Lab 9 Urinary System

name the 9 organs in the urinary system
1. adrenal gland
2. kidney
3. ureter
4. urinary bladder
5. urethra
6. inferior vena cava
7. aorta
8. renal artery
9. renal vein

what are the internal structers of the kidney?
1. cortex
2. renal columns
3. medulla
4. renal pyramids
5. renal pelvis
6. minor calyx
7. major calyx
8. ureter

3 functions of kidney
1. filtration
2. reabsorption
3. secretion

filtration
bulk flow of protein-free plasma from glomerular capillaries into nephron

reabsorption
back into blood, materials to be retained; neeed to reabsorb nutrients

secretion
transport of materials into tubule for excretion; active process

what body parts are involved in urine formation?
1. afferent arteriole
2. glomerulus
3. glomerular (bowman’s) capsule
4. proximal convoluted tubule
5. descending and ascedning limbs of the Loop of Henle
6. distal convoluted tubule
7. collecting tubule (collecting duct)

process of urine formation
1. efferent and afferent arterioles make up the glomerulus which are all in bowmans’ capsule where filtrate is produced
2. filtrate moves into the proximal convoluted tubule where water is reaborbed, ions and all organic nutrients
3. solution goes through descending loop of henle, thin descending limb where water is reabsorbed, descending limb
4. reaches the bottom of the loop at the Loop of Henle where further wat reabsorption in the thin descedning limb and both sodium and chloride in the thick ascending limb
5. water moves to the distal convoluted tubule where secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins happens and cariable reabsorptiong of water, sodium, and calcium (under hormonal control)
6. collecting duct variable reabsoprtion of water, rebsorptiong or secretiong of sodium, potassium, hydrogen and bicarbonate ions
7. pappilary duct delivery of urine to minor calyx

what are the 4 solutions given to students?
1. 1 L of water
2. 100 ml of 3% saline (nacl)
3. 500 ml of 1% NaHCO3
4. 1 cup black coffee

how many in between should we collect urine?
30 minutes

what do we measure in urinalysis?
1. volume
2. specific gravity
3. chlroide concentration
4. pH

what do we use to measure specific gravity?
urine refractometer

what do we use to measure pH?
pH meter or pH paper

what do we use to measure glucose?
benedict’s reagent

what do we use to measure ketone?
rothera’s reagent

for the case study if the “normal” solution positive of negative?
negative

for case study, what are the positive controls?
1. glucose
2. protein
3. ketones
4. unknown A, B, C, D

filtration
passive process where a portion of the plasma flowing through the glomerulus is transfered from the blood to the capsule. occurs due to favorable pressure gradients where blood pressure is greater than the colloid osmotic pressure
-filtrate formed is essentially a protein-free plasma

colloid osmotic pressure
pressure due to proteins in the blood

what is filtration in the glomerulus dependent on?
pressure gradients between the blood pressure and colloid osmotic pressure, if the blood pressure is greater than the colloid osmotic pressure, and some of the plasma goes into the glomerulus form the blood and there is no proteins

are there proteins in the filtrate that enters the glomerulus during filtration?
no

reabsorption
process where some of the filtered materials are returned to the blood form the tubules. can either be passive or active process. this process conserves substances vital to organism. water is primary constituient moved by passive transport, if the max absorption amount is reached, the substances will be shown in the urine

is water actively or passively reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood?
passively, and depends on concentration gradients

is glucose, Na+, Ca2+, and PO43- actively or passively reabsorbed from the tubules back into the blood?
actively, has a transport maximum, if max it met, the substances will show up in the urin

secretion
process where materials are transferred from blood to the tubules in ADDITIOn to what has already been filtered. this allows for more specific substances to be removed than is filtered, mostly active process, hydrogen ions, NH3-creatinine and PAH are naturally occuring compounds removed by the process of secretion. foreign objects like aspirin and penicilin are also secreted

the kidney will excrete more water if salt is in excess in the body or has decreased in salt in the body?
when salt decreases, more water will be excreted

volume loading
the volume of the body fluids was increased while osmolality remained unchanged. isotonic solution ingested

in experiment what do we ingest to show the ability to regulate the pH?
administration of alkaline solution, sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3

what mechanism allows for organic acids to be actively removed from the blood more than even the filtration process?
secretion

ADH
antidiuretic hormone, acts primarily on the collecting duct to promote water reabsorption.

what does caffeine and alcohol do to ADH?
they are inhibitors , suppress ADH secretion and fluid is excreted

how much urine is produced a day?
0.6-2.5 liters

urochrome
pigment in urine that makes it look yellow and is the end product of hemoglobin degradation

turbid
persistent cloudy urine, may indicate infection

what are some waste products of metabolism found in urine?
1. CO2
2. urea
3. uric acid
4. creatinine
5. NaCl
6. ammonia

what are some constituents if found in blood should make someone worry?
1. albumin
2. glucose
3. ketones

average freshly voided urine pH
6.0

range of urine pH
4.7-7.5

urine that is consistently acidic means what?
metabolic or respiratroy acidosis, methanol posinnig or metabolic disorders such as PKU

urine that is consistently alkaline means whwat?
metabolic or respiratory alkalosis or urinary tract infection, urine retention in the bladder, anemia, alkaline therapy or obstructive gastric ulcers

specific gravity
increases as dissolved solids in solutions increases

normal urine specific gravity
1.015-1.025

range for dilute urine
less than 1.015

consistnelty dilute urine meant what?
hyposthernuria, chronic nephtitis, diabetes insipidus, or cardiovascular problems

range for concentrated urine
above 1.030

consistently high specific gravity
usually means hypersthenuria
can look at acute nephritic and diabetes mellitus and dehydration

if urine glucose levels exceed this level, the person is said to be glycosuria
above 30 mg per 100 ml of urine

what is the renal threshold for glucose?
160mg/100ml.

this disease has blood glucose levels that exceed 160mg/100ml
glycouria

what are the 4 solutions that students willl be drinking
1. 1 L of water
2. 100 ml of 3% saline (NaCl)
3. 500 ml of 1% NaHCO3
4. 2 cups strong black coffee

pH of urine was determineed by using what?
pH paper and color was compared

after figuring out the specific gravity, what number would you multiply to the last 2 numbers measured to get the grams of solids per liter of urine?
multiiply the last 2 numbers found by 2.66 g/L

what reagent are we using to test for glucose?
benedicts

what does benedicts reagent testing depend on to get results?
1. rely on reactivity of curpiric sulfate with reducing sugars in an alkaline medium
2. the cupric sulfate is reduced to cuprous oxide yieldling the green to orange colored solution, depending on the amount ot reducing sugar present

if a test is positive for glucose, what will be seen?
a precipitate of a certain color

what color wil solution be if the test is negative for glucose?
it will be clear blue to a cloudy green

what color determines the highest amount of glucose in a solution?
red

should you mix the tubes that have the benedicts reagents in them?
no

after adding the benedicts reagent to the urine in the test tubes, what is the next step
place tubes in a warm water beaker and bring water to boil for 5 minutes, let cool, and note color

what are the two tests that can be done to determine the presence of glucose in urine?
1. Benedict’s reagent test
2. clinitest reagent tablets

clinitest reagent tablets
1. 2 drops of urine with 10 drops water
2. 1 clinitest tablet into the tube and watch for boiling action
3. once boiling as stopped, wait 15 seconds and gently shake contents in the tube
4. compare change of colort o chart

what reagent is used to measure protein in urine?
Exton’s reagent

should you have equal amounts of urine and exton’s reagent in the test tubes?
yes, 3 ml total of each

should you mix the solutions made when using exton’s reagent to measure amount of protein in urine?
yes, mix by shaking

what is a positive result look like for testing protein in urine by Exton’s reagent?
if positive, cloudiness will be seen or a formation of precipitate.

what does a negative result look like for testing protein in uring by exton’s regents?
not cloudy, no precipiate formed

what reagent do we use to test for Ketone’s in urine?
Rothera reagent

is Rother’a reagent a liquid or solid?
solid, add 1 gm to 5 ml of urine

after putting Rothera’s reagent with the urine, what is the next step when testing?
go to fume hood and slowly add ammonium hydroxide NH4OH and then leaves tubes under hood for 3-5 minutes

what is a positve result using Rothera’s reagent for testing ketone’s in urine look like?
a pink ring forms, don’t mix

how do we test for the concentration of chloride (NaCl) in our urine?
1. 10 drops of urine in test tube
2. one drop of 20% potassium chromate solution K2CrO4
3. add 2.9% silver nitrate AgNO3 drop by drop until the solution turns a reddish brown color
4. each drop of AgNO3 correlates to 0.3 mg NaCl/ml urine. Calculate the NaCl concentration in urine sample from this

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