Marketing Chapter 5 Definitions Essay

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1 Consumer Buyer Behavior-
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1 The buying of final consumers-individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.
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2 Consumer Market
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2 All the individuals and households who buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption.
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3 Culture-
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3 The set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions.
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4 Subculture-
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4 A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
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5 Social Class-
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5 Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
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6 Group
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6 Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals.
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7 Opinion Leader
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7 Person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exets social influence on others.
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8 Online Social Networks
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8 Online social communities- blogs, social networking Web sites, or even virtual worlds- where people socialize or exchange information and opinions
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9 Lifestyle
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9 A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
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10 Personality-
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10 The unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment.
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11 Brand Personality-
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11 The specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand of music.
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12 Motive (Drive)
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12 A need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need.
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13 Perception-
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13 The process buy which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
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14 Learning-
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14 Changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.
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15 Belief
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15 A descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
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16 Attitude-
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16 A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward and object or idea.
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17 Complex Buying Behavior-
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17 Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands.
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18 Dissonance-reducing buying behavior
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18 Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high involvement by few perceived differences among brands.
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19 Habitual buying behavior
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19 Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low-consumer involvement and few significantly perceived brand differences.
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20 Variety-seeking buying behavior
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20 Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.
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21 Need Recognition
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21 The first stage of the buyer decision process, in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need.
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22 Information search
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22 The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer i aroused to search for more information’ the consumer may simply have heightened attention or ma go into an active information search.
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23 Alternative evaluation
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23 The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set.
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24 Purchase decision-
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24 The buyer’s decision about which brand to purchase.
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25 Post-purchase behavior
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25 The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumers take further action after purchase, based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
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26 Cognitive Dissonance-
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26 Buyer discomfort caused by post-purchase conflict.
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27 New Product
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27 A good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new.
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28 Adoption process
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28 The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
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29 ________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.
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29 Consumer buying behavior
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30 The consumer market is made up of which of the following?
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30 individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption
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31 Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
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31 stimuli
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32 Most large companies research ________ buying decisions to find out what they buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy.
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32 consumer
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33 The starting point of understanding a consumer’s response to various marketing efforts is the ________ of a buyer’s behavior.
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33 stimulus-response model
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34 Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps. Which is NOT one of these?
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34 politics
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35 The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s ________, which has two parts. First, the buyer’s characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer’s decision process itself affects the buyer’s behavior.
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35 black box
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36 In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer’s environment?
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36 channel
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37 ________ is(are) the most basic cause of a person’s wants and behavior.
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37 Culture
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38 Marketers are always trying to spot ________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted.
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38 cultural shifts
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39 Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
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39 subcultures
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40 Which of the following is NOT considered an important American subculture by marketers?
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40 opinion leaders
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41 This group of consumers tends to buy more branded, higher-quality products. and to make shopping a family event, with children having a big say in the purchase decision. In general, they are very brand loyal, and they favor companies who show special interest in them.
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41 Hispanic
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42 ________, the fastest-growing U.S. demographic segment, now number more than 45 million.
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42 Hispanics
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43 Although more price-conscious than other segments, ________ consumers tend to be strongly motivated by quality and selection. Brands are important. They enjoy shopping and are more fashion conscious than other ethnic groups.
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43 African American
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44 ________, the most affluent American demographic subculture, now have more than $450 billion in annual spending power.
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44 Asian Americans
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45 ________ are becoming a very attractive market: they are the ideal market for travel, restaurants, high-tech home entertainment products, and convenient services
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45 Mature consumers
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46 Which of the following is NOT true of mature consumers?
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46 They place more importance on brand names and are more brand loyal than members of other age groups.
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47 ________ are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
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47 Social classes
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48 What is one way that social class is NOT measured?
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48 number of children in the family
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49 Which of the following statements is true regarding social class in the United States?
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49 Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
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50 ________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenaged basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.
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50 Aspirational groups
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51 ________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.
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51 Opinion leaders
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52 Opinion leaders are sometimes referred to as ________.
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52 the influentials
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53 Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________ , brand ambassadors who share their passion for a company’s products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.
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53 brand evangelists
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54 Companies who use brand ambassadors are participating in ________.
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54 buzz marketing
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55 MySpace.com and YouTube are both examples of ________.
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55 social networks
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56 Which of the following best explains why a rush of marketers now participate in established online social networks?
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56 Consumers are more likely to view to peer-to-peer communication as credible.
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57 The ________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.
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57 family
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58 A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.
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58 role
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59 A buyer’s decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer’s age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.
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59 personal characteristics
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60 ) People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.
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60 age and life-cycle stage
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61 ________ is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics, including his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
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61 Lifestyle
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62 All of the following make up a person’s lifestyle EXCEPT ________.
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62 dissonance-reducing buying behavior
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63 A customer’s lifestyle can be measured by using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?
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63 Activities, Interests, Opinions
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64 ________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.
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64 Personality
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65 Researchers found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with “ruggedness.” Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?
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65 brand personality
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66
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66
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67 Brand personality is a mix of human traits attributed to a brand. Which of the following is NOT a brand personality trait as discussed in your text?
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67 emotion
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68 A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?
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68 alternative evaluation
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69 A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.
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69 motive
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70 Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, “we are what we have.” Under this premise, consumers ________.
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70 buy products to support their self-images
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71 According to Freud’s theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.
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71 unaware of
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72 The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations.
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72 motivation research
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73 Maslow’s theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy.
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73 human needs
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74 Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
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74 stimulus needs
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75 What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
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75 ) self-actualization needs
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76 ________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
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76 Perception
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77 People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person’s tendency to screen out most of the information to which he or she is exposed is called ________.
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77 selective attention
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78 People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.
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78 selective distortion
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79 People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.
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79 selective retention
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80 Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.
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80 subliminal
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81 ________ describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.
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81 Learning
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82 Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________.
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82 dissonance behavior
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83 ________ are subtle stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.
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83 Cues
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84 If a consumer’s experience is rewarding, that consumer will probably use the product more and more. The consumer’s response to the product will be ________.
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84 reinforced
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85 Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
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85 learning theory
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86 A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.
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86 belief
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87 A(n) ________ is a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
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87 attitude
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88 A person’s attitudes fit into a pattern, and to change one attitude may require difficult adjustments in many others. Thus, a company should ________ try to fit its products into existing attitudes rather than attempt to change attitudes.
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88 usually
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89 When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will undertake ________.
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89 complex buying behavior
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90 Which of the following typically occurs with habitual buying behavior?
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90 A) There is high consumer involvement. B) There is strong brand loyalty. C) Consumers search extensively for information. D) Ad repetition creates brand conviction. E) NONE OF THE ABOVE
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91 When customers have a low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________.
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91 variety-seeking buying behavior
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92 The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?
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92 variety-seeking buying behavior
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93 The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem.
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93 ) need recognition
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94 If the consumer’s drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n) ________.
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94 information search
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95 The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. Which of the following is NOT one of these types of sources?
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95 attitude
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96 The most effective sources from which consumers obtain information are ________ because they legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.
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96 personal
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97 Marketers describe the way the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________.
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97 alternative evaluation
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98 Generally, the consumer’s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?
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98 attitude of others
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99 ) After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________.
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99 postpurchase behavior
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100 The relationship between the consumer’s expectations and the product’s ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.
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100 perceived performance
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101 Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
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101 cognitive dissonance
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102 Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.
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102 adoption process
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103 Which of the following is NOT one of the stages that customers go through in the process of learning about and making decisions about a new product or service?
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103 culture
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104 Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.
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104 product characteristics that influence rate of adoption
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105 Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.
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105 subculture
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106 A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band’s fans will see them wearing the company’s shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.
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106 reference group
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107 Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n)________.
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107 opinion leader
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108 Shane Sudendorf is an active member of her sorority, two intramural teams, and a service organization at her college. She also actively participates on two online social networks, posting information about her day along with her thoughts on music, food, fashion, and culture. From this description, which of the following is the best way to describe Shane?
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108 an opinion leader
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109 ) There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.
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109 lifestyle
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110 The RBC Royal Bank has identified five life-stage segments. Members of which segment are most likely to be interested in debt-load management services?
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110 Builders
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111 According to one analyst, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle can make you feel like “the toughest, baddest guy on the block.” Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a ________.
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111 brand personality
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112 A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several motorcycle brands as animals. This is an example of ________.
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112 interpretive consumer research
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113 Mark has long supported the actions and decisions of his city’s mayor. However, many recent news stories have raised questions about the ethics of the mayor’s programs and initiatives. Mark doubts that the mayor, in whom he has such faith, could behave unethically, and Mark tends to distrust the information in the media. Mark continues to support the mayor. Mark has engaged in ________.
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113 selective distortion
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114 Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The issue became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.
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114 selective attention
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115 Bob’s job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.
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115 selective attention
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116 Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________.
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116 selective distortion
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117 George is buying his first house. He has found two houses that he thinks he likes. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences between these two houses. George will likely undertake ________.
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117 complex buying behavior
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118 Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Pat is experiencing ________.
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118 postpurchase dissonance
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119 For the past 10 years Bill and Margaret Kennedy have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, ever win the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. They want to be certain to choose the best one. Bill and Margaret are most likely to exhibit ________.
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119 dissonance-reducing buying behavior
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120 Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead, she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.
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120 variety-seeking buying behavior
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121 Which of the following would a marketer be LEAST likely to do to encourage habitual buying behavior?
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121 stress several key points in ad copy
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122 Lexus works to keep customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight the customer in order to gain a customer for life. In this pursuit, Lexus is focused on which step of the buyer decision process?
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122 postpurchase behavior
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123 ) Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake’s next step is most likely to be ________.
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123 alternative evaluation
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124 Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she will ask her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She will search the newspaper for coat sales, and she will visit nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.
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124 information search
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125 Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.
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125 postpurchase behavior
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126 Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?
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126 innovator

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