Latin American Independence Vocabulary

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Caste System
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A strict social structure into which a person is born into one of the social classes, which determined by race.
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Peninsulare
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People in Latin America born in Spain.
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Creole
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Peoplein Latin America of who are full Europeans.
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Mestizo
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A person of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
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Mulatto
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A person of mixed African and European ancestry.
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Nativism
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The belief that native-born Americans are more superior.
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Nepotism
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Showing favoritism to friends or family in business or politics.
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Viceroy
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A representative of a king or of a country
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Pigmentocracy
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Social ordering based on skin color; Lighter skinned people at top, darker skinned people at the bottom.
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Cry de Dolores
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Hidalgo’s action of taking up arms and raising an army in his fight against the injustices of the Spanish colonial system.
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Encomienda System
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A system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians.
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Regionalism
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Loyalty to a particular region.
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Plan of Iguala
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Iterbide and Guerrero’s plan for independence from Spain. 3 Guarantees -Religion -Equality -Independence
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Coup d’etat
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A sudden, often violent, overthrowing of the government.
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Caudillo
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A Latin American military dictator
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Economic Independence
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Countries do NOT rely on other countries
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Peonage
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Labor to pay back debt
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Monroe Doctrine
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President Monroe’s statement forbidding more colonization in the Americas and stating that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility.
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Transculturalization
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Exchange of cultural ideas
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Roosevelt Corollary
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U.S. would act as the world’s police. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
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Big Stick Foreign Policy
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A political cartoon which depicts Roosevelt pulling ships in the ocean. Meaning that the US is the international police in the world. Used to intimidate others.
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Toussaint L’Ouverture
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Former slave who became a general and led rebel forces against french to gain independence for Haiti
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Miguel Hidalgo
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Mexican priest who established an independence movement w/ Indians and mestizos. After his victories, he was captured and executed.
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Jose Morelos
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Mexican priest & student of Miguel Hidalgo. He led forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was later captured and executed. “Servant of the Nation”
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Jose de San Martin
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A revolutionary leader, who freed Chile and joined Bolivar to free Peru.
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Agustine de Iturbide
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Defeated Padre Morelos & Proclaimed independence. Declared himself emperor Created Mexico 2x of present day Mexico. Later, overthrown.
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Tupac Amaru
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Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by lower social classes. Revolt failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
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Simon Bolivar
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Nicknamed the Liberator, led revolutions against the Spanish in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, etc. Later became dictator.
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Dom Pedro
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Son of the Portugal King that ruled Brazil and declared it independent.

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