Microbiology Exam 4 Terms

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Define Epidemiology
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The study of the frequency and distribution of diseases i the population
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What are the two categories of diseases that are transmitted from one person to another?
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Communicable; contagious
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Which disease type has secondary cases resulting in longer epidemics?
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Communicable
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What are noncommunicable diseases?
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Diseases that are not transmitted from one person to another
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Give an example of a communicable or contagious disease
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Measles, colds, influenza
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Give an example of noncommunicable disease
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Pneumonia, botulism, staphylococcal food poisoning
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Define endemic rate.
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Diseases that occur in any population at a normal rate
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When is a disease classified as an epidemic?
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If the number of disease cases increases above its endemic rate
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What is a local epidemic called?
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An outbreak
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What is a pandemic?
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A worldwide epidemic
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In what rate is epidemiologic data expressed?
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the number of cases (numerator) per unit of population (denominator)
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What is the attack rate?
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Cases per exposed population
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What is the morbidity rate?
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Nonfatal cases per population
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What is the mortality rate?
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Fatal cases per population
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Define incidence.
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New cases per population over a time period (day, week, month, year)
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Define prevalence.
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Total cases per population at one point in time
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What must all infections disease have?
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A reservoir
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Describe direct transmission
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Contact between the source and case
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Describe indirect transmission
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Through fomites
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Describe droplet (respiratory tract) transmission
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Organism is in a droplet of saliva and mucous; settles quickly and spreads about 3 feet
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Describe airborne transmission
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Organism stays suspended in air (tuberculosis)
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Describe vertical transmission
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Transfer of infection from the mother to the fetus before or during birth or breastfeeding. Can be transplacental or ascending,through the vagina
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What is the an incubation period?
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The period between exposure and disease.
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Does a lower or higher infectious does cause more cases?
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Lower
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What are some epidemiologic factors that contribute to the contraction of a disease
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Physiologic factors and general health: stress, malnutrition, crowding, underlying disease.
Age, gender
Cultural factors: exposure to risk by behavior
Genetic factors
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What type of information do Infection disease investigators collect?
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Where and when each case occurred (person, place, and time)
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What are nosocomial infections?
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Infections acquired while staying at a hospital
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What percent of nosocomial infections are acquired through the: urinary tract, surgical wound, lower respiratory, bloodstream.
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50%, 25%, 12%, 6%
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List 3 infection prevention strategies
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Handwashing, Barrier precautions, cleaning, disinfection, sterilization

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