Merchant Banking Essay
A merchandiser banking is a fiscal establishment chiefly engaged in offering fiscal services and advice to company and affluent persons on how to utilize their money. A merchandiser bank trade with commercial banking demands of finance. company & A ; long term loans and stock authorship. Merchant banking does non hold retail offices where client can travel and entree their history. A merchandiser bank is besides called as sweeping banking.
Main aim of merchandiser banking is organizing the activities like the bankers. advertisement bureau. pressmans and investment bankers etc. Guide companies to acquire registry there portion under SEBI act. The merchandiser banking find the figure of portion. monetary value of the stocks and the timing of the release of this new stock. They besides provide services to the finance lodging strategies for the building of houses and purchasing of land.
History and growing of Merchant Banking in India
Before 1960s there was no merchandiser banking in India. This system started after 1960s. The Grind lay’s bank was the first bank which started merchandiser banking services. Grind lay’s bank is the largest foreign bank in the state. The chief service offered by merchandiser banking includes the direction of public issues and some facets of fiscal consultancy. After this more Bankss took enterprise of merchandiser banking services. Bank like Citibank came in 1970. Merchant banking with Citibank drama function in new enterpriser and rating of new undertaking. Raising financess through equity took topographic point. Management consultancy services were started. State bank of India started the merchandiser banking in 1972. Before 1972 province bank of India used to merely supply financess. But after 1972 province bank of India started multi-tasking. Commercial Bankss which followed province bank of India were
1. Central bank in 1977.
2. Syndicate bank in 1977.
3. Standard chartered bank. mercantile bank and bank of Baroda in 1978.
4. United bank of India. Punjab national bank. canara bank. Indian abroad bank in late 70’s and in early 80’s.
Importance of Merchant Banking
Need for Merchant Banking is felt in the aftermath of immense public nest eggs lying untapped. Merchant bankers can play extremely important function in mobilising financess of rescuers to investible channels guaranting assuring returns on investings and therefore can help in run intoing the broadening demand for inevitable financess for economic activity. With growing of merchandiser banking profession corporate endeavors are undertaking enlargement. modernisation. and variegation of the bing endeavors. This reinforces the demand for a vigorous function to be played by merchandiser banking.
Reasons why specializer merchandiser Bankss have important function to play in India 1 ) Turning industrialisation and addition of technologically advanced industries. 2 ) Need for encouragement of little and average industrialists. who require specializer services. 3 ) Turning complexness in regulations and processs of the authorities. 4 ) Need to develop backward countries and provinces which require different standards. 5 ) Researching the possibility of joint ventures abroad and foreign markets. 6 ) Promoting the function of New Market in mobilising nest eggs from the populace.
Functions performed under Merchant Banking
The of import maps of merchandiser bankers are:
1 ) Management of Debt and Equity Offers:
This forms the chief map of the merchandiser banker. He assists the companies in raising financess from the market. The undergoing undertakings include instrument planing. pricing the issue. enrollment of the offer papers. underwriting support. selling of the issue. allocation and refund and listing on stock exchanges. 2 ) Placement and Distribution:
The merchandiser banker helps in administering assorted securities like equity portions. debt instruments. common financess. insurance merchandises. and commercial paper. to call a few. The distribution web of the merchandiser banker can be classified as institutional and retail in nature. The institutional web consists of common financess. foreign institutional investors ; private equity financess pension financess. fiscal establishments. etc.
3 ) Corporate Advisory Services:
It denotes advice provided by a merchandiser banker to a corporate unit to guarantee better corporate unit to guarantee better corporate public presentation in footings of image edifice among investors. steady growing through good working. grasp in market value of its equity portions. The guidance is limited to lone sentiments and suggestions and any elaborate analysis would organize portion of a specific service
4 ) Undertaking Advisory Servicess:
Undertaking guidance is a really of import and moneymaking merchandiser banking service. It covers development of an thought into a undertaking. readying of the undertaking study. appraisal of the cost of the undertaking and make up one’s minding upon the agencies of fiscal and techno-economic assessment of undertakings for capital issue/financing etc. The fee charged for project study readying / assessment ranges between 0. 25 % to 2 % of the entire undertaking cost. The fee charged depends upon- a ) Entire size of the undertaking
B ) The entire complexness of the undertaking
5 ) Loan Syndication:
Merchant bankers arrange to bind up loans for their clients. This takes topographic point in a series of stairss. First. they analyze the form of the client’s hard currency flows. based on which the footings of the adoptions can be defined. Then the merchandiser banker prepares a elaborate loan memoranda. which is circulated to assorted Bankss and fiscal establishments and they are invited to take part in the mob. The Bankss so negotiate the footings of loaning on the footing of which the concluding allotment is done. 6 ) Supplying Venture Capital Financing:
Merchant bankers help companies in obtaining venture capital funding for financing their new and advanced schemes. 7 ) Management of Capital Issues:
a ) Pre-issue Management:
Stairss required to be taken to pull off Pre-issue activity are as follows:
1 ) Obtaining stock exchange blessings tomemorandum and articles of association.
2 ) Taking action as per SEBI guidelines.
3 ) Finalizing the assignments of the undermentioned bureaus –
Co directors /advisors to the issue.
Investment bankers to the issue.
Agents to the issue.
Bnakers to the issue and refund banker.
Printers and registrars to the issue.
4 ) Advise the company to name hearers. legal advisors and wide base Board of Directors.
5 ) Drafting the prospectus.
6 ) Obtaining blessings of bill of exchange prospectus from the company’s legal advisers. subventioning fiscal institutions/banks.
7 ) Obtaining consent from parties and bureaus moving for the issue to be enclosed with the prospectus.
8 ) Blessing of prospectus from Securities and exchange Board Of India ( Sebi ) .
9 ) Filing of the prospectus with registrar of companies ( Roc )
10 ) Making an application for hitch with Stock Exchange along with transcript of the prospectus.
11 ) Promotion of the issue with advertizement and conferences
12 ) Open subscription list.
B ) Post Issue Management:
1 ) To verify and corroborate that the issue is subscribed to the extent of 90 % including development from investment bankers in instance of subscription. 2 ) To oversee and organize the allocation processs of registrar to the issue as per prescribed Stock Exchange guidelines. 3 ) 3 ) To guarantee issue of refund order. allocation letters/certificates within the prescribed clip bound of 10 hebdomads after the closing of subscription list 4 ) To describe sporadically to SEBI about the advancement in the affairs related to allocation and refunds. 5 ) To guarantee the listing of securities at a stock exchanges. 6 ) To go to the investors for directors sing the public issue. 7 ) The merchandiser bankers pull offing public issue can negociate fee topic to a ceiling. This fee is to be shared by all lead directors. advisors etc.
Registration with SEBI as Merchant Banker
Merchant Bankss are by and large setup as subordinate companies of Bankss. For e. g. : SBI caps. ICICI securities etc. Once the feasibleness surveies are undertaken and it comes out to be feasible so the undermentioned stairss are undertaken for enrollment with SEBI: Application for grant of certification:
An application for grant of certification is required to be made with SEBI as without keeping the certification no individual can move as a merchandiser banker. The application can be made in one of the undermentioned classs: 1. Category 1: To transport out any activity of issue direction which includes readying of prospectus and other information associating to publish. finding fiscal construction. bind up of financers and fiscal allocation. and refund of the subscription. Another activity that pertains to this class is of adviser. adviser director. investment banker. portfolio director. 2. Category 2: To move as adviser. Consultant. carbon monoxide director. investment banker and portfolio director. 3. Category 3: To move as investment banker. adviser. and adviser to an issue. 4. Category 4: To move merely as adviser and adviser to an issue. To transport on the activity of investment banker and portfolio director. a separate certification of enrollment demands to be obtained from SEBI.
Supplying of information. elucidation. and personal representation: The applier may necessitate to supply farther information or elucidation sing affairs related to activity of merchandiser banker. Consideration of application:
Before allowing the certification. the Board shall take into history that the applicant complies with the undermentioned demand 1. The applicant shall be a organic structure corporate other than a non banking fiscal company. 2. The merchandiser banker who has been granted the certification by RBI to move as primary trader shall transport on such activity with the status that it should non accept or keep any public sedimentation. 3. The applier should hold necessary substructure to transport on his activities. 4. The applier should use atleast two individuals who have the experience to carry on the concern of merchandiser banker. 5. The applier should carry through the capital adequateness demand as follows: The capital adequateness demand should non be less than the net worth of the applier. The net worth shall be as follows Category 1: 5 crores
Category 2: 50 lacs
Category 3: 20 lacs
Category 4: Nothing
6. The applier or any of his associate should be free of any legal charges. should non hold been convicted for any offense and non found guilty of any economic offense. 7. The applier should possess professional making from any recognized govt. institute in finance jurisprudence or concern direction. Procedure for enrollment:
The SEBI on being satisfied with the eligibility of the applicant shall allow him a certification. Payment of fees:
The applier has to pay Rs. 5 lacs within 15 yearss of day of the month of reception of hint sing grant of certification. If the merchandiser banker fails to pay the needed fee. the Board may suspend the enrollment and applier may discontinue to transport on activity as merchandiser banker for the period during which the subscription subsists. The merchandiser banker may get down on the concern as merchandiser banker on the acquisition of Certificate of Registration from SEBI after the completion of above mentioned formalities. Procedure for Inspection: Board’s Right to inspect The Board may name one or more individuals as inspecting authorization to set about review of the books of histories. records and paperss of the merchandiser banker for any of the intents specified in sub-regulation ( 2 ) . Notice before review:
Before set abouting an review. the Board shall give a sensible notice to the merchandiser banker for that intent. Where the Board is satisfied that in the involvement of the investors no such notice should be given. it may inspect without anterior notice. During the class of review. the merchandiser banker against whom an review is being carried out shall be bound to dispatch his duties. Duties of Merchant Banker on Inspection:
It shall be the responsibility of every manager. owner. spouse. officer and employee of the merchandiser banker. who is being inspected. to bring forth to the inspecting authorization such books. histories and other paperss in his detention or control and furnish him with the statements and information relating to his activities as a merchandiser banker within such clip as the inspecting authorization may necessitate. The merchandiser banker shall let the inspecting authorization to hold sensible entree to the premises occupied by such merchandiser banker or by any other individual on his behalf and besides extend sensible installation for analyzing any books. records. paperss and computing machine informations in the ownership of the merchandiser banker or any such other individual and besides supply transcripts of paperss or other stuffs which. in the sentiment of the inspecting authorization are relevant for the intents of the review.
The inspecting authorization. in the class of review. shall be entitled to analyze or enter statements of any chief officer. manager. spouse. owner and employee of the merchandiser banker. It shall be the responsibility of every manager. owner. spouse. officer or employee of the merchandiser banker to give to the inspecting authorization all aid in connexion with the review which the merchandiser banker may be moderately expected to give. Submission of Report to the Board:
The inspecting authorization shall. every bit shortly as possible submit. an review study to the Board. Action on Inspection or Investigation Report:
The Board of the Chairman shall after consideration of review or probe study take such action. Appointment of Hearer:
The Board may name a qualified hearer to look into into the books of history or the personal businesss of the merchandiser banker. Communication of findings:
The Board shall after consideration of the review study communicate the findings to the merchandiser banker to give him an chance of being heard before any action is taken by the Board on the findings of the inspecting authorization. On reception of the account if any. from the merchandiser banker. the Board may name upon the merchandiser banker to take such steps as the Board may hold tantrum in the involvement of the securities market and for due conformity with commissariats of the Act. regulations and ordinances.
Guidelines of SEBI
The SEBI has issued guidelines for the issue of capital by companies. The guidelines chiefly cover the demand for the first issue by a new or bing company. The guidelines issued by SEBI are mentioned below: If any company’s other income exceeds 10 % of the entire income. the inside informations should be disclosed. The company should unwrap any inauspicious state of affairs which affects the operations of the company. The company should besides unwrap the capacity use of works for the last 3 old ages. The boosters must keep their retention at least 20 % of the expanded capital. The minimal application money payable at the clip of issue should non be less than 25 % of the issue monetary value. The company should unwrap the clip usually taken for the disposal of investor’s grudges. The company can do steadfast allocations in public issues as follows: 1. Indian Common financess ( 20 % )
2. FII’s ( 24 % )
3. Regular employees of the company ( 10 % )
4. Fiscal establishment ( 20 % )
The company should unwrap the safety net strategy or purchase back agreements of the portions proposed in public issue. In instance of public issues. atleast 30 compulsory aggregation Centres should be established. In the guidelines sing right issue. the company should give advertizements in non more than 2 newspapers about the despatch of missive of offers. No discriminatory allocation to be made along so rights issue. The company should unwrap the free understanding between the lead directors and the company in the memoranda of apprehension.
Difference between Merchant Banking and Commercial Banking
Merchant banking trades with equity and equity related finance. Merchant Bankss are direction oriented.
Merchant Bankss willing to accept hazards of concern.
The activities of merchandiser Bankss include project guidance in country of capital restructuring. amalgamations. mergers e. t. degree Celsius.
Commercial banking trades with debt and debt related finance. Commercial Bankss are plus oriented.
Commercial Bankss by and large avoid hazards of concern.
Commercial bankers are simply moneymans.
Difference between Merchant Banking and Investment Banking
Merchant banking is strictly fee based.
Merchant banking are impossible to remain aloof from international tendencies. Merchant Bankss expands into the field of securities. subventioning Merchant banking chiefly execute international funding activities such as
1. Foreign corporate investment
2. Foreign existent estate investing.
3. Trade finance and inter dealing facilitation.
Merchant Bankss tends to run on little graduated table companies and offer originative equity funding. and Numberss of corporate recognition merchandises.
Investing banking is both fee based and fund based.
Investing banking commits their ain financess.
Investing Bankss trade finance activities.
Investing banking facilitate amalgamations and acquisitions through portion gross revenues and supply research and fiscal consulting to companies. It focuses on IPO’s and big public and private portion offering. While investing Bankss tends to concentrate on big companies. Recent developments in Merchant Banking
The recent developments in merchandiser banking are due to certain conducive factors in India are: The merchandiser banking was at its best during 1985-1992 when there were many new issues. It was expected that 2010 traveling to be good clip for merchandiser Bankss. as many new issues are coming up. The foreign investors- both in the signifier of portfolio investing and through foreign direct investings are embarking in Indian Economy. It is increasing the range of merchandiser bankers in many ways. Disinvestments in the authorities sector in the state give a large range to the merchandiser bankers to map as advisers. Introducing of new fiscal instruments in the market has increased the chance for the merchandiser Bankss. The amalgamation and corporate restructuring along with MOU and MOA are giving huge chances to the merchandiser bankers for consultancy occupations.
Challenges faced by Merchant Banker in India
SEBI guideline has restricted their operations to Issue Management and Portfolio. Management to some extent due to which the range of work is limited. The net worth demand is really high in classs I and II specially so many professionally experient person/organizations can non come into the image. Poor New issues market in India is drying up the concern of the merchandiser bankers.
Scope for Merchant Banking
1. Growth of primary market: if the primary market grows and issues additions. the range of merchandiser banking will be enhanced.
2. Entry of foreign investing: now India capital market straight taps foreign capital through euro issues. FDI is increased in capital market. so merchant bankers is required to advice them for their investing in India. The increasing figure of joint ventures besides requires adept services of merchandiser bankers. if more and more NRI’s take part in capital market. there will be great demand for merchandiser banker services.
3. Changing policy of fiscal establishments: now the loaning monetary values of fiscal establishments are based on undertaking orientation. so the merchandiser banker services will be needed by corporate endeavor to supply adept counsel.
4. Development of debt markets: if the debt market is enhanced. there will be enormous range for merchandiser bankers. now NSE and OTCEI are planned to raise financess through their debt instruments.
5. Corporate restructuring: due to liberalisation and globalisation companies are confronting batch of competitions. In order to vie. they have to reconstituting. amalgamation. acquisitions or disinvestments. They offer good chances to merchant bankers.