at Wal-Mart every week even though they don’t really like shopping there. They don’t have any real attachment to the store, it’s just that they don’t want to pay higher prices elsewhere. Which of the following best describes this phenomenon of repeatedly shopping at a store without a commitment or attachment to the store?
brand inertia
The term ______ is sometimes used to refer to the physical characteristics that make up a retail environment, such as in-store displays, window signs, music, and lighting.
According to research, what is the relationship between product knowledge and amount of search?
people with a medium amount of product knowledge search the most
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