Medical Terminology – chapt 9 – Urinary system

the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function

acute renal failure (ARF)*
has sudden onset and is characterized by uremia

the absence of urine formation by the kidneys

benign prostatis hypertrophy*
an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50

bladder retraining*
a program of urinating on a schedule with increasingly longer time intervals

bladder ultrasound*
the use of a handheld ultrasound transducer to measure the amount of urine remaining in the bladder after urination

urinary catheterization*
performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to control incontinence, or to place fluid into the bladder

computed tomography*
used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system

pain in the urinary bladder

the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

an inflammation of the bladder

a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall; also called a fallen bladder

a radiographic examination of the bladder after instillation of a contrast medium via a urethral catheter

a stone located in the urinary bladder

the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall

the surgical suturing of the bladder

the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope

a procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function

the increased output of urine

digital rectal examination*
performed on men to screen for prostate enlargement, infection, and indications of prostate cancer

medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt

difficult or painful urination

excessive fluid in the body tissues

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)*
refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure in which there is irreversible loss of the function of both kidneys

the involuntary discharge of urine

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male, the urethral opening is located on the upper surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL)*
the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel

female urethra*
approximately 1.5 inches long; urethral meatus is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; conveys only urine

a form of nephritis that involves primarily the glomeruli; also known as Bright’s disease

a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane called the Bowman’s capsule

the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient’s blood to replace the function of damaged kidneys

the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys

the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked

the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine

the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood

a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening where in the male the urethral opening is on the under surface of the penis, and in the female the urethral opening is into the vagina

the inability to control excretory functions

indwelling catheter*
one that remains inside the body for a prolonged time

interstitial cystitis*
a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

intravenous pyelogram*
a radiographic study of the kidneys and ureters used to diagnose changed in the urinary tract

Kegel exercises*
a series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to control urinary stress incontinence in women

KUB (Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder)*
a radiographic study of these structures without the use of a contract medium

a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder

male urethra*
approximately 8 inches long; urethral meatus is located at the tip of the penis; transports both urine and semen

a surgical incision made in the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening

the inner region of the kidney

an inflammation of the kidney or kidneys

a stone located in the kidney; also known as renal calculus or a kidney stone

a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney

the surgical removal of a nephrolith (kidney stone) through an incision in the kidney

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys

the freeing of a kidney from adhesions

a functional unit of the kidney. THESE UNITS FORM URINE, by the process of FILTRATION, REABSORPTION, and SECRETION.

any disease of the kidney including degenerative and inflammatory conditions

the surgical fixation of a floating kidney

the prolapse of a kidney

suppuration (formation or discharge of pus) of the kidney

the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body

nephrotic syndrome*
a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood

neurogenic bladder*
a urinary problem caused by interference with the normal nerve pathways associated with urination

excessive urination during the night

nocturnal enuresis*
urinary incontinence during sleep

scanty urination

overactive bladder (OAB)*
occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active

percutaneous nephrolithotomy*
treatment of a kidney stone that is performed with a nephroscope inserted through a small incision in the back

peritoneal dialysis*
dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood

polycystic kidney disease*
a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys

excessive urination

prostate cancer*
one of the most common cancers among men

prostate gland*
part of the male reproductive system and surrounds the urethra

the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)*
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer

the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatis hypertrophy

an inflammation of the prostate gland

an inflammation of the renal pelvis

an inflammation of both the renal pelvis and of the kidney

the surgical repair of the renal pelvis

a surgical incision into the renal pelvis

pertaining to the kidneys

renal colic*
an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passing of a kidney stone

renal cortex*
the outer region of the kidney

renal failure*
the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions

renal pelvis*
the funnel-shaped area within each kidney that is surrounded by renal cortex and medulla

renal transplantation*
the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient’s failed kidneys; a kidney transplant

retrograde urography*
a radiograph of the urinary system taken after dye has been placed in the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward (backward) through the urinary tract

an abnormal mineral deposit that has formed within the body; also known as a calculus

stress incontinence*
the inability to control the voiding of urine under physical stress such as running, sneezing, laughing, or coughing

suprapubic catheterization*
the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone

transurethral prostatectomy*
the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope

the major waste product of protein metabolism

a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised and urea is retained in the blood

the distention of a ureter

the surgical removal of a ureter

a stone located in a ureter

the surgical repair of a ureter

the discharge of blood from the ureter

the surgical suturing of a ureter

two narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder

the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body

urethral catheterization*
peformed by inserting a tube along the urethra and into the bladder

urethral meatus*
the external opening of the urethra

an inflammation of the urethra

the surgical fixation of the urethra, usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence

bleeding from the urethra

an abnormal discharge from the urethra

abnormal narrowing of the urethra

the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture

the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements

urinary bladder*
a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body

urinary hesitancy*
difficulty in starting a urinary stream

urinary incontinence*
the inability to control the voiding of urine

urinary tract infection (UTI)*
an infection that usually begins in the bladder but that can affect all or parts of the urinary system

the normal process of excreting urine

the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the urinary system of females, and the genitourinary system of males

vesicovaginal fistula*
an abnormal opening between the bladder and vaginan that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina

voiding cystourethrography*
a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra

Wilms tumor*
a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children

a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials

process by which fluid from the blood filters into Bowman’s capsule in the kidneys

The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood

occurs in the kidneys, it the discharge of wastes from the blood into the filtrate from the nephron tubules.

Bowman’s capsule
cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.

Ascending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron not permeable to water. A filtrate flows up the ascending limp through decreasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, Na+ is actively pumped out of the filtrate, decreasing filtrate concentration.

Descending loop of Henle
Portion of the nephron permeable only to water. The filtrate becomes more concentrated as water is reabsorbed while traveling through the descending limb due to the increasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, drawing water out.

Proximal convoluted tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients

Distal convoluted tubule
Between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodium

Antidiuretic hormone, is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland – and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus

Atrial Natriuretic Hormone, is secreted by the atria of the heart, this hormone lowers blood pressure by increasing the excretion of sodium and water by the kidneys

a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, “salt-retaining hormone” which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure

Renal filtrate
the fluid formed from blood plasma by the process of filtration in the renal corpuscles; flows from bowmans capsuled through the renal tubules where most is reabsorbed; the filtrate that enters the renal pervis is called urine

Tubular reabsorption
moves useful substances back into the blood while keeping waste products in the nephron to be eliminated in the urine.

either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine, they are located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.

urinary system
consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance

presence or formation of stones

renal tubule*
cup shaped membrane called the Bowman’s capsule

renal artery*
where blood enters the kidney through and flows into the nephrons

renal vein*
where the filtered blood containing protein and blood cells leave the kidney and return into the bloodstream through

ureteral orifices *
where urine drains through from the ureters into the bladder

urinate *
urge when bladder fills up with urine and pressure is placed on the base of the urethra

Chronic Kidney Disease*
progressive loss of renal function over months or years (also known as kidney failure)

urinary retention *
inability to completely empty the bladder when attempting to urinate

overflow incontinence *
continuous leaking from the bladder either because it is full or did not empty completely

treatment for a nephrolith lodged in the ureter

replacement for the missing bladder created by using 20 in of the small intestine

ileal conduit*
the use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters and the stoma in the abdomen

foley catheter*
most common type of indwelling catheter

intermittent catheter*
inserted as needed several times a day to drain urine from bladder

retrograde ejaculation *
when an orgasm results in semen flowing backward into the bladder instead of out through the penis

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