Please enter something

Learning & Behavior

question

Working memory is also considered:
answer

Short-term memory
question

Rehearsal helps in keeping short-term memory and _____?
answer

transferring data to long-term memory
question

Retroactive Interference occurs when the presentation of _____ material interferences with the memory of something that was learned _______.
answer

old;later
question

Proactive Interefences occur when ____ learned material impairs the learning of _____ material.
answer

Previously & New
question

Alcohol interferes with the ability to form _______ ?
answer

new long-term memories
question

Research suggests that physical punishment is:
answer

Temporarily effective and causes an array of consequences later in the child’s life, including antisocial behavior, poorer academic achievement, and decreased self-esteem.
question

Physical punishment is associated with (Choose the best possible answer)
answer

Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive symptoms, problems in parent child relationships, and problems in social behavior.
question

One of the major criticisms in regards to studies with video games and aggression is
answer

Laboratory settings are different than environments gamers would normally play in
question

Albert Bandura Social learning theory focused on the learning that occurs within a social context it considers that people learn from one another via:
answer

Observational learning, imitation and modeling
question

Observing the media violence may foster aggressive behavior with observational learning, imitation and modeling
answer

Aggressive scripts, Desensitization & Cognitive priming
question

Aristotle, and other philosophers believed that __________ was an accurate way to interpret personality where ones physical appearance was compared to animal features.
answer

Physiognomy
question

The theory of ________ helps us understand how a child may become feral.
answer

Theory of imitation
question

In the eyeblink discrimination conditioning, the airpuff to the eye was which one of the following?
answer

Unconditioned Stimulus
question

What role does aggression play in child development?
answer

The development of problem behaviors
question

Brain development in infants and growing children is based upon:
answer

Medical Conditions & Intellectual Support from their Families
question

Learning is influenced by:
answer

Nature, Nurture & Motivation
question

Piaget supported the _______ theory while Chomsky supported the _______ theory of Learning and Language acquisition.
answer

Constructivism, Nativism
question

Most of the research on Language for Autistic children studies the ______ of Language Acquisition
answer

Product
question

_______ techniques tend to be the most widely used in therapy with Autistic children.
answer

Operant Conditioning
question

A man may always use the same pen to take exams, because he feels the pen is lucky. The first time he used the lucky pen, he got a B on the exam. The second time he got an A. This is an example of:
answer

Associative learning, Noncontingent reinforcement & Superstitious conditioning
question

Superstitious behavior arises when the delivery of a______________ occurs close together in time with an independent behavior. Therefore, the behavior is accidentally_______________ increasing the likelihood of that behavior occurring again.
answer

positive reinforcement——-reinforced
question

According to the uncertainty hypothesis, superstitious people believe that:
answer

The outcome of certain events is determined partly by controllable forces and partly by uncontrollable forces
question

Which of the following is NOT one of Aristotle’s Three Principles of Association?
answer

Consistency
question

What is the second step in forming memories?
answer

Storage of encoded information.
question

What is neurogenesis?
answer

The growth of new neurons during new learning experiences.
question

Dissociation can occur when there are difficulties integrating information from multiple sources. These sources may includes
answer

Experiences, Emotions & Memories
question

The instinctual human ability to acquire speech is supported by:
answer

Pinker
question

Social Learning Theory is a combination of classical and operant conditioning with an added component of ___________.
answer

Observational Learning
question

Spanking is a form of positive punishment. Positive punishments ________something to __________ a behavior.
answer

add, decrease
question

One factor theory
answer

avoidance that states tat avoidance of aversive stimulus, such as a shock, can in itself serve as a reinforcer, and that the classical conditioning component of the factor theory is not necessary
question

Two factory theory
answer

Both classical conditioning learning to fear a stimulus an operant conditioning are required for avoidance responding
question

Shuttle Box
answer

An experimental box chamber with rectangular compartments. An animal may be required to move from one compartment to the other to escape or avoid an aversive stimulus, such as a shock
question

Cognitive theory of avoidance
answer

the theory that avoidance responses will occur when the individual has expectations that 1 an aversive event will occur if no response is made and 2 aversive even will be avoided if response is made. Avoidance responding will continue one or both of these expectations are violated
question

Response cost
answer

A behavior reduction procedure in which the individual penalized by the loss of reinforcers if an undesired behavior occurs.
question

Response blocking
answer

A behavior reduction procedure in which the individual is physically prevented from making an unwanted response.
question

In extinction of avoidance __________ can teach the individual that the avoidance response is no longer necessary
answer

Response blocking
question

Flooding
answer

A treatment for phobias in which a patient is presented with a highly feared object or situation, which is not removed until the patient’s fear diminishes
question

Learned Helplessness
answer

Seligman’s term for the impaired ability to learn an avoidance response that occurs after a subject has been exposed to inescapable aversive stimuli
question

Premack Principle of Reinforcement
answer

an opportunity to engage in more probable responses will reinforce a less probable response
question

Premack Principle of Reinforcement
answer

A child that likes watching television (more probable response) will wash dishes (less probable response) if told by their parents that they can watch television after washing dishes is an example of
question

Removing a pleasant stimulus after a behavior occurs is called
answer

negative punishment
question

According to two factor theory, in a shuttle box shock avoidance procedure, an avoidance response is reinforced by
answer

the termination of the shock
question

Suppose an animal first receives tone shock pairings in one chamber, and then learns to jump over a barrier to escape a shock in a shuttle box. If the the tone is now presented n the shuttle box the likely result is
answer

An increase in the rate which the dog jumps over the barrier
question

As animals become experience in an avoidance task
answer

visible signs of fear decrease
question

According to the one factor theory of avoidance
answer

avoidance of an aversive event can itself serve as a reinforcer
question

According to the cognitive theory of avoidance, a subject learns to expect
answer

that no shock will occur if no response is made & that shock will occur if no response is made
question

According to two factor theory, the procedure of response blocking and flooding
answer

works because the fear eliciting properties of the CS are extinguished
question

When flooding is used as behavior therapy it is important
answer

Make sure that a session continues until the patient’s fear decreases
question

According to Bolles’s theory of species specific defense reactions, shock avoidance learning in a rat would probably be slowest it the required response
answer

Shock is not usually encountered in the natural environment
question

According to Bolles’s theory of species specific defense reactions, shock avoidance learning in a rat would probably be slowest it the required response
answer

Avoidance in the natural environment does not require many learning trials
question

According to Bolles’s theory of species specific defense reactions, shock avoidance learning in a rat would probably be slowest it the required response
answer

There are manny more discriminative stimuli to examine in the natural environment
question

Learned helplessness is likely to develop if
answer

Uncontrollable shocks are preceded by controllable shocks
question

The effects of punishment are
answer

dependent on the immediacy of the punishment
question

To obtain the maximum reduction in a behavior, the most effective schedule of punishment is
answer

continuous punishment
question

It may be difficult to reduce a behavior with punishment it
answer

the punishment is delayed
question

It may be difficult to reduce a behavior with punishment it
answer

the behavior is highly motivated
question

It may be difficult to reduce a behavior with punishment it
answer

the intensity of the punishment is gradually increased
question

A disadvantage of using punishments is
answer

One must continually monitor the subject behavior
question

A disadvantage of using punishments is
answer

the subject may exhibit aggressive behavior in response to the punishment
question

A disadvantage of using punishments is
answer

the subject may try to escape from the situation
question

To treat a women in psychiatric hospital who hoarded, the nurses gave the woman a large number of towels. This is an example of
answer

stimulus satiation
question

Reinforcing normal speech while ignoring psychotic speech is an example of
answer

Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
question

A young boy disobeys his parents by coming home late. An example of the use of negative punishment would be to
answer

give the child no allowance for that week
question

ABAB Design
answer

for behavioral treatment where each “A” phase is a baseline phase in which the patient behavior is recorded, but no treatment is give and each “B” phase is a treatment phase
question

Weber’s Law
answer

a principle of perception that states that the just noticeable difference (the smallest difference between two stimuli that can be detected) is proportional to the sizes of the stimuli
question

knowledge of performance
answer

In motor skill learning, detailed feedback given to the learner, such as information about which parts of the movement were performed well and how other parts of the movement could be improved.
question

knowledge of results
answer

In motor-skill learning, feedback given to the learner about how close his or her movement came to the goal.
question

Transfer of training
answer

In motor skills learning, how experience on one task affects performance of another task
question

Positive transfer
answer

In motor skills learning, when practice of one tasks improves learning or performance of a similar tasks
question

Negative transfer
answer

In motor-skill learning, when practice of one task interferes with learning or performance on another task.
question

Ironic error
answer

In motor-skill learning, a false movement that a person is trying hard to avoid but has a tendency to make, especially if attention is distracted by some competing task.
question

Social Facilitation
answer

a type of imitation in which the behavior of one individual prompts a similar behavior from another individual, but that behavior was already in the repertoire of the imitator.
question

Stimulus enhancement
answer

A type of imitation in which a model directs the learner’s attention to a particular objects or place in the environment, so that the learner acquires a new behavior more quickly than through trial and error
question

Graduated modeling
answer

a type of modeling in which the model’s behavior steadily progress from simple to more difficult behavior
question

Assertiveness Training
answer

A form of therapy for people who are overly submissive in certain situations and want to develop the ability to stand up for their rights. It frequently consists of a combination of modeling, role playing, and behavioral rehearsal.
question

Participant modeling
answer

this is where the learner imitates the behavior of the model in each step of the treatments.
question

Maintenance rehearsal
answer

information is retained in short-term memory but does not necessarily strengthen information in long term memory
question

associative rehearsal
answer

strengthened the information in long-term memory.
question

behavior decelerator
answer

Any procedure leads to a slowing reduction or elimination of unwanted behavior
question

animal/comparative cognition
answer

a field of psychology that compares the cognitive process and abilities of different species, including humans.
question

An advantage of applying Premack’s Principle in behavior modification is that
answer

One does not always have to use physical items as reinforcers
question

One type of empirical finding that poses a problem for Premack’s principle is that
answer

less probable behaviors can sometimes reinforce more probable behaviors
question

Performance on a delayed matching to sample task can be affected by
answer

the duration of the delay between sample and comparison stimuli