What is the name for the processes individuals use when making a purchase decision?
a. consumerism
b. marketing
c. consumer behaviour
d. perceptual mapping
Consumer behaviour describes how consumers make purchase decisions.
Marketers often study the processes used and the factors that influence the consumer when making purchase decisions. What are these called?
a. psychographics
b. consumer behaviour
c. perceptual mapping
d. consumerism
What are the steps of the consumer decision-making process in order?
a. need positioning, stimulus response reactions, evaluation of alternatives, purchase
decision, postpurchase behaviour
b. need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and
postpurchase behaviour
c. information search, need positioning, evaluation of alternatives, product trial, purchase
decision, postpurchase satisfaction
d. need recognition, alternative aggregation, re-evaluation, purchase decision, postpurchase
After Gina saw a documentary on Egypt, she scheduled a visit there for this coming summer. What did the documentary act as?
a. an internal stimulus
b. a purchase outcome
c. an external stimulus
d. a state of cognitive dissonance
The documentary was a stimulus that was not physiological.
It’s a 10-hour car trip from Ming’s home in Saskatchewan to her new job in B.C. After driving eight hours toward B.C., Ming became very sleepy. As a result, she found an inexpensive motel to spend the night. The fact Ming became sleepy is an example of which of the following?
a. an internal stimulus
b. need recognition
c. a state of cognitive dissonance
d. an external stimulus
Sleepiness is a physiological indication of the need to rest.
Blair Bagnall loves cola and is always on a diet. He will drink only Diet Coke. When offered a Diet Pepsi one afternoon as an alternative, he refused to even consider it as part of his evoked set even though he generally drinks a soft drink about the time of day the offer was made. What does this illustrate?
a. that Blair is satisfying a need
b. that Blair has a need motivator
c. that Blair has a physiological drive
d. that Blair is satisfying a want
A want is often brand specific, whereas a need is something an individual depends on to function efficiently. A person may need food but wants specific brands.
Which of the following is the BEST example of an internal stimulus that would create need recognition?
a. an invitation to a wedding for which you need a gift
b. a headache
c. a billboard promotes a new national Internet service provider
d. a radio station runs an ad for a used-book sale
Aches and pains are generated internally by your body without outside inputs from anything or anyone.
After a need or want is recognized, a consumer may be motivated to clarify the options available and generate an evoked set of brands. Which step is this in the consumer decision-making process?
a. product identification
b. evaluation of alternatives
c. information search
d. consideration stage
What types of products are typically purchased by people using only an internal search?
a. frequently purchased, high-cost items
b. infrequently purchased, high-cost items
c. frequently purchased, low-cost items
d. infrequently purchased, low-cost items
Information about frequently purchased, low-cost items is stored in an individual’s memory and is sufficient knowledge for the purchase decision.
Which of the following products would most likely require the purchaser to use only an internal information search?
a. a daycare facility for a two-month-old infant
b. a box of tissue
c. a rental apartment
d. a new car
Internal information search is used with frequently purchased, low-cost items; the only item on the list that meets this criterion is the box of tissue.
When is an external information search especially important?
a. when there is little risk of making an incorrect decision
b. when there is a high risk of making an incorrect decision
c. when the cost of gathering information is high
d. when buying frequently purchased, low-cost items
If a consumer perceives a purchase to involve high risk (financial, social, etc.), an external search will lower the risk by providing more information.
For which of the following products is the purchaser most likely to rely on an external information source?
a. a package of light bulbs
b. a copy of TV Guide
c. a principles of marketing text
d. a memo pad
Pierre has been shopping for a new lawn mower. He has visited several sites on the Internet and has read articles in Consumer Reports on mowers. Pierre has also asked several of his friends for recommendations. What has Pierre been using?
a. internal search sources
b. secondary data sources
c. nonmarketing-controlled information sources
d. marketing-controlled information sources
Public sources of information such as magazines and consumer rating organizations are known as nonmarketing-controlled information sources.
Which of the following is an example of a marketing-controlled information system?
a. Hot Pockets brand mini pizzas
b. a television ad for Mayfield ice cream
c. an article in Bicycling magazine about the newest Shimano brand shoes
d. a NASCAR automobile
The article in Bicycling would not have originated with the Shimano organization.
You are thinking about purchasing a new bike. If the first thing you do is ask a bike-riding buddy for his input on top brands available on the market, what are you doing?
a. seeking a marketing-controlled information source for information
b. evaluating purchase alternatives
c. realizing an unfulfilled need
d. seeking a nonmarketing-controlled information source for information
As Grace looks for a mystery book to read this weekend, she will consider only buying books written by Joan Hess, Dorothy Cannell, or Tamara Meyers. What is this group of authors?
a. her evolved set
b. her evoked set
c. her involvement set
d. her evaluative set
An evoked set is the set of brands a consumer recalls and would consider as possible purchase choices.
What is another name for evoked set?
a. induced memory
b. consideration set
c. reminder induction
d. reminder assortment
When do people tend to be more satisfied with a purchase?
a. if they feel less competent in their daily lives
b. if an information search was involved
c. if there is inconsistency among opinions and values
d. if there is no further contact with the seller
An information search tends to reduce cognitive dissonance and increases satisfaction.
Frank has just made it to the checkout point on amazon.ca and he has a shopping basket full of DVDs and books. As he alternately stares at his virtually bulging shopping basket and his credit card, Frank begins to feel apprehensive. What is Frank experiencing?
a. self-actualization involvement
b. perceptual disharmony
c. cognitive dissonance
d. temporal distortion
Ruby is a student and spent $150 on a pair of Oakley Pro-M sunglasses for her boyfriend, Hudson. When she got home with the sunglasses, she experienced a high level of anxiety about whether she made the right purchase decision. What did Ruby experience?
a. selective retention
b. self-actualization involvement
c. cognitive dissonance
d. perceptual disharmony
Cognitive dissonance is the term for postpurchase tension and anxiety.
Miller just purchased a new Allez A1 Specialized bicycle for $1,000. Miller realizes that the Allez A1 costs more than most bikes, and even at that price doesn’t come with a set of pedals. Even though other brands of bicycle cost much less than the Allez A1, Miller feels that the Allez A1 is more comfortable and has greater durability than most road bikes. As Miller wonders if he made the right purchase decision, what is he experiencing?
a. attribute remorse
b. evaluation distortion
c. cognitive dissonance
d. perceptual disharmony
Cognitive dissonance involves the realization of the advantages and disadvantages of the purchased product.
What is the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behaviour?
a. involvement
b. economic value
c. opportunity cost
d. perceived level of personal risk
When Li goes to the grocery store each week, he buys the same brands of bread, luncheon meat, breakfast bars, and orange juice. What is this type of buying behaviour called?
a. routine response behaviour
b. limited decision making
c. situational convenience
d. extensive decision making
The buying of frequently purchased, low-cost goods is typically routine response behaviour.
Which of the following activities is most likely to be an example of routine response behaviour?
a. the first-time purchase of a new pickup truck
b. the purchase of a funeral casket
c. a painter’s purchase of a 20-foot extension ladder for $600
d. the purchase of a replacement light bulb
Only the light bulb is an example of a low-involvement purchase.
What is characterized by low involvement, a short time frame, an internal-only information search, and low costs?
a. temporally limited behaviour
b. limited decision making
c. routine response behaviour
d. emotional buying
Jackson has moved to a new community and can no longer attend his old church. He is currently visiting churches to make a decision about which one best serves his needs. In making his decision, what type of consumer decision making will Jackson engage in?
a. habitual
b. limited c. routine d. extended
Jackson is familiar with churches and the services they provide, but he is unfamiliar with the ones in his new community.
The electricity for lighting outdoor billboards is powered by transformers. The operator of a company that installs and manages billboards has purchased many such transformers. Today he plans to buy a replacement for one that was destroyed by a recent hurricane. Before making this purchase, he will look at cost and to see if he can find one that is more weatherproof. He wants to make sure he buys the best signal for the job and that he does not pay more money than he should. In other words, which type of decision making will he engage in?
a. classical b. extended c. routine d. limited
The billboard operator is familiar with the product, but he is not immediately knowledgeable about the products currently on the market.
Which process does a consumer often use when purchasing an unfamiliar, expensive product or an infrequently bought item such as a burial plot or life insurance?
a. strategic behavioural
b. cognitive harmonizing
c. stimulus discrimination
d. extensive decision making
Nellie’s boss sells merchandise through Internet auctions. He needs to mail a $1,500 hexagonal antique picture frame. He has instructed Nellie to buy packaging that will make sure the oddly shaped frame arrives at its new owner undamaged, but he has not told her how or where she will find such packaging. Given that she frequently has to purchase packaging supplies, what kind of purchase decision process would Nellie most likely employ?
a. extensive decision making
b. limited decision making
c. routine response behaviour
d. low-involvement decision making
She will most likely use limited decision making because she is familiar with packaging products, but not with one that meets the exact size and protective criteria.
In late 2000, Honda Motors introduced Insight, a new hybrid electric-gasoline car. The car was rated at an incredible 5 litres/100 kilometres of driving. Before buying such an environmentally friendly car, a buyer will have to evaluate product attributes such as size of engine, riding space, ease of maintenance, and costs as well as his or her own feelings about environmental protection. What will the purchase of this type of car most likely involve?
a. limited decision making
b. low-involvement problem solving
c. low-involvement decision making
d. extensive decision making
Customers practise extensive decision making when purchasing an unfamiliar or infrequently used product.
Which of the following is most likely to be an example of limited decision making?
a. a new lawnmower purchase
b. a new set of wheels and tires for your old truck
c. a replacement shampoo for your favourite brand that has been discontinued
d. your first Valentine’s gift for your new girlfriend/boyfriend
When would a marketing manager expect his or her product to be a high-involvement product for most consumers?
a. if it has low social visibility
b. if it has not been purchased before
c. if it is a product that is a new innovation
d. if it requires substantial financial investment
All of the following factors directly influence consumers’ level of involvement in the purchase process EXCEPT which one?
a. consumer level of education
b. social visibility of the purchased item
c. previous experience with the product
d. perceived risk of negative consequences as a result of the purchase
Your best friend has sought your advice on what type of clothing she should buy for a job interview. If she gets the job, she will be assistant to the producer of her favourite television program. She really wants this job and considers it a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. By asking your help with her wardrobe, what is your friend most likely trying to do?
a. increase the chances of selective exposure
b. increase the motivation involved in the decision
c. reduce perceived risk of negative consequences
d. eliminate cognitive dissonance
What is being sought is a reduction in the anxieties felt, because the best friend cannot anticipate the outcomes, but believes there may be negative consequences.
What might a salsa manufacturer do to reduce the likelihood customers would switch from its brand to a competitor’s?
a. offer incentives to get buyers to repeatedly purchase its brand until they do it out of habit
b. switch distribution to different outlets
c. increase the social visibility of the product category of its brand
d. raise the price of its brand relative to competitors’ to reduce the level of consumer
Repeated exposure to a brand or product will make subsequent purchase become routine.
When Kate went to purchase a birthday card for her new boyfriend, she went to three stores and spent four hours reading over 500 cards before selecting the perfect one. Why is this card (which cost $2.25) properly designated a high-involvement product?
a. because of trial investment
b. because of cognitive dissonance
c. because of brand loyalty
d. because of situational factors
Because of the situational factors (high emotional risk), this low-cost card is a high-involvement item in this case.
Why does Marc approaches the purchase decision of underwear with a much lower level of human involvement than the purchase of a motorcycle?
a. due to situational factors
b. due to the financial risk
c. due to the social visibility of the two products d. due to the fear of cognitive dissonance
Involvement increases as social visibility of a product increases.
Marketing managers often use in-store promotions to stimulate sales of which of the following?
a. high-priced products
b. low-involvement products
c. high-involvement products
d. technical products
Because a low-involvement product has low potential risk for the consumer, it is easier to influence the consumer at the point of purchase. Marketing managers can use attention-getting devices to induce trial purchases.
What is the set of values, norms, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols that shape human behaviour and is transmitted from one generation to the next?
a. customerization
b. socialization
c. culture d. lifestyle
Which of the following terms accurately describes a culture? a. dysfunctional
b. selective c. static
d. learned
The fact mothers in Japan feed their babies freeze-dried sardines and rice and most mothers in Canada would not eat freeze-dried sardines, much less feed them to their babies, indicates how which of the following influences the consumer decision-making process?
a. reference group membership
b. family life-cycle stage
c. perception
d. culture
Culture is the chief shaper and transmitter of which of the following?
a. class stratification
b. self-concepts
c. individual differences
d. values
Human interaction from one generation to the next shapes the values held by society. This shaping of societal values is culture.
What is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an alternative mode of conduct?
a. lifestyle
b. attitude
c. value
d. self-concept
What are homogeneous groups within a culture that share elements of the overall culture as well as have elements that are unique to that group?
a. normative groups
b. dissociative groups
c. autonomous personal units d. subcultures
According to the text, which of the following statements about culture as an influence on consumer buying behaviour is true?
a. Core values remain the same for all cultures.
b. Language is an important aspect of culture.
c. Some fear the proliferation of the Internet will decrease cultural heterogeneity.
d. A firm that understands the culture it is selling to has just as great a probability of selling
its product as a firm that has no understanding of the culture.
Without understanding a culture, a firm has little chance of selling its products in it. Some fear widespread use of the Internet will increase cultural homogeneity. Core values differ among cultures.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be described as a subculture?
a. residents of Richmond, B.C.
b. electrical engineers
c. college students
d. Vietnamese Canadians
Electrical engineers are a professional group and do not share demographic characteristics (as do most college students). Geographic regions (residents of Richmond, B.C.), religious beliefs (Hutterites), or ethnic background (Vietnamese Canadians) are all considered possible bases for subcultures.
Approximately what percentage of the visible minorities in Canada live in the four major metropolitan areas of Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal, and Calgary/Edmonton?
a. 75 percent
b. 5 percent
c. 50 percent d. 25 percent
Which of the following is a group of people who are considered nearly equal in community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioural norms?
a. procreational family
b. subculture
c. social class
d. extended family
According to the text, which of the following statements about the social class system in Canada is true?
a. The upper class is the best target market in Canada.
b. The social class system in Canada is determined solely on the basis of educational level
c. The middle class is the largest social class in Canada.
d. The social class system in Canada results in groupings that are about the same size.
Vocation and educational level achieved are only two of the determinants of social class. For some products, the upper class is the best target market, but not for all as implied in this statement. The sizes of the classes are different.
If you were developing a promotional campaign for vocational classes to appeal to the working class, which of the following alternatives might you use?
a. a campaign that shows family and community members participating in vocational classes
to improve their lives
b. a campaign appealing to self-actualization needs
c. a campaign showing participants in the vocational classes with the time and money to
vacation in faraway and exotic places
d. a campaign emphasizing that those who participate in vocational classes will look better to
The working-class person depends on relatives and community for economic and emotional support.
Which of the following BEST describes social class as a marketing tool in Canada?
a. It offers few insights concerning consumer behaviour.
b. It is useful for lifestyle distinctions between groups.
c. It has demonstrated that all classes of consumers shop in the same stores.
d. It is just a simple measure of income level.
Lifestyles do differ between the existing classes in Canada, offering useful insights for marketers.
According to the text, which of the following statements about reference groups is true?
a. Reference groups serve as information sources and influence perceptions.
b. A person can belong to only one reference group.
c. Reference groups stimulate, but do not constrain, consumption behaviour.
d. Reference groups have a strong influence on all brands and product purchases.
Reference groups directly influence consumer behaviour and provide signals (information) for appropriate behaviour.
What is a primary reference group composed of?
a. only friends, neighbours, and relatives
b. people an individual aspires to be like
c. face-to-face membership groups that touch people’s lives directly
d. role models on television and in the movies
Social influences on consumer buying decisions include which of the following?
a. reference groups, opinion leaders, and family
b. personality, lifestyle, and reference groups
c. lifestyle, reference groups, and family
d. reference groups, society, opinion leaders, and family
Lifestyle and personality are individual influences. Culture and society are cultural factors.
Elliott loves to compete in mountain biking. He subscribes to all the bicycling magazines and reads them as soon as they arrive each month. Champion bikers such as Golden Brainard, Chris Sheppard, and Carl Swenson are often used in the product advertisements in these magazines. The ads convince Elliott to buy these products because these champions are which type of group for Elliott?
a. direct reference
b. primary reference
c. aspirational
d. secondary reference
Aspirational groups are those groups someone would like to join but of which he or she is currently not a member.
Nigel overheard a conversation in which he was referred to as “overstuffed, stuffy, and conservative.” Taking exception to this, he decided on a “extreme makeover.” After watching The Fast and the Furious, Nigel purchased a fast car and joined a gym. What did the characters in the movie represent to Nigel?
a. an aspirational reference group
b. opinion leaders
c. a nonaspirational reference group
d. a reference group
Mohammed believes the only type of consumers who would live in the Meadow Lake subdivision where the houses sell for a half million dollars or more are wasteful and materialistic, and he would never consider owning one of these houses himself. The people who typically live in that neighbourhood are in what group for that type of purchase?
a. Mohammed’s aspirational group
b. Mohammed’s direct reference group
c. Mohammed’s nonaspirational group
d. Mohammed’s membership group
A nonaspirational group is a group the consumer attempts to maintain distance from and does not want to imitate in purchase behaviour.
Who are opinion leaders?
a. easy to locate and target
b. people who influence others
c. experts on all high-involvement consumer goods
d. wealthy, well-educated individuals
An opinion leader can influence the purchasing behaviour of others in the reference group. However, opinion leaders are not always influential, not the same for all social classes, and not always wealthy or well educated. Opinion leaders rapidly change and are a casual, often inconspicuous, phenomenon.
You are the brand manager for a new line of allergy relief drugs. Which of the following methods might you use to influence opinion leadership/reference groups to help stimulate demand for your products?
a. Drop the price of your new products to the point where customers will note they are
getting a bargain.
b. Develop a promotional campaign that emphasizes safety and security needs being fulfilled
by these health care products.
c. Develop a promotional campaign that tells customers they “deserve to use” these products.
d. Use a series of ads showing different health care associations and societies endorsing the
use of these health care products.
The endorsements use the sanctioning or referral power of sources possessing high credibility.
Crystal tends to buy the same brands of detergent, dishwasher soap, and cleaning products as which of the following?
a. her psychographic group
b. her subculture
c. her social class
d. her family
The family is the most important social institution for many consumers.
Because her mother went to the supermarket only once a month, this is how Moniq prefers to do her grocery shopping. One of the reasons Moniq is such an efficient shopper is that, like her mother, Moniq believes, “Waste not, want not.” What is the passing down of norms and values to Moniq an example of?
a. consumerism
b. the roles opinion leaders play in business decision making
c. the socialization process
d. the role of society in consumer decision making
The socialization process is the passing down of cultural values and norms to children.
Madison announced to her family last night that she wanted a pair of inline skates. Her sister Bailey said that she thought it was a stupid idea. Their mother Wanda said Madison deserved a special treat for winning the science fair. By the fact her father Ned said nothing, Madison knew she was not getting any skates. In terms of the roles played by family members in the consumer decision-making process, which of the following is correct?
a. Madison was the initiator, and Bailey had no role at all.
b. Madison was an influencer, and Wanda was the decision maker.
c. Madison was the initiator, and Ned was the decision maker.
d. Madison was the initiator, and Ned had no role at all.
Madison suggested the purchase and was the initiator. Wanda and Bailey both tried to influence the purchase. Ned was the decision maker.
A pet food manufacturer has introduced a new cat food and spent a large amount of money on the packaging, nationwide television advertising, coupons, and store displays. After a successful introduction period with sales higher than expected, sales suddenly dropped off dramatically. Subsequent research revealed that cats tired quickly of the food and refused to eat it. The pet food manufacturer forgot that cats can also play an important role in the family decision process. What are cats in this case?
a. purchasers
b. selectors
c. consumers
d. decision makers
Here consumer is used to denote the user of the good or service. This question emphasizes how wide a difference there can be between consumer and purchaser.
Women account for about 50 percent of the luxury car market. Male car designers at Cadillac are going about their work with paper clips on their fingers to simulate what it feels like for women with long fingernails to operate buttons, knobs, and other interior features. What type of influences on consumer buying decisions are they responding to?
a. physiological b. individual
c. cultural
d. social
Gender is an individual influence on consumer buying decisions.
All of the following are examples of individual factors that affect the decision-making process for consumers EXCEPT which one?
a. reference groups
b. learning
c. personality d. perception
Reference groups are a social influence.
What is an orderly series of stages in which consumers’ attitudes and behavioural tendencies change over time?
a. acculturation
b. the family life cycle
c. lifestyle consumption
d. socialization
What is a composite of psychological makeup and environmental forces that provides consistency to an individual’s reactions to situations?
a. an individual’s acculturation
b. an individual’s personality
c. an individual’s socialization d. an individual’s attitude
Autonomy is a common personality trait.
What is the term describing how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations?
a. behaviour
b. personality
c. normalization d. self-concept
Evan knows that if he had been allowed to audition to be a contestant on Canadian Idol, he would have won. He feels as if his singing ability and his stage presence are as least as good as the contest’s winner, Reuben Studly. Since Evan really admires Reuben, he has adopted Reuben’s mannerisms. He carefully selects clothes like Reuben wore on the television show. He is hoping his new look will enhance his chances of getting selected for future Canadian Idol shows. What does Evan’s new look reflect?
a. his ideal self-image
b. his superego
c. his real self-image
d. his socialization process
Ideal self-image represents the way an individual would like to be
Jeison’s purchase behaviour is influenced by his love of mountain bike riding, his fascination with extreme sports, his interest in rap music, and his belief that politics is for old people. All of these things are part of which personal influence on the consumer decision-making process?
a. attitude
b. lifestyle
c. beliefs
d. personality
Lifestyle is defined by one’s activities, interests, and opinions.
Studies of how consumers relate to Internet entertainment classify them into nine different groups. One category is “Mouse Potatoes,” who spend most of their time on-line, want the most current gadgets, and believe that the world pictured in the cartoon The Jetsons will someday exist. These describe which of the following?
a. the self-image of “Mouse Potatoes”
b. the lifestyle of “Mouse Potatoes”
c. the demographics of “Mouse Potatoes”
d. the socialization process of “Mouse Potatoes”
Lifestyles are defined by activities, interests, and opinions.
To analyze consumer lifestyles, what do marketers look at?
a. consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions
b. consumers’ behaviour, personality, and social class
c. consumers’ activities, personality, and demography
d. consumers’ income, gender, and life objectives
What analytical technique is used to examine consumer lifestyles and categorize consumers?
a. an acculturation analysis
b. psychographics
c. demography
d. socialization
Several years ago, Procter & Gamble added bleach to its laundry detergent Oxydol, but people didn’t believe it was different because it looked the same. So P&G added blue beads to the normally white detergent. While the blue beads had nothing to do with the bleaching action, consumers could “see” the difference. In this case, consumers were interpreting stimuli into a meaningful picture called which of the following?
a. perception b. exposure c. cognition d. selection
The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the stimuli that are bombarding consumers daily is called perception. Colour is a cue that plays a key role in consumer’s perception.
Chad was excited about buying his first car. He was considering a Ford Mustang and began noticing that there were quite a few of these on the road between his apartment and his office. What is Chad experiencing?
a. selective attribution
b. selective retention
c. selective distortion
d. selective exposure
On any given day, a person may be subjected to over 2,500 advertising messages but may be aware of only 10 to 20 of them. What is this called?
a. sporadic reinforcement
b. selective learning
c. selective exposure
d. selective distortion
Consumers use selective exposure to decide which stimuli to select (attend to) and which to ignore.
What is it called when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs?
a. intermittent reinforcement
b. cultural
c. selective distortion
d. selective retention
Manning bought a Schwinn Circuit bike for $1,300. After the purchase, he read an article about bicycles made by the Giant Bicycle Company, which makes a bike with most of the same features as the Schwinn Circuit. Manning processed this newly received information to make it more consistent with his prior opinion that the Schwinn is better than the Giant bike. What did Manning engage in?
a. selective distortion
b. selective exposure
c. intermittent reinforcement
d. selective retention
Selective distortion occurs when consumers change or distort information that conflicts with their feelings or beliefs.
Families of police officers often alter information they hear about officers who die in the line of duty. This allows them to live and function without constant anxiety while their loved one is engaged in a potentially dangerous job. What is this process?
a. faulty selectivity
b. selective distortion
c. selective retention
d. selective exposure
Selective distortion involves changing or distorting the communication message to make the message seemingly agree with preconceived opinion.
Brant had been researching BMW automobiles for months with an intention of purchasing one of the models. Over coffee in the morning he remarked to one of his coworkers at the office, “And like the commercial said on TV last night, BMW X-drive is superb for driving on icy roads.” Which marketing principle is Brant demonstrating?
a. selective distortion
b. selective retention
c. selective exposure
d. selective learning
Neava Locke is developing an advertising campaign targeted to the same young audience that watched the X Games (a week-long competition in a variety of extreme sports) on television. Which of the following actions might Locke take to help enhance the chances her targeted customers will pay attention to her ads?
a. Use neutral sounds and colours that are similar to the programs the ads follow, so there is not much difference between the program and the ads.
b. Create ads that emphasize the least crucial attributes of the brand to get customers to think about the ads.
c. Create sexy ads to break through the ad clutter.
d. Use elderly celebrity spokespersons to endorse the products as a grandparent would.
Research has indicated that sexier ads are more memorable among this young audience.
What occurs when consumers remember only information that supports their personal feelings or beliefs?
a. faulty selectivity
b. selective retention
c. selective distortion
d. selective exposure
Cassandra, an accounting major, read an article stating that accounting graduates are receiving the highest starting salary offers for business majors. The article also stated that marketing majors start with lower salaries but surpass all other majors’ salaries within 10 years. Cassandra doesn’t remember reading this last part of the article, just the first part. What is this an example of?
a. selective exposure
b. selective distortion
c. selective retention
d. selective socialization
Selective retention is the process whereby a consumer remembers only that information which supports personal feelings or beliefs.
An ad for KidsCentre calls it “the positive place for kids” and shows a sample membership card. To which of Maslow’s needs does this ad most likely appeal?
a. self-actualization
b. esteem
c. safety d. social
Ranked from the lowest to the highest level, what does Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model include?
a. psychological, safety, economic, self-esteem, and social
b. physiological, social, self-esteem, economic, and self-actualization
c. safety, economic, social, self-esteem, and self-development
d. physiological, safety, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization
According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, what are the first needs most people try to satisfy?
a. safety
b. physiological c. economic
d. esteem
Qwest is a company that markets software to protect computer files from computer hackers and other unauthorized users. Its ad shows a large evil-looking monster gobbling up data, and asks, “Are these your files?” What are these advertisements designed to appeal to?
a. customers’ economic needs
b. customers’ social needs
c. customers’ safety needs
d. customers’ self-esteem needs
The software selling point is the safety it provides from unauthorized users.
A local garment manufacturer designs a line of outerwear and uses the slogan, “Because you want to be one of the gang” as the centrepiece of its ad campaign. Which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is being addressed here?
a. social
b. self-actualization c. esteem
d. safety
Advocacy groups lobbying for support money may be inflating the number of people who suffer or die from particular maladies such as AIDS, types of cancer, and Alzheimer’s. These groups are using fear as a marketing tool to specifically target which needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?
a. social
b. physiological c. safety
d. self-esteem
These fear appeals target safety needs.
If an advertiser wanted to create ads for a restaurant that stimulate the self-actualization motivation, what would the ads do?
a. show people enjoying others’ company while eating in the restaurant
b. emphasize that only those people who want to tell others that they have risen to the top of
their profession use the restaurant
c. inform consumers about the cleanliness of the food preparation areas and procedures
d. indicate that eating in the restaurant is what “you have earned and deserve”
Self-actualization needs are those that stress self-fulfillment and self-expression, or reaching the point in life at which “people are what they feel they should be.”
Loren saw an advertisement for an Internet bank that does not charge any service fees. He immediately went on-line and moved his chequing and savings account to the Internet bank. What is the process that created changes in Loren’s immediate behaviour?
a. perception
b. learning
c. acculturation
d. consumer decision making
Learning is the process that creates changes in behaviour. The question implies Loren learned from the ad.
What process creates changes in behaviour?
a. learning
b. attitude adjustment
c. selective adaptation
d. behaviour normalization
Manufacturers of consumer goods often give away trial sizes of new products to encourage which of the following?
a. conceptual learning
b. selective perception
c. continuous reinforcement
d. experiential learning
Trial behaviour reinforces experiential learning, often leading to repeat behaviour.
Starbucks coffee company introduced four premium flavours of Starbucks ice cream, hoping consumers would transfer their love of Starbucks coffee to ice cream. With only a little publicity and a one-time limited outdoor campaign, quarts of Starbucks coffee ice cream flew off the shelves. What did Starbucks use to promote its new frozen product?
a. stimulus generalization
b. stimulus discrimination
c. selective retention
d. product reinforcement
Stimulus generalization occurs when one response (positive attitude for a product) is extended to a second, similar stimulus (new product, same brand).
Kent Longino is the marketing vice-president for Andersen, one of the largest manufacturer of windows in the world. He is directing the introduction of a glass-encased sunroom that can be assembled in a weekend. He wants to capitalize on Andersen’s success with its windows. Which learning method should he attempt to stimulate when introducing the new product?
a. stimulus generalization
b. experiential learning
c. conceptual learning
d. stimulus discrimination
Marketers often use a successful, well-known brand name for a family of products because it provides consumers familiarity with and knowledge about each product in the brand family.
TAG Heuer is a prestigious brand of watch that is sold as a luxury product. It has a reputation based on quality and attention to detail. When the company introduces new timepieces, why can it can count on a well-established market already existing for the new product?
a. due to perceptual discrimination
b. due to stimulus generalization
c. due to stimulus discrimination
d. due to perceptual generalization
This is an example of selective generalization. Its consumers assume that any product with the TAG Heuer brand is worth purchasing.
What learned behaviour is the ability to differentiate between similar objects such as packages of different brands of aspirin?
a. incentive discrimination
b. stimulus generalization
c. selective generalization d. stimulus discrimination
Jerome Kee holds the opinion that Vision bicycles are usually more expensive and faster than comparable bikes. He also thinks that Vision’s basic design protects the rider better than other similar bikes. What is this a description of?
a. his valuations about Vision bicycles
b. his attitudes about Vision bicycles
c. his motives about Vision bicycles
d. his beliefs about Vision bicycles
A belief is often developed about the attributes of a product. Attitudes, however, are more complex and encompass values.
Connors Bros., a maritime seafood products manufacturer, plans to market its sardines to Ontario consumers through a campaign pushing the little fish as a positive food choice. The campaign aims to nullify the notion that sardines are boring by stressing their health benefits and their savory qualities. What is Connor Bros. trying to do?
a. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes
b. change negative beliefs about product attributes
c. discover attitudes toward its product’s attributes
d. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes
Which of the following tend to be more enduring and complex than beliefs, because they consist of clusters of interrelated beliefs?
a. attitudes
b. perceptions
c. lifestyles d. cultures
According to the text, which of the following BEST describes an attitude toward a product?
a. It is easy to change.
b. It is a person’s point of view about the product.
c. It is the same as “intention to buy.”
d. It is of short duration.
“Point of view” is a simpler way to state “learned tendency to respond consistently.” Both denote an opinion, which can change over time.
Why are marketers interested in attitudes?
a. Attitudes do not relate to brand image.
b. Attitudes are learned tendencies to respond in a consistent manner.
c. Attitudes create a social influence on consumer decision making.
d. Attitudes can be used to predict buying behaviour.
Attitudes are learned tendencies to respond consistently toward a given object such as a brand.
Many consumers consider Post Grape-Nuts cereal as a product their grandfathers ate. This makes it unacceptable to a large part of the consumer market. Without changing the product, Post ran a series of Grape-Nuts ads that described the sweet, nutty taste of the cereal and encouraged people to try it as a topping on yogurt for something good to eat. What is Post trying to do?
a. appeal to existing beliefs about product attributes
b. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes
c. add new beliefs about product attributes
d. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes
Existing negative beliefs about product attributes are the most firmly entrenched and difficult to change.
In 2000, several deaths and car wrecks were blamed on Firestone tires, and sales of the tires declined rapidly as the media publicized these accidents. A large group of Firestone distributors ran a series of ads in which they confirmed their faith in the quality of the Firestone tires with headlines such as, “I wouldn’t let my children ride on any other tire but a Firestone.” What is this an illustration of?
a. efforts to discover consumer needs about product attributes
b. efforts to reinforce current beliefs about product attributes
c. efforts to add new beliefs about product attributes
d. efforts to change beliefs about product attributes
The companies were attempting to change beliefs about a product attribute from negative to positive.
With its launch of easyPAY, its fast-pay option, Shell Canada tackled the prevailing sentiment that “all fuel brands are the same” with a time-saving service for its customers. What was Shell Canada trying to do?
a. strengthen existing positive beliefs about product attributes
b. create new beliefs about the product attributes
c. create new beliefs toward changed product attributes
d. appeal to existing beliefs about product attributes
Shell Canada is trying to make customers see that it is different from other brands of fuel.

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