Matter, atomic structure, wavelength, energy etc

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Smallest particle of matter that has properties of an element. Cannot be divided or broken by chemical means
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Atom
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Smallest particle of a compound, possessing characteristics of the compound. Atoms of various elements may combine to form structures called…..
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Molecule
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Two or more substances combined
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Mixture
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Any quantity of one type of molecule
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Compound
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The positively charged particles of an atom are the
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Protons
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What is located in the atomic structure of the nucleus?
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Protons and neutrons
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The number of what (protons, neutrons or electrons) determines the chemical element?
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Protons
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Where are electrons found?
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Orbiting the nucleus
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What are made up of quarks?
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Protons and neutrons
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How is electrical stability maintained in an atom?
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Through equal number of protons and electrons
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What is an isotope?
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When an atom has a different number of neutrons than it does for protons and electrons. it does not affect the stability of the atom. Describes all atoms of a given element, they react the same way chemically
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What is Atomic number (Z#)?
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The number of protons in the nucleus Identifies the atom and the properties it possesses
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What is the significance of the Atomic number (Z#)
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Determines the location on the periodic table Unique identifier, specific to each element Change the Z#, changes the element
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What is an ion?
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An atom with too many or too few electrons. If it has more electrons it is a negative ion If it has less electrons than protons it is a positive ion
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The removal or addition of an orbital electron from an atom
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Ionization
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A carbon atom has 8 neutrons, 5 electrons and 6 protons, what is its Z#?
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6
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Atomic mass number (A)
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Number of protons plus number of neutrons in the nucleus. Always a whole number. Neglects the mass of an atom’s electrons
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Atomic mass unit (amu)
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Most precise Based on actual mass of particles
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Orbital electrons
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Defines the location where an electron might be at any given time. Organized into shells K through Q
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Energy needed to eject an electron from the atom. Related to how close an electron is to the nucleus
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Electron Binding Energy
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What is electron binding energy measured in?
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Electron volts (eV)
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Electron binding energy (increases, decreases) as the atomic number (increases, decreases)
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Increases Increases
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What is ionic bonding?
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Gaining or losing an electron from the outer shell. Two atoms attracted to each other due to opposite electrostatic charge
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What is covalent bonding?
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Chemical union between atoms formed by sharing one or more pairs of electrons
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An atom with eight electrons in its outer shell is
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Chemically stable (inert)
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What is the octet rule?
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An atom never has more than eight electrons in its outer shell
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What is energy?
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The ability to do work (work is force x distance). Energy is constant
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The action of physical movement
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Mechanical energy
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What are two types of mechanical energy?
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Potential and kinetic
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What is the stored energy of position or configuration?
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Potential energy
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What is the energy of motion of an object?
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Kinetic energy
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Chemical energy
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Energy released by a chemical reaction Examples include: Body converting chemical energy from food into mechanical energy or a battery converting chemical energy into electrical energy
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What type(s) of energy are occurring within an activated light bulb? A-thermal B-electrical C-electromagnetic D- all of the above
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D-All of the above
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What is a proton?
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The smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy. A quantum of electromagnetic energy.
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What is Wave/particle duality?
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When energy (electromagnetic energy for us) exhibits properties of not only particles but also waves
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Electromagnetic energy
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Has no mass Results from an acceleration of a charge (electromagnetic field) Electric and magnetic fields traveling through space Can travel through a medium or vacuum Exhibits wave/particle duality
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What are some characteristics of electromagnetic energy?
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-wavelength (the distance between 2 corresponding points, like peak to peak) -energy (measured in eV=electron volts) -frequency (has no mass or charge, travels at the speed of light)
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What is an Angstrom?
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A very small unit of length, typical for measuring light
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What is a Hertz?
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Measures frequency. Number of wavelengths that pass a point of observation per second. Hz
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On the periodic table of elements what do the horizontal groups measure?
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Elements that have the same number of electron shells (principle quantum #)
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On the periodic table of elements what do the vertical groups measure?
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The vertical groups have the same number of electrons in the outer shell
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What is the principle quantum number referring to?
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The number of shells an element has. (can be K through Q or up to 7 shells)
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What is Heat energy? (Thermal energy)
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Results from the movement of molecules Measured by temperature Example: toaster converts electrical energy into heat energy
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What is Electrical energy?
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Electricity Results from the movement of electrons in a conductor Example: a light bulb converts electric energy to light
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What is Nuclear energy?
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Obtained by breaking the bonds between the particles within a nucleus. Example: nuclear power plants convert nuclear energy to electricity
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What is the principal difference between mass and weight?
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Mass is the equivalence of energy; weight is the force exerted by gravitty
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Energy is defined as?
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The ability to do work
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Which of the following examples best represents kinetic energy? a. snowman b. a thrown snowball c. anode mass d. the metal plates in a battery e. the terminals of a battery
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A thrown snowball
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Which of the following is an example of potential energy? a. a heated anode b. a mobile xray imaging system in motion c. an x-ray beam d. an xray imaging system e. visible light
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A mobile xray imaging system in motion
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In Eistein’s famous E=mc2 equation, c stands for?
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The speed of light
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Which of the following is an example of electromagnetic radiation? a. alpha radiation b. beta rays c. sound d. ultrasound e. visible light
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Visible light
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Xrays are most like a. alpha rays b. beta rays c. diagnostic ultrasound d. gamma rays e. radio waves
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gamma rays
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Which of the following is ionizing electromagnetic radiation? a. beta rays b. gamma rays c. microwaves d. radio waves e. ultrasound
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Gamma Rays
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What is the unit of mass?
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Kg
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Which of the following statements is true regarding our understanding of atomic structure? a. Rutherford described the nuclear atom b. Rutherford identified cathode rays as particles c. Rutherford is known as the “Father of Radioactivity” d. Rutherford is responsible for the periodic table
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Rutherford described the nuclear atom
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In the rendering of the atom J.J. Thompson….
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Uniform positive electrification was theorized
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The periodic table presents the elements in the order of the?
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Atomic Number
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Appox how many known elements are there?
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100
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The horizontal rows in the periodic table are called?
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Periods
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The vertical columns in the periodic table are called?
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Groups
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As you move from left to right across the periodic table, what happens to the number of the outer-shell electrons from one element to the next?
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It increases by 1
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Which of the following is a transitional element? A. barium b. Carbon Dioxide c. Iodine d. Tungsten e. Xenon
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Tungston
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Atoms with all electron shells filled are?
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Chemically stable
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Atoms with three electrons in the outer shell have ____ valence electrons.
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Three
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In the periodic table of elements, the group number identifies the?
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Number of electrons in the outer shell
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What physicists had a major part in describing the atom as we know it today?
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Bohr
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The periodic chart of elements is attributed to?
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Dimitri Mendeleev
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Rutherford made what significant contributions to science?
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Description of the nuclear atom
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The atomic mass number of an atom is given by the number of?
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Protons plus neutrons
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The atomic number is the number of?
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Protons
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Isotopes are atoms…
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Of the same element
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The number of protons in the nucleus is called the?
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Atomic Number
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A neutron has approx ____ amu and ____ charge.
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1, no
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What is the max number of electrons allowed in the outermost shell of an atom in the third period, n=3?
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18
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What is the max number of electrons permitted in the N-shell?
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32
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Xray wavelength is a. directly proportional to frequency b. directly proportional to velocity c. inversely proportional to frequency d. inversely proportional to velocity e. usually designated by “c”
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inversely proportional to frequency
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The frequency of electromagnetic radiation is is measured in?
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Hertz
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The amplitude of a sine wave is its?
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Zero to maximum
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The frequency of a sine wave is?
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The number of valleys that pass per second
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What is the wave equation?
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c= ν x λ speed of light=frequency x wavelength
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λ
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Wavelength (m)
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ν
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Frequency (Hz)
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Particle Theory Equation
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E=hν Energy= Planck’s constant x frequency
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h
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Planck’s constant
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E
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Energy

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