Lecture Chapter 22 Study Guide: Respiratory System

What are the functions of the Respiratory System?
-Supplies body with oxygen
-Disposes of carbon dioxide
What are the 4 processes in Respiration?
-Pulmonary ventilation
-External respiration
-Transport of respiratory gases
-Internal respiration
What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
the continuous movement of air
-Inhale: bring oxygen into the body
-Exhale: move carbon dioxide out of the body
What is External Respiration?
Gas exchange between blood [capilaries] and air at the lung alveoli
What is the Transport of Respiratory Gasses
The cardiovascular system carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carries carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs
What is Internal Respiration?
Gas exchange between the blood and tissues at the systemic capillaries
What is the function of the Nose? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
What is the function of the Nose? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
Size varies by nasal cartilage and skin is thin, containing many sebaceous glands.
It’s function is to:
-provide an airway for respiration
-moisten and warm air
-filter inhaled air
– a chamber for speech resonating
-to house olfactory receptors for smell
What is the function of the Nasal Cavity? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
What is the function of the Nasal Cavity? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
-Contains the *External Nares* [Nostrils], which are divided by the nasal septum.
-Continous with the Nasopharnx, which are the posterior nasal aperures called Choanae.
What are the 2 Mucous Membranes of the Nasal Cavity? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
-Olfactory Mucosa
-Respiratory Mucosa
What mucosa is only found near the roof of the nasal cavity.
Olfactory Mucosa
What is the cellular composition of Olfactory Mucosa
Consists of Olfactory Epithelium
What mucosa functions to house olfactory [smell] receptors?
Olfactory Mucosa
What is the cellular composition of Respiratory Mucosa
What is the cellular composition of Respiratory Mucosa
*Consists of:*
-Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium, which lines the nasal cavity
–Goblet Cells within the epithelium
-An underlying layer of lamina propria
-Cilia
What mucosa contains Pseudostratifed Ciliated Columnar Epithelium with Goblet Cells?
Respiratory Mucosa
What is the function of the Respiratory Mucosa that contains Psudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium.
It filters the air using the mucous secreted by the goblet cells to trap contaminants and move the mucous posteriorly over the cilia
What is the function of Goblet Cells?
to produce mucous
What mucosa has Cilia which functions to move contaminated mucus posteriorly.
Respiratory Mucosa
Describe the Anatomy of the Nasal Conchae
Describe the Anatomy of the Nasal Conchae
*-Superior and middle:* part of the ethmoid bone
*-Inferior: is a separate bone*
*-Project medially:* from the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
*Particulate Matter* is deflected to the mucus-coated surfaces
What is the function of the Nasal Conchae?
Increases the surface area creating turbulence for the air coming into nasal cavities providing for filtration, rapid warming/humidification of air as it passes to the lungs.
What is the function of the Paranasal Sinuses? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
What is the function of the Paranasal Sinuses? (Organs of the Respiratory System)
mucosa-lined hollow cavities within the sphenoid
bone, ethmoid, maxillary, and frontal bones. Also serving to lighten the skull, it provides the same function as the nasal cavities [houses the receptors for smell]
What happens when we are sick?
the paranasal sinuses are swollen and do not allow sound to resonate.
What are the 3 divisions of the Pharynx [Throat]?
What are the 3 divisions of the Pharynx [Throat]?
-Nasopharynx
-Oropharynx
-Laryngopharynx
What is the function of the Pharynx?
What is the function of the Pharynx?
a funnel-shaped passageway [for air and food] that connects the nasal cavity and mouth. The type of mucosal lining varies along its length.
What is the Nasopharynx?
What is the Nasopharynx?
Superior to the point where food enters and is *only an air passageway.* It is *closed off during swallowing.*
-contains the opening of the pharyngotympanic (auditory tube)
What kind of Epithelium is in the Nasopharynx?
What kind of Epithelium is in the Nasopharynx?
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar
Where are the Pharyngeal Tonsils [adenoids] located?
Where are the Pharyngeal Tonsils [adenoids] located?
in the posterior wall of the Nasopharynx
*-Destroys entering pathogens*
What is the Oropharynx?
What is the Oropharynx?
Arch-like entranceway – fauces that *extends from soft plate to the epiglottis*
Where are the Palatine and Lingual Tonsils located?
Where are the Palatine and Lingual Tonsils located?
In the Oropharynx:
Palatine: in the lateral walls of the fauces
Lingual: covers the posterior surface of the tongue
What is the Laryngopharynx?
What is the Laryngopharynx?
Continuous with the esophagus and larynx it is a passageway for both food and air.
What kind of Epithelium is in both the Oropharynx and the Laryngopharynx?
What kind of Epithelium is in both the Oropharynx and the Laryngopharynx?
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
What are the 3 Functions of the Larynx?
What are the 3 Functions of the Larynx?
-It’s the voice box (voice production)
-Provides an open airway
-Routes air and food into the proper channels
What structure prevents food from entering the respiratory tract?
the larynx
What is the function of the Trachea?
What is the function of the Trachea?
it is an air passageway that filters, warms and moistens incoming air.
What structure descends into the mediastinum and divides into two main bronchi?
Trachea
What are the tissue types found in the Trachea?
What are the tissue types found in the Trachea?
-Trachea Cartilage
-Hyaline Cartilage [C-Shaped Rings]
-Fibroelastic Connective Tissue
What tissue type lines the lumen in the Trachea
What tissue type lines the lumen in the Trachea
-Ciliated Pseudostratified Collumnar Epithelium lines the lumen
What prevents the Trachea from collapsing?
What prevents the Trachea from collapsing?
The C-Shaped Hyaline [Tracheal] Cartilage rings keeps the airway open.
What is the function of the Bronchi and Brochiole?
What is the function of the Bronchi and Brochiole?
system of respiratory passages that branch extensively within the lungs.
What is the function of the lungs?
What is the function of the lungs?
Houses passageways and is smaller than the main bronchi.
What is the function of the Alveoli?
What is the function of the Alveoli?
the main sites of gas exchange.
What is the conducting zone?
What is the conducting zone?
passageway that carries over to the site of gas exchange
What are the organs that fall within the conducting zone?
What are the organs that fall within the conducting zone?
-Nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
-Pharynx, Larynx, and trachea
-Bronchi and smaller branches
What is the respiratory zone?
What is the respiratory zone?
the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs
What are the organs that fall within the respiratory zone?
What are the organs that fall within the respiratory zone?
Lungs and the alveoli
Does the alveoli and lung take place in external or internal respiration?
External
What are the structures of the Larynx?
What are the structures of the Larynx?
-Thyroid Cartilage
-Laryngeal Prominence
-Vocal Fold [True Vocal Cord]
-Vestibular Fold [False Vocal Cord]
-Epiglottis
-Arytenoid Cartilage
What is the function of the Thyroid Cartilage?
What is the function of the Thyroid Cartilage?
Largest cartilage [housing the Adams Apple] and is Shield Shaped. It holds the vocal folds [cords]
What is the structure of the Laryngeal Prominence?
What is the structure of the Laryngeal Prominence?
posterior part of the larynx that anchors the vocal folds [cords]
What is the function of the Vocal Fold?
What is the function of the Vocal Fold?
Air exhaled from the lungs causes these to vibrate in a wave like motion and clap together producing the basic sound of speech.
What is the function of the Vestibular Fold?
What is the function of the Vestibular Fold?
play no part in sound production. They define a slit-like cavity between themselves and the true vocal cords that enhances the high frequency sounds – functioning like tweeter speakers
What is the function of the Epiglottis?
What is the function of the Epiglottis?
The entire larynx is pulled superiorly when swallowing, tipping the epiglottis inferiorly to cover and seal the laryngeal inlet keeping food out of the respiratory tube.
What is the function of the Laryngeal Prominence?
What is the function of the Laryngeal Prominence?
also known as the Adam’s Apple and is longer in males, shorter in females. It determines the length of the vocal cords ultimately determining how deep or high pitched a persons voice is.
What is the function of the Arytenoids cartilage?
What is the function of the Arytenoids cartilage?
are pyramid shaped and is the most important cartilage, directly anchoring the vocal cords
Why does the voice in males change during puberty?
stimulated in puberty, testosterone the sex hormone found in males causes the thyroid cartilage to grow longer thus deeping the voice.
How does Voice Production change?
-Length of the vocal folds changes with pitch.
-Loudness depends on the force of air across the vocal folds.
What is the Alveoli?
What is the Alveoli?
structure that contains air exchange chambers and looks like a single grape.
What is the Alveolar Sac?
What is the Alveolar Sac?
terminal clusters of alveoli that resembles a grape cluster.
Describe the Bronchial Tree beginning with the trachea and ending with the terminal bronchiles.
Describe the Bronchial Tree beginning with the trachea and ending with the terminal bronchiles.
1) *Trachea* splits at the Tracheal Bifurcation to left and right *Main [Primary] Bronchus*
2) Main Bronchus narrows to a portion without supportive cartilage called *Secondary [Lobar] Bronchi* (3 on the right and 2 on left)
3) Secondary Bronchi then splits into *Tertiary [Segmental] Bronchi* (branch into each lung segment)
4) Tertiary Bronchi branch into *Bronchioles* (little bronchi)
5) Bronchioles branch into *Terminal Broncioles* (smallest bronchi)
6) Terminal Bronchioles branch into *Respiratory Bronchioles*, which contain the *Aveolar Sac, Duct and ultimately Alveoli* [the air exchange chamber]
What is meant by Ventilation?
*Breathing*: inhaling Oxygen or exhaling Carbon Dioxide.
What is meant by Respiration?
The *exchange of gases between the lung and the alveoli capillaries* or between the *blood and the capillaries of tissues.*
What is meant by gas exchange and where does it occur?
Occurring in the capillaries, Oxygen enters the blood stream or tissues while carbon dioxide exits the tissues or blood stream.
What type of tissue lines the Alveoli?
What type of tissue lines the Alveoli?
Simple Squamous Epithelium, otherwise known as Type I cells
Why is it important for both the Alveoli and the Capillaries of the Lungs to have Simple Squamous Epithelium?
Why is it important for both the Alveoli and the Capillaries of the Lungs to have Simple Squamous Epithelium?
For the speedy exchange of gasses.
Alveoli's compress as we exhale, sticking together due to a minimal amount of water being present. What prevents the Alveoli from permanently sticking together?
Alveoli’s compress as we exhale, sticking together due to a minimal amount of water being present. What prevents the Alveoli from permanently sticking together?
Type II Simple Cubodial Epithelium which secrete a substance called surfactant, which prevents the surfaces of the alveoli from sticking together.
What are the 3 types of Pleurae found in each Lung?
What are the 3 types of Pleurae found in each Lung?
1)Parietal Pleura
2)Pleural Cavity – a space between that is present when the lung gets shoved upward as we inhale
3)Visceral Pleura
How do the Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity?
How do the Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity?
By dividing the two lateral pleura comparents housing the lungs and the central mediastum.
How many Lobes make up the Left and Right Lungs?
How many Lobes make up the Left and Right Lungs?
*The Right has 3:* the superior, inferior and middle lobes
*The Left has 2:* the superior and inferior lobes
Describe the Cardiac Notch
Describe the Cardiac Notch
a space in the medial inferior section of the lung that allows room for the heart to reside.
Why is the Right lung larger than the left?
The Left Lung has the cardiac notch in it whereas the Right Lung does not
Describe the Hilus
Describe the Hilus
located on the medial side of each lung where blood vessels enter and exit.
What are the 2 phases of Pulmonary Ventilation?
What are the 2 phases of Pulmonary Ventilation?
*Inspiration:* Inhalation
*Expiration:* Exhalation
The movement of air is a function of what?
air pressure
How does air follow a similar movement as diffusion?
Air moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.
When we inhale, what must be true about the pressure in our lungs versus the outside pressure?
When we inhale, what must be true about the pressure in our lungs versus the outside pressure?
the pressure in our lungs must be *lower* relative to the outside air pressure.
When we exhale, what must be true about the pressure in our lungs versus the outside pressure?
When we exhale, what must be true about the pressure in our lungs versus the outside pressure?
the pressure in our lungs must be *higher* relative to the outside air pressure
How do we control the pressure changes in our thoracic cavity?
How do we control the pressure changes in our thoracic cavity?
We change the pressure in the thoracic cage by *adjusting the Diaphram.*
Inhale: our thoracic cage becomes larger, reducing the pressure in our lungs, allowing the outside air (higher pressure) to move inward.
Exhale: our thoracic cage becomes smaller, increasing the pressure in our lungs, which forces the air out.
What is Quiet Expiration?
a passive process with the Diaphragm moving superiorly with the inspiratory muscles relaxing. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
What do the pulmonary arteries do?
move *oxygen poor* blood away from the heart from the right ventricle to the lungs.
What do pulmonary veins do?
move *oxygen rich* blood from the lungs back to the left atria of the heart.