life span chapter 8 review

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middle adulthood
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age 40-65. age become aware they are aging. people’s self-concept plays a significant role in how they react to aging-related changes. men/women great value on appearance. may find middle age difficult
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western culture
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has double standard for aging; aging men are seen to exhibit maturity and wisdom, whereas unflattering terms tend to be applied to aging women
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actual physical changes of middle-age are subtle but significant because
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reach max height by 20s. maintained until around 55. at 55 “settling” change in height is slow, over rest of life span gradually lose 2 women men 1 inch. bone loss common because of age-related hormonal changes.
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settling
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process occurs because the bones attached to the spinal column becomes less dense.
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osteoporosis
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bone loss-condition in which bones become brittle, fragile, thin. condition rises from age-related hormonal changes, lack of calcium in the diet, lack of exercise. lifestyle and prescription medications can now decrease a woman’s risk of developing osteoporosis
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more physical change in men and women
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gain weight during middle adulthood. body fat tends to grow, not predetermined by genetic factors, lifestyle choices. people who maintain a regular exercise program avoid obesity. countries more active and less sedentary lower rate of obesity than U.S.
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aging
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results from senescence-naturally occurring and gradual changing of out bodies that occurs as the result of aging process
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primary aging
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age-related changes that are an inevitable part of aging
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secondary aging
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age-related changes that take place as the result of a person’s behavior or a society’s failure to eliminate unhealthy conditions. chronic illnesses such as cancer, arthritis, diabetes, heart disease. influenced by smoking, eating, exercising slowed or eliminated by a change in behavior, medications, surgical interventions
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distinguishing primary from secondary aging is
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the older you live the more likely you are to develop cancer primary aging, but development of cancer is also linked to lifestyle choices (smoking) and environment (exposure to toxic substance) which are both forms of secondary aging
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changes in height and weight
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accompanied by changes in strength. gradually declines. back and leg muscles. by age 60 lost average of 10% of their mas strength. exercise regularly helps compensate for loss of strength.
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3 sensory-related changes that occur in middle adulthood and increase in reaction time
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presbyopia, and presbycusis also increases in reaction time-meaning it takes longer to react to a stimulus. such as breaking a car in an emergency. related to speed which the nervous system processes nerve impulse. daily skills that are regularly practiced may help prevent major increases in reaction time
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midlife notice changes in their sense organs
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between ages of 35-64.
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presbyopia
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nearly universal change in eyesight that results in some loss of near vision. the lens of the eye becomes less elastic and the cornea becomes flatter. this results in almost everyone needing reading glasses by the end of middle age.
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presbycusis
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loss of the ability to hear sounds of high frequency. by age of 65 most men are hard of hearing. secondary aging. loud noise can cause damage to ear drums.
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if auditory protection is not used
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the damage will enhance the normal age-related hearing changes. most auditory-related changes can be compensated for making behavioral changes finding a quieter place and looking at people when they speak
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primary aging genes on our sex chromosomes (x and y-the 23rd pair)
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interact with genes on other chromosomes in a way that causes men’s hearing to decline twice as fast as women’s hearing. average 30 year old has as much hearing loss as average 50 year old women
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midlife adults who exercise
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delay the effects of aging. exercise results in positive outcomes in improved muscle strength, circulation, skeletal system, nervous system. emotional benefits as well decrease in depression and an increase in an overall sense of health and well-being
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sexual intercourse
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declines with age. sexual activites remain an important aspect of middle adults lives. half of men and women aged 45-59 reported having sexual intercourse about once a week or more. past menopause sense of freedom no pregnancy
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climacteric women
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around age 45. period marks the transition from being able to bear children to being unable to do so. around late 40s experience irregular periods. timing varies for everyone, 40-65. after 1 year no period menopause is said to occur
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male climacteric
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physical and psychological changes in mens reproductive systems during this age. occur gradually, makes difficult to pinpoint, progressive decline in testosterone, male sex hormone. men continue to be able to father children throughout middle age
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one of the best known hormonal changes is
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“hot flashes” a woman experiences an unexpected sense of heat from waist up. get red and begin to sweat then feel chilled. frequency varies. headaches, dizziness, heat palpitations, aching joints accompany menopause.
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perimenopause
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period roughly 10 years before menopause when hormone production begins to change. often variation in hormone production, which results in symptoms found in menopause. some do HRT to decrease symptoms admin, estrogen, progesterone
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other symptoms of male climacteric
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enlargement of prostate gland causes problems with urination, including difficulty starting urination and a need to ruinate frequently during the night. may also experience psychological is depression-fear of aging reduced productivity.
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health and fitness
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period of good health, no chronic health differences and no activity limitations. less likely to experience allergies, infections, respiratory problems. chronic diseases gradually begin. arthritis begins around age 40. risk for type 2 diabetes.
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3 chronic illnesses that may appear in middle adulthood
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diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer
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diabetes
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disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. it develops when cells in the muscles, liver, and fat don’t use insulin properly. cells use hormone insulin which is carried by the blood to the cells, to help turn blood glucose into energy.
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pancreas over time
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cannot make enough insulin for the body’s needs and as a result the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved for energy.
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type 2 diabetes commonly found in middle age
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can develop at any age. formerly called “adult-onset” or “non-insulin dependent” rising problem of obesity in U.S. increase for type 2. age 45 be tested for diabetes. if overweight tested earlier.
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high blood glucose levels can
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damage nerves and blood vessels and lead to complications heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, gum infections, amputations. risk for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay its onset by losing weight and eating healthy well-balanced diet.
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cardiovascular disease
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risk factors include genetic predisposition, lifestyle, sex, age. some genetically predisposed to heart disease if parents have children more likely. older person more likely risk. men are more likely to suffer from heart disease than women. decrease over years women increasing
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lifestyle choices major impact on cardiovascular disease
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environmental pollutants, cigarette smoking, and lack of exercise contribute to cardiovascular problems. psychological factors and response to stress contribute. determine personality stress response and cardiovascular risk level type A and type B patterns
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type A
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competitiveness, impatience, tendency toward frustration and hostility. they multitasking people who are driven to accomplish more than others. tend to verbally and nonverbally hostile if prevented from reaching a goal seek to accomplish.
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type B
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non-competitiveness, patience, lack of aggression. experience little sense of time urgency and are rarely hostile. most people are not a pure type A or B tend to fall predominantly in one behavior pattern or other
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why is this a concern of cardiovascular health
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type A men have twice the rate of cardiovascular disease, greater number of heart attacks, 5x overall heart problems as type B men. difference is person’s physiological response to stress; heart and blood pressure increase production of hormones epine./norephine.
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cancer
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fear among most individuals. most cancers if found early, respond quite well to medical treatment. 2nd leading cause of death in U.S. after cardiovascular. 60% of people diagnosed with cancer are alive 5 years later.
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cancer in men
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lung cancer is leading cause of death in men 31%. followed by prostrate cancer 10% then cancer of colon and rectum 8%. leading type of cancer diagnosed among men is prostrate cancer.
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cancer in women
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lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, followed by breast cancer diagnosed among women in U.S. is breast cancer. early detection best. self breast exams, mammogramphy every 2 years.
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4 health habits that have serious impact on the health of middle-age adults
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smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and overweight, exercise
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smoking
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increases risk of lung cancer, increased in women, second hand smoke causes health issues been related to stroke and other respiratory difficulties. risk of other diseases cancer of bladder, kidney, mouth, stomache, heart disease, emphysema, stroke.
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lung cancer most common cause of death
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among white, black, Asian/pacific islander, American indian, Alaskan native women
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alcohol consumption
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people who drink in moderation-no more than 2 servings a day-tend to live longer than those who never drink. alcohol carries risks if abuse. midlife people are particularly vunerable to alcohol abuse.
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abuse
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results in cirrhosis of liver, destruction of brain cells, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal stress, increased risk of forms of cancer including breast, stomach, throat cancer. moderate intake is dangerous associated with smoking and obesity.
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drinking
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associated with half of all fatal accidents, suicides, homicides. “health benefits” of moderate drinking should not delude people into thinking alcohol intake has risks. has risk even in moderation
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obesity and overweight
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overweight 40year olds lose 3 years of life; an obese 40 year old loses 7. the world health organization has declared overweight and obesity an epidemic. people need to eat less as they grow older due to decrease metabolic rate.
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continued
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ages 20-50, metabolism slows by third-eating the same quanity of food will cause weight to increase over decades. increase weight puts extra stress on body systems, causes social and psychological distress, cost nation trillions of dollars, lost work prod.
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exercise
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benefits every body system. heart and circulatory system operate more efficiently; lung capacity increases and raises endurance; muscles become stronger, body is more flexible and maneuverable, reduces risk of osteoporosis.
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exercise reduces
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anxiety, stress, depression. it provides people with a sense of control over their bodies as well as a sense of accomplishment and it optimizes the immune system and helps fight disease.
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exercise helps with
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lung capacity increases and raises endurance; muscles become more stronger, the body is more flexible and maneuverable, and risk of osteoporosis is reduced.
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cognitive development
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thinking postformal stage. intelligence rises until very late in life. biological factors, contemporary research indicates that culture, contexts, personal decisions can have equal impact in IQ
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explain some of the current beliefs about cognitive development in middle-age adutls
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neither sensory nor short-term memory shows any weakening during this age. long-term memory does show some decline with age; the change seems to be related to midlife adult’s inefficiency in registering and storing information.
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continued
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a reduction in the person’s memory retrieval may also contribute to this decline.
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what this means is that
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even though information may be stored in long-term memory the middle-age adult may have more difficulty locating or isolating it. memory declines are minimal and compensatory actions can decrease their occurrence.
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for example
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midlife person pays more attention to material when it is first encountered, it will be easier to recall at a later date, memory problem may be result of being inattentive rather than age-related decline
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schemas
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help people interpret and react to social phenomena. schemas-are organized bodies of information stored in memory that help us explain the way the world is organized. allows us to categorize information and interpret new information. schemas hare held for specific individuals parents and categories of people doctors, teachers. new material that is consistent with our existing schemas is more likely to be recalled than material that is not.
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3 types of memory
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sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
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sensory memory
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in an initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant. information is recorded by an individual’s sensory system as raw stimulus.
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short-term memory
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is memory that moves from sensory into short-term memory, where it is held for 15-25seconds. if short-term memory is rehearsed, it is then moved into long-term memory.
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long-term memory
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it is stored on a relatively permanent basis. long-term memory does show some decline with age. change seems to be related to a midlife adult’s inefficiency in registering and storing information.
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identify and describe the “big 5” personality traits of middle adulthood
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neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
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neuroticism
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anxious, moody, self-punishing, critical
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extroversion
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outgoing, assertive, active
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openness
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imaginative, curious, artistic, open to new experiences
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agreeableness
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kind, helpful, easy-going, generous
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conscientiousness
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organized, deliberate, conforming, self-disciplined
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the question of whether intelligence begins to decline in middle adulthood is complicated because of limitations on the cross-sectional and longitudinal research
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cohort effects are the main problem for cross-sectional. this relates to intelligence because if one compared older adults to younger adults, the older person may have had a lower chance of receiving an advanced-or even a high school-education. comparing IQ problematic
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longitudinal studies have difficulties due to
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becoming “test wise” from repeating IQ measure, difficult to keep a longitudinal study sample intact due to illness, death, geographic changes, not wanting to participate.
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fluid intelligence
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reflects information processing capabilities, memory, and reasoning skills. arranging a set of numbers according to a certain set of rules or memorizing a specific type of information. decline with age
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crystallized intelligence
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reflects the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience that they can apply to problem-solving situations. solving a crossword puzzle. it holds steady actually improves intelligence
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4 reasons midlife adults generally hold some of the most powerful positions in society,
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1. typical measures of cognitive skills assess different sets of skills than those use when one is successful in certain occupations. 2. the sample tested and used to represent middle-age adults may not be a true reflection of population can it be generalized to those who changed career, experienced moderate occupational success, or have had no occupational success in life
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3. perhpaps the degree of cognitive ability required for occupational success is not that high 4. finally older people may be successful because they have developed specific expertise in a specific occupation.
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selective optimization
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a process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for loses in other areas. if biological deterioration occurs they must compensate through academic performance and avoid showing any practical deterioration in their level of competenc
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expertise
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refers to acquisition of skills or knowledge in a specific area. the difference between people with expertise and those without is the expert’s ability to use intuition and experience. allows them to bend the rules. use formal procedures, rules, follow strictly
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wisdom
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cognitive perspective that is characterized by a broad, practical, comprehensive approach to life’s problems, if reflects timeless truths rather than immediate answers. common in older adults, dialectical thinking, expert knowledge years of experience.
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genetics, culture, early childhood experiences each determine the individual’s characteristics in each area. the 5 personality traits.
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traits are influenced by decisions made when the person is free of parental rule ages 15-30. researches see this as a time when young adults follow more genetic motivators than the rules or identities imposed by parents
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one general trend found among midlife people
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less neurotic and become more agreeable. friendship and jobs may modify extroversion to some degree. basic personality patterns remain intact.
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generativity versus stagnation
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Erickson’s middle adulthood stage in which people consider their contributions to family and society. tend to be leaders of their communities and their families. host family celebration, involved in church and community activites. guide others.
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continuum of generativity is broad
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some midlife adults giving others self-absorbed, various cultures place value on traits. example china value conscientiousness, extroversion valued in Australia, openness is valued in U.S.
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midlife crisis
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period of unusual anxiety and radical transformation that is commonly associated with middle age. more to do with developmental history and personality traits than with chronological age.
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women in midlife
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make decisions that lead them on a path of greater happiness. myth has persisted because middle age can hold a series of events that tend to cluster. example: divorce, remarriage, aging parents, biological aging, death of parents or close friends career change
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myth of midlife crisis
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allow adults who are coping with these problems a way to vent frustration and anger over their occurrence. how people manage these events, relates more to their personality than to their chronological age
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3 myths of middle age associated with cognitive development, midlife crisis, and sandwich generation
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sandwich generation-a term used to describe couples in middle adulthood who must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents. largely now considered a myth since some adults do feel pressured by obligations but don’t feel burdened by them
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some midlife adults choose
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not to take on expected responsibilities caring for a frail parent. young adults living at home are more independent that they were as children, disabled adults usually require less then they were children. usually another member of family of older generation prov.
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explain the most common reason middle-age experience memory deficits
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memory may to decline. memory deficits are probably due to ineffective strategies of storage and retrieval. midlife show minimal memory loss. some none: sterotypes contribute to belief of losing memory or absentmindedness to aging.
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one of the most significant institutions in helping people cope with these events and move through middle adulthood is
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family. family provides emotional and social support, resources, role models for decisions and aspirations. some find support through fictive kins and social convoy.
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fictive kin
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people who accept and treat a person like a family member even though the people are neither biologically nor legally related.
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social convoy
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a group of people who form relationships and socialize with an individual; it helps guide a person throughout life.
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marriage in middle adulthood
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couples satisfaction with their marriage rises and falls in a U-shaped configuration. it declines after marriage and continues to fall, reaching its lowest point following the birth of the couples children, satisfaction increases when youngest leaves home
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midlife couples identify several characteristics related to satisfaction with their marriages
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view spouse as their best friend and confidant. consider marriage long-term commitment, each spouse striving for mutual goals. find their spouses growing more interesting with age. sex lives being satisfying
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divorce in midlife
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less common, if occur financial and psychosocial impact devastating than in younger periods. midlife divorce occurs when in need of family support and long-term social bonds. it weakens relationship with inlaws. financial hardships grandparent bonds – aff
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remarriage in midlife
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46% are remarriages for at least one spouse. average age 35 in U.S. more common if person young. second marriages may bring happiness, no guarantee lifelong partner 2nd marriages end in divorce more often then 1st. children suffer with parent marital statu
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empty nest syndrome
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parent’s feelings of unhappiness, worry, loneliness, and depression resulting from their children’s departure from home. more a myth. parents have more time for physical and social-psychological activites outside of home. find a job, work on marital relationship
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boomerang children
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young adults who return home after having been gone for some period to live with the middle-age parents. mothers more sympathetic than fathers; reaction positive if child has a job and contributes to the financial burdens of house hold
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3 types of grandparent-grandchild relationships
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remote, involved grandparents, companionate grandparents.
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remote
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grandparents who are distant, but who are loved, honored, and obeyed by the grandchildren
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involved
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grandparents who see their grandchildren daily and are actively involved in their lives
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companionate grandparents
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grandparents whose relationship with their grandchildren is characterized by independence and friendship, with visits occurring by grandparents’ choice. most confessing “glad to see come and glad to see them go” glad not actively involved in childrearing proce
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gender convergence
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a tendency where men and women tend to become more similar as they move through middle age.
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gender crossover
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a situation in which each sex takes on the other sex’s roles and traits in later in life. women become more self-confident and men more emotional
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employment
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90%of all midlife men and 75%midlife women work. rewards and stresses of a job depend more on the job than on the sex of the employee.
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males and females, the following trends are found among midlife adults in the U.S.
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intrinsic rewards relationships with coworkers meaningful work become more important than extrinsic rewards salary and benefits *lower rates of absenteeism *lower rates of being fired, quitting, or looking for a new job
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****
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*most have worked for their current employer for greater than 5 years * various “scaling back” strategies are employed to manage occupational stress and support a fulfilling life
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scaling back
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refers to a strategy middle adults use to balance the demands of work and family life. people may reduce their commitment to work in order to have time for their marriage, children, grandchildren.
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scaling back a mutual decision
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to protect the family from unreasonable demands and to make certain that basic responsibilities are met both at work and at home. example: refusing weekend work, out-of-town travel, changing to part-time work, reducing number of overtime hours
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increasing job concern for midlife adults
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unexpected job loss, corporate buy-outs, restructuring, economic downturns with major layoffs are concerns. finding another job difficult and remain unemployed longer then younger groups, may discriminate against older workers. illegal.
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midlife cannot find work
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are forced to retire into early retirement may become despondent, pessimistic, cynical.
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workers who remain employed
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job-related burnout occurs. this refers to a situation in which a highly trained professional experiences dissatisfaction, frustration, and disillusionment with his or her job. jobs in helping people, more driven when start their career.
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burnout can be managed by
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restructuring of job-related responsibilities, realistic expectations of the job, enjoying the pleasures of small victories when they occur.
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some midlife adults decide to change careers for the following reasons:
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*current job offers little challenge *have achieved mastery and want an additional challenge * don’t like how current job has changed * want to challenge themselves in another interest area
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retirement
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plans for retirement about when and whether to make a career change. in industrialized nations, retirement is occurring at earlier and earlier ages. retirement planning in U.S. typically begins at age 50 and retirement occurs before 65. workers prepare for
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….
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retirement by reducing hours, increasing pay to raise a pension, exploring a change in residence. for those who retire before the age of 60, financial security is a major concern. retire early tend to be more sick than same age employed.
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…..
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inflation and escalating health care costs tend to be higher than expected. careful planning is crucial to success in retirement. retirement is occurring earlier, middle age lasting longer- until age 65 in most recent publications

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