# Marketing Research Essentials 8th Edition (McDaniel/Gates) Ch. 7,8,13 & 14 Lily Taylor
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One-way frequency table

a table showing the number of respondents choosing each answer to a survey question
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Cross-tabulation

examination of the responses to one question relative to the responses to one or more other questions (AKA Two-way frequency tables)
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Mean

the sum of all the values for all observations of a variable divided by the number of observations
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Median

the value below which 50 percent of all the observations fall
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Mode

the value that occurs most frequently
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Standard deviation

a measure of dispersion
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Variance

a measure of dispersion that is the square of the standard devaition
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Range

the maximum value minus the minimum value
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Hypothesis

assumption or theory that a researcher or manager makes about some characteristics of the population under study
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Independent samples

samples in which measurement of a variable in one population has no effect on measurement of the variable in the other
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Related samples

samples in which measurement of a variable in one population may influence measurement of the variable in the other
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P-value

the exact probability of getting a computed test statistic that is due to chance. The smaller the _______, the smaller the probability that the observed result occurred by chance
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Bar chart

most flexible of all types of graphs a diagram in which the numerical values of variables are represented by the height or length of lines or rectangles of equal width.
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Clustered bar chart

consists of a grid and some vertical or horizontal columns that are arranged in groups
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Line chart

the simplest forms of graphs. used to show measurements taken at defined particular points in time. Results may reveal an interesting pattern.
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Stacked bar chart

a chart that is used to compare the parts to the whole. The bars in a are divided into categories. Each bar represents a total.
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Pie chart

used to show category (nominal and ordinal) data that together adds to 100%.
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Total respondents

if 300 people are interviewed then the percentages in each one way frequency table will be based on 300
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the number you base the percentages should be only the number of people that were asked/ or qualified to be asked that particular question (example: don’t use total if it is a skip question because not everyone was asked that question if they didn’t qualify)
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you base the percentage of people who answered the question (don’t count the “don’t know”)
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Mathematical differences

when the numbers are not exactly the same (does not define importance or significance)
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Statistical significance

if a particular difference is large enough to be unlikely to have occurred by chance or sampling error
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Managerially important differences

a difference that is important from a managerial perspective only if numbers are sufficiently different.
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ANOVA

Testing Interval scaled variables and whether the means of the variables among subgroups are statistically different.
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One-way ANOVA

Only one factor or independent variable and only one scaled dependent variable
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Independent variable

also called the predictor variable
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Dependent variable

also called the criterion variable
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Bivariate Regression Analysis

A statistical procedure appropriate for analyzing the relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable. Procedure for predicting the level or magnitude of dependent variables based on the levels of multiple independent variables.
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Scatter Diagram

means of capturing the relationship between two variables
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Scatter Diagram

example: parabolic (non-linear), strong negative linear, no relationship
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Coefficient of determination

a measure of the percentage of the variation in the dependent variable explained by variations in the independent variables
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Coefficient of determination

measure of fit of real world regression model
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Correlation analysis

analysis of the degree to which changes in one variable are associated with changes in another
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Pearson’s product-moment correlation/ correlation coefficient

a correlation analysis technique for use with metric data. the degree of association between X and Y
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Y=Intercept(a) + Slope(b)x

regression equation
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Observation research

a systematic process of recording patterns of occurrences or behaviors without normally communicating with people involved
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Open observation

the process of monitoring people who know they are being watched
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Disguised observation

the process of monitoring people who DON’T know they are being watched
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Direct observation

Researcher observes the behaviors of the consumer/respondents.
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Indirect observation

Researcher investigates records of past behavior; observing the effects after the behavior has happened
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Natural situations

The observer plays no role in the behavior that is being measured and those being observed have no idea they are under observation
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Contrived situations

Research environment is created by the researcher and consumers are observed in the simulated situation. (example: simulated test markets)
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Mystery shopper

collect data about customer-employee interactions and gather observational data
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One-way mirror observation

the practice of watching behaviors or activities from behind a one way mirror
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Machine observation

observation by machines/ used to collect consumer data
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1. Ethnographic research 2. Mystery shoppers 3. One-way observations

3 types of human observation
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1. Traffic counters 2. Physiological measurements

2 types of machine observation
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Traffic counters

machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of a roadway
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Ethnographic research

study of human behavior in its natural context, involving observation of behavior and physical setting
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Experiment

a research approach in which one variable is manipulated and the effect on another variable is observed
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Causal research

research designed to determine whether a change in one variable likely caused an observation change in another
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Concomitant variation

the statistical relationship between two variables
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Laboratory experiments

experiments conducted in a controlled setting
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Field experiments

tests conducted outside the laboratory in an actual environment, such as a marketplace
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Internal validity

the extent to which competing explanations for the experimental results observed can be ruled out; Requires evidence demonstrating that variation in the dependent variable (DV) was definitely caused by exposure to the treatment variable (IV) and not other possible causal factors.
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External validity

the extent to which causal relationships measured in an experiment can be generalized to outside persons, settings and times
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History

the intervention, between the beginning and the end of an experiment, of outside variables or events that might change the dependent variable
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Maturation

changes in subjects occurring during the experiment that are not related to the experiment but that may affect subjects’ response to the treatment factor (are a function of time)
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Instrument Variation

changes in measurement instruments (interviewers/observers) that might affect measurements
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Selection bias

systematic differences between the test group and the control group due to a biased selection program
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Mortality

loss of test units or subjects during the course of an experiment, may result in unrepresentativeness
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Testing effect

an effect that is a byproduct of the research process itself
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Regression to the mean

the tendency of subjects with extreme behavior to move toward the average for that behavior during the course of an experiment
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Design control

use of the experimental design to control extraneous causal factors
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Experimental design

a test in which the researcher has control over and manipulates one or more independent variables
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Treatment variable

an independent variable that is manipulated in an experiment
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Experimental effect

the effect of the treatment variable on the dependent variable (example: the change in sales observed)
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Contamination

Inclusion in a test of a group of respondents who are not normally there; buyers from outside the test area come into the area to purchase the product being tested
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Pre-experimental designs

designs that offer little to no control over extraneous factors; don’t include basic elements required in a true experimental design. simple and cheap.
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One-group pretest-posttest design

a pre-experimental design with pre- and post measurements but no control group
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True experimental design

research using an experimental group and a control group, to which test units are randomly assigned
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Before and after with control group design

a true experimental design that involves random assignment of subjects or test units to experimental and control groups; pre- and post measurement of both
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Quasi-experiments

studies in which researchers lack complete control over the scheduling of treatments or must assign respondents to treatments in a non-random manner
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Interrupted time-series design

research in which repeated measurement of an effect breaks previous data patterns
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Multiple time-series design

an interrupted time series design with a control group
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1. Interrupted time-series design 2. Multiple time-series design

2 types of quasi experiments
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Test Market