Many Ultra Orthodox Jews Sociology Essay Example
Many Ultra Orthodox Jews Sociology Essay Example

Many Ultra Orthodox Jews Sociology Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 13 (3496 words)
  • Published: September 6, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
View Entire Sample
Text preview

Despite being a highly urbanized western state, Israel still has relatively high poverty levels compared to other developed countries. The National Insurance Institute (NII) published a study in 2009-2010 which showed stable poverty levels. In 2008, around 20.5% of Israeli households lived below the poverty line, slightly higher than the previous year's rate of 20%. Additionally, destitute conditions affected approximately 24.7% of Israel's population and 35.9% of its children.

According to the NII study in 2009-2010, about 420,000 households in Israel (equivalent to 1.5 million people) were living in destitution, including approximately 805,000 children. The poverty rate for households with only one wage-earner increased from the last NII study's rate of 22.6% to the current rate of 23.9%.

A report by Adalah in March 2011 revealed that half of all Arab households in Israel experienced poverty and most Arab town


s had high unemployment rates (36 out of the top forty). Arabs had an overall employment rate at about two-thirds (68%) compared to Jews; however, Druze and Christian Arabs had higher employment rates than Muslims.

The Haredi population is also significantly affected by poverty as they are socially isolated from mainstream Israeli society. A comment from Haaretz newspaper staff highlights that despite more Israelis working, many still remain poor.

In 2010, Israel was ranked 47th out of 194 states in the Annual Standard of Living Index.
The ranking considered various categories including cost of life, economy, culture and leisure, environment, freedom, health, infrastructure, safety and risk, and climate. In terms of these categories, Israel scored lowest in infrastructure (36), cost of life (39), economy (61), environment (68), and safety (71). However, it achieved high scores in freedom (92), health (85), climate

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

(84), and culture and leisure (83). Additionally, according to the Human Development Index ranking for 2010, Israel placed fifteenth.

Housing equality has always been a priority for the State of Israel as it has made significant investments to address housing issues. Construction is an important industry that contributes significantly to investment and trade within the country's economy. Approximately 50% of the national development budget is allocated to housing. Housing investment accounted for 6.2% of the GNP in 2009.

The provided image depicts new residential construction occurring in Jerusalem. Recent data from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics reveals that most Israelis live in flats. Among them, three-room flats are inhabited by 33% of the population while four-room flats are occupied by 28%, and five-room flats are occupied by 13%. One-room flats house around 5% of the population with only a small percentage residing in properties with eight or more suites at just 0.6%.Despite efforts to prioritize housing equality, homelessness remains a concern in Israel. In 2010, approximately 3,000 Israelis were reported as homeless. Among the homeless population, about 70% are Soviet immigrants and alcoholics who do not have children. The remaining 30% face homelessness due to financial difficulties or mental health issues. The Social Affairs Ministry reports that each year, around 2,000 families are evicted from their flats due to loan payment failures.

Technology plays a significant role in Israeli society. Approximately 71% of households own a computer and 91% regularly use the Internet. On average, Israeli households own 2.1 cell phones.

In terms of employment statistics, approximately 86.2% of working Israelis have paid positions while self-employed individuals account for 12.7%. Other categories make up only 1%. It is

worth noting that around 8.5% of Israeli teenagers aged 15-18 are employed.

Adult males in Israel work an average of 45.2 hours per week, while females work an average of 35.5 hours per week.

Although many Israelis own private cars, the majority still rely on the extensive public transportation system available in the country. There are approximately 316 cars for every thousand individuals in Israel.

The film industry in Israel thrives through television, internet services, and radio by providing entertainment, news, and education to its audience.
Israelis highly value their leisure time and often spend weekends and holidays with their families at a variety of locations such as stores, cafes, restaurants, beaches, and parks. The Mediterranean influence on Israel's lifestyle is evident in the late opening hours of bars, cafes, and restaurants that allow for socializing well into the night. Sidewalks and patios are filled with lively crowds enjoying the outdoor seating options. Israelis prioritize family time by frequently bringing their children along when dining out, and most establishments readily accommodate young diners.

Throughout the year, pleasant weather conditions enable relaxation activities. Israelis take full advantage of their coastline by engaging in swimming, surfing, lounging around or playing "matkot," a paddle ball game. The majority of Israel's public beaches offer various amenities including bars, restaurants, and hotels.

Sports also play a significant role in Israeli culture. Israelis exhibit great enthusiasm as sports fans, especially towards their local soccer and basketball teams which attract large audiences.

Indoors during leisure time, Israelis enjoy watching movies from both local and international sources with subtitles. Cable or satellite TV provides easy access to numerous channels including pay-per-view movies and sports channels.Additionally, there is widespread availability of

broadband internet access, with many cafes providing wireless internet to their customers. Israel's advanced technology industry has led to high rates of cell phone and electronic device usage. Traditional Israeli celebrations during Jewish holidays often involve outdoor barbecues on Israeli Independence Day, sleeping in huts during Sukkot, and enjoying a variety of cuisines from the Jewish diaspora such as Ethiopian injera bread, Moroccan sfenj, and Eastern-European kreplach dumplings. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, the Iftar evening meal that breaks the fast and sweet treats served on Id-ul-Fitr like k'ak al-tamar sweets with coffee are part of the country's culinary delights. Traditional Armenian Christmas dishes consist mainly of dehydrated and fresh fruits, cheeses, oil-cured olives, nuts, seeds along with fish dishes accompanied by whole grain and vegetable dishes. Breads like cheoreg or peda are typically served alongside delicate Paklavas Boeregs and Kurabia cookies. A special Christmas porridge known as Anushabour is also enjoyed. Food plays an essential role in any holiday celebration in Israel, reflecting its diverse cultural influences.


Israelis have a strong passion for shopping and have cultivated refined tastes in clothing, food, household goods, and technological appliances through their extensive travel experiences.In Israel, you can find a variety of international brand labels as well as unique local brands. To experience Israeli culture, be sure to visit the local open markets known as "shouks" that are located in most cities throughout the country. These markets provide a vibrant atmosphere and offer fresh food options. Additionally, exploring outdoor promenades is a must, where you can discover artistic handmade dresses and decorative pieces.

However, it's worth noting that many Israelis prefer shopping in malls since most

cities have multiple large shopping centers that showcase high-quality local and international fashion brands. The operating hours for promenades typically range from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm Sunday-Thursday, with shorter hours on Fridays until 2:00 or 3:00 pm. Most of these places are closed on Saturdays but reopen after sundown.

Some street shops have specific opening hours from 9:00 or 10:00 am to 1:00 pm and then again from 4:00 to 7:00 pm; whereas others remain open all day long from 10:00 am to 7:00 pm, with extended hours on Fridays starting at8 :0am until2 :0am. In Muslim countries, shops usually operate from Saturday to Thursday and close on Fridays.

When it comes to urban life in Israel, the country is highly developed with approximately92 percent of its population residing in urban areas. Municipalities with populations of at least20 ,000 are granted city status; currently there are78 cities in Israel out of which14 have populations exceeding100 ,000 inhabitants.Other urban areas are classified as towns and become native councils if their population surpasses2 ,000 people.
In urban areas, residential zones are often separate from industrial and commercial areas. Additionally, these urban areas have well-maintained parks and recreational spaces. Shifting focus to rural life in Israel, individuals primarily reside in kibbutzim or moshavim. Kibbutzim are collective communities where residents work together for the common good, although many have now become privatized entities. Traditionally, inhabitants lived communally and emphasized self-sufficiency while having their own educational institutions. While agriculture is the main priority for most kibbutzim, some have also ventured into industrial endeavors.

In contrast, a moshav is another form of collective community where land is divided among residents who individually cultivate their

own produce based on an equal portion received. The community relies on a collective tax that remains constant for all residents; this system benefits wealthier farmers more than those with lower income levels.

Unlike kibbutzim or moshavim, a moshava is a privately-owned rural agricultural community in Israel. On the other hand, a moshav shitufi is a cooperative village where production and services are handled collectively while families make consumption decisions. Communal settlements function as rural or suburban towns where the entire population operates cooperatively and holds the power to reject property sales to unwanted buyers.In Israel, communal colony residents typically share political ideologies, spiritual beliefs, and desired ways of life due to rigorous property selection processes. Some colonies exclusively accept young couples with children. In rural areas, other Israelis reside in homes and small communities established by the Jewish National Fund in the Negev. India and Israel differ significantly as distinct countries when it comes to social factors. India is one of the world's largest countries that can be easily located on a world atlas. On the contrary, Israel is considerably smaller and more challenging to locate on such atlases. In terms of per capita income, India is considered one of the poorest nations globally with a very low per capita income index. However, Israel ranks among the top 20 countries in this regard. Both countries recognize various religions with significant followers worldwide. Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism are prominent religions in India with sacred sites within its borders. Judaism and Christianity are recognized in Israel, where their holiest sites are found within its territory. It's worth mentioning that although Islam originated in Saudi Arabia, some

of its most sacred locations are situated in the Land of Israel.
In addition, Israel has sacred sites for other faiths such as Bahai and the Druze. Both India and Israel have internationally recognized religious beliefs that have followers beyond their borders. Christianity represents a minority religion in Israel, comprising approximately 2% of its population, while Buddhism constitutes less than 1% of India's population as a minority faith. However, both Christianity and Buddhism have larger followings worldwide compared to their respective home countries. Islam stands out as the main minority religion in both Israel and India. Interestingly, certain major holy sites revered by Judaism in Israel or Hinduism in India now function as Muslim mosques. It is worth noting that historically neither India nor Israel has had a single permanent ruler; these two countries have intrigued foreigners with their distinctive characteristics. While India is renowned for its rich spices, Israel is esteemed for its sanctity. Both nations share a history of confronting various foreign aggressors, conquerors, and colonizers who asserted control over their territories. The arrival of these conquerors from different parts of the world has significantly influenced the histories of both countries. During their fight for independence, significant unrest occurred due to extensive migration into and out of these regions.
Pakistan witnessed a significant migration of Muslims from India, while Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Similarly, Israel experienced the departure of a large Muslim population and an influx of Jewish migrants from Muslim countries. Israeli gastronomy has embraced diverse influences in its food and cuisine. The various Jewish culinary traditions - Mizrahi, Sephardic, and Ashkenazi - incorporate elements from different cooking styles. These traditions include

ingredients commonly found in Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines like felafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar. As a result, these dishes are now closely associated with Israeli culinary art.

On the other hand, Indian cuisine reflects Hinduism and Jain beliefs with a strong emphasis on vegetarianism that is widely observed in Indian society. Additionally, North Indian cuisine has been influenced by Arab customs dating back to the Mughal empire and Delhi Sultanate rule. Over time, cultural interactions have shaped Indian cuisine.

As for languages spoken in Israel and India respectively: Hebrew and Arabic are recognized as official languages in Israel. Hebrew is primarily spoken by the majority population while Arabic is predominantly used by the Arab minority.English is widely spoken in Israel due to English-language television programs and its inclusion in education. In India, Hindi serves as the government's official language and is extensively spoken across the country, although there is no national language. English plays a crucial role in communication, particularly in education. Each state within India has its own set of official languages, with 21 "scheduled languages" recognized overall. Israeli literature primarily consists of works written in Hebrew but also includes publications in other languages like English. The Jewish National and University Library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem requires all published material to be deposited according to law. Palestinian poets and writers, such as Emile Habibi and Mahmoud Darwish, have made significant contributions to Arabic literature in Israel. Sanskrit was used for literary works from 1400 BCE to 1200 CE in India, including notable examples like the MahA?bhA?rata and Ramayana epic poems, plays by KA?lidA?sa such as AbhijnA?naA›A?kuntalam, and poetry like the MahA?kA?vya. Devotional

poets Kabir,Tulsi Das,and Guru Nanak had a profound impact on Indian literary traditions from the 14th to eighteenth centuries.Rabindranath Tagore,a Bengali poet and novelist,influenced Indian literature significantly during the twentieth centuryIsrael draws inspiration from a variety of sources including Sephardic music, Hasidic tunes, belly dancing music, Greek music, and pop rock. It incorporates various wind instruments into its compositions. Indian music consists of multiple traditions and regional styles. Classical music can be categorized into northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic genres.

The Hora circle dance was introduced by early Jewish settlers in Israel and gained popularity in Kibbutzim and rural areas. It became symbolic of the Zionist Reconstruction movement, emphasizing happiness amidst asceticism. Today, the Hora dance is a part of modern Israeli folk dance and is commonly performed at weddings, celebrations, and group dances throughout the country.

Indian dance encompasses a diverse range of folk and classical forms such as Punjab's bhangra, Assam's bihu, West Bengal and Jharkhand's chhau, Orissa's sambalpuri, Rajasthan's ghoomar, and Maharashtra's lavani.

As of 2012 estimation data, Israel has a population of 7,836,000 people with 5,985-100 being Jews. Arab citizens make up approximately 20.6% of the total population. Additionally, there has been an influx of migrant workers from countries like Romania,Thailand ,China , Africa ,and South America who have settled in Israel over the past decade.In contrast, India had an estimated population of 1.22 billion in 2012, making it the world's second-most populous country. The sex ratio was reported to be 892 females per 1,000 males. On the other hand, Israel has a higher sex ratio with approximately 952 females per 1,000 males. In terms of society, modern Israel is known for its diverse

and open culture underpinned by democratic values.

The foundation of Israeli society is "the Law Of Return," established in 1950. This law grants Jews worldwide the right to return to Israel and become citizens upon entry. It serves as a safe haven for Jews in need while allowing individuals from different religious communities to apply for citizenship.

Traditional Indian society has a strict social structure characterized by a hierarchical caste system that influences much of the social order and restrictions in the region. These castes define social classes and are typically endogamous familial groups.

Regarding education, Israel dedicates around 7.5% of GDP to its overall education system with most schools receiving state sponsorship. A study conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Education at a Glance ranked Israel as the second most educated country globally in 2012.The study found that 78% of education funding in India comes from public funds and that 45% of the population holds a university or college diploma. Education in India is considered a fundamental right according to the Indian Constitution, with both the Union Government and state governments sharing responsibility for it. Approximately 4.1% of GDP is allocated towards education. Oversight of universities in India falls under either the purview of the Union Government or State Government.

Israel, on the other hand, has a universal healthcare system managed by private corporations. This system provides all citizens with the same Uniform Benefit Package, which is regulated and subsidized by the government. All individuals must be members of one of four privately owned Health Maintenance Organizations. Israel is renowned for its high standards of healthcare services, modern hospitals, advanced medical facilities, and abundance of

doctors and specialists per capita.

In terms of healthcare provision in India, there is a state and regional government-managed universal healthcare system mandated by the constitution. Each state also has an obligation to improve nutrition levels, standard of living, and public health. In 2012, India had a life expectancy at birth recorded as 67.14 years.

When it comes to income-related statistics, Israel has a per capita income of $32,351 USD (ranking 27th globally). Over the past two decades, income inequality in Israel has grown faster than in other developed countries while simultaneously narrowing the gender wage gap even though there has been widening between educated and uneducated workers' salaries.India's per capita income is $1,514 USD and it ranks 139th globally. Income inequality in India has doubled compared to other emerging economies over the past twenty years, making it the worst performer in this area.

The tourism industry is crucial for Israel as it provides employment, foreign currency reserves, development opportunities in remote areas, and contributes to a positive global image. Israel's diverse geography, leisure resorts, and archaeological sites offer great potential for tourism.

The hotel industry plays an important role by creating job opportunities and bringing in foreign currency. It also acts as a catalyst for investments in important sectors. However, between 2000 and 2002, there was a significant decline in visitors to Israel despite initial optimism due to progress in the peace process and Pope Jean-Paul II's visit. This led to reduced income from foreign tourists and had a major impact on GDP and employment within the tourism industry.

During this time, many hotels faced closure resulting in over 80,000 job losses. Nonetheless, domestic tourism remained resilient throughout the

crisis allowing hotels to continue operating with cost-saving measures and efficiency improvements implemented by their owners.

After four difficult years, positive changes began to emerge within the Israeli tourism industry during the second quarter of 2003.The return of tourists from overseas has led to an increase in employment and contribution to Israel's GDP. In 2004, the industry hired an additional 17,000 employees, making a total of 62,000. The industry's GDP contribution also increased from $2 billion in 2003 to $2.7 billion in 2004. This trend continued into 2005 with predictions indicating that the industry's GDP contribution would reach approximately $3.78 billion this year, representing a significant 37% increase compared to 2004. By the end of the year, it is expected that around 85,000 individuals will be employed in tourism, including about 30,000 working specifically in hotels. These improvements have had a direct impact on various aspects such as the industry's contribution to GDP, tourism income, and employment opportunities throughout Israel. These positive developments are particularly important for the hotel industry as they indicate a promising future outlook.With existing infrastructure and adequate funding already available for tourism development within Israel,tourism is projected to continue driving economic growth for years ahead.To attract more incoming tourists and further enhance the industry's growth potential,it is crucial to effectively promote Israel as a tourist destination through marketing effortsIn order to achieve the goal of attracting four million tourists by 2010 and creating 18,000 new jobs annually over five years, a long-term government plan should be implemented. This plan should prioritize investments in improving tourism infrastructure in remote areas with high unemployment rates. It is essential for Israel to focus on developing

a competitive civil aviation policy for flights to and from the country, in order to stay competitive against countries like Turkey and Egypt that have invested significantly in their tourism industries.

While the current civil flight policy may hinder short-term growth of incoming tourism, there are other domestic activities that can be classified into four groups. Firstly, subordinate companies of the Ministry of Tourism such as the Visitant Enterprises Development Company (Tourism Bank), Govt.Tourist Corporation, and Govt.Spas Authority are responsible for enhancing physical infrastructure such as hotels and youth hostels. Secondly, there is an emphasis on providing services and events tailored specifically for foreign visitors at affordable prices.

This includes offering recommendations for accommodations, restaurants, authorized travel agents, and organizing various events throughout the year across the country to enhance visitors' experiences.The Tourism Services Department is responsible for managing domestic and inbound tourism. They work together with local associations and communities to support the growth of domestic tourism. In addition, the Tourism Marketing Department oversees the promotion of different types of tourism, including international conventions, pilgrimage tours, Jewish tourism, youth tourism, and events for both local and international visitors. They also monitor the activities carried out by Israel Government Tourist Offices globally.

Get an explanation on any task
Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds