Lab 5: Lymphatic and and immune systems

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Tear and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system? adaptive defenses innate internal defenses innate external defenses
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innate external defenses
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phagocytic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system? innate internal defenses innate external defenses adaptive defenses
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innate internal defenses
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what cell makes antibodies? cytotoxic T cells memory T cells memory B cells plasma B cells
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Plasma B cells
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what is the name of the substance that a B or T cell (lymphocyte) recognizes and bings to? antigen pathogen receptor antibody
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antigen
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what type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient? humoral immunity cell-mediated immunity antibody mediated immunity
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humoral immunity
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if a virus attacks a cell, what type of immunity would be activiated? cell-mediated immunity antibody-mediated immunity humoral immunity
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cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
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cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells? Macrophages cytotoxic T cells B cells
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cytotoxic T cells
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which of the following are primary lymphoid organs? lymph nodes and tonsils slpeen and thymus appendix and spleen bone marrow and thymus
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bone marrow and thymus
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which immune cells are phagocytes? macrophages and neutrophils B and T cells erthrocytes
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macrophages and neutrophils
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which part of the antibody recognizes and binds to the antigen? heavy chain constant region variable region light chain
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variable region
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what is the B cell receptor? The helper T cell CD4 and CD8 the antibody the anitgen
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the antibody
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what must happen to activate a B cell? binding of antigen and help from a T cell binding of antigen to the B cell receptor antibodies must be produced
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binding of antigen and help from a T cell
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what happens after B cells are activated? plasma cells and memory cells are formed clones of helper T cells are formed clones of cytotoxic T cells are formed
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plasma cells and memory cells are formed
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what is the role of plasma cells? they kill cells that carry antibodies on their surface they phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes they produce antibodies
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they produce antibodies
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what type of cell makes it possible to mount a faster and more powerful immune response if an antigen is encountered at a later date? plasma cells memory cells macrophages cytotoxic T cells
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memory cells
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What is the most common type of T cell? CD8 cells plasma cells cytotoxic T cells CD4 cells
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CD4 cells CD4 cells become helper T cells when they are activated
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CD8 cells become _____ when they are activated? cytotoxic T cells helper T cells CD4 cells plasma cells
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Cytotoxic T cells that destroy cells in the body that harbor anything foriegn
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Activated CD4 cells become____ Helper T cells plasma cells Cytotoxic T cells Macrophages
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Helper T cells Helper T cells help to activate B cells, other T cells, and macrophages, and direct the adaptive immune response
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T cells can recognize and respond to only processed fragments of antigens that are displayed on the surface of cells on one of two types of MHC proteins, either class I MHC proteins or class II proteins. What class of MHC proteins do CD8 cells recognize
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Class I MHC proteins naive CD8 and cytotoxic T cells can recognize antigens that are displayed on Class I MHC proteins.
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which class of MHC protein do CD4 cells recognize
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MHC II
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how do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells? by phagocytosis through programmed cell death, or apoptosis with antibodies
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through programmed cell death, or apoptosis
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how is cell death caused by cytotoxic T cells perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells infected cells are tagged with antibodies
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perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells
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what is the role of the helper T cells? They help in the activation of NK cells They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells They help in the activation of only cytotoxic T cells
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They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
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Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells are involved in which type of adaptive immunity? innate external defense cellular or cell-mediated immunity innate internal defense humoral immunity
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cellular or cell-mediated immunity
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which type of cell is deficient in AIDS? cytotoxic T cells Helper T cells B cells CD8 cells
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Helper T Cells
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Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types? all nucleated cells antigen-presenting cells
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antigen-presenting cells
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which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens (antigens that orginate from outside the cell)?
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Class II MHC proteins
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Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which type of cell?
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CD8 cells
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what major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
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CD8 cells
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Which major class of lymphocytes become helper T cells?
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CD4 cells
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excess interstitial fluid is collected by the ____ veins lymph nodes blood capillaries lymphatic capillaries phagocytes
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lymphatic capillaries
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a special set of lymphatic vessels called lacteals transports absorbed fats from the small intestine to the blood stream
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true
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an abnormal buildup of fluid in the tissues due to failure or blockage of the lymphatic vessels is called__________
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lymphedema
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what is the main function of the lymphatic system? the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood the lymphatic system makes blood cells through hematopoiesis transports blood and lymph throughout the body produces high fluid pressures
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the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream back to the blood
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adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely, what is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability? fibroblasts minivalves trabeculae lacteals
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minivalves
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which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries? increasing pressure of the interstitial space inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
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increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
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lymph from the right leg is ulitmately delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?
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thoracic duct lymph from the entire body below the diaphram, right and left, enters the venous circulation via the thoracic duct
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lymph from what region of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
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the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the right side of the thorax
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lymph from the left hand must travel through which cluster of lymph nodes? the cervical, axillar and inguinal nodes inguinal nodes cervical nodes axillary nodes
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axillary nodes
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which is true about the flow of lymph through a lymph node?
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lymph enters the node through the afferent lymph vessels and leaves through the efferent lymph vessels
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which type of immune cells are found in the lymph nodes? only B lymphocytes and plasma cells macrophages and dendritic cells B cells, plasma cells, and T cells All of the listed cell types
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all of the listed cell types
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The lighter stained areas within the centers of lymphoid follicles are formed by B cells proliferating in response to antigen. These lighter stained regions are called ___________. tonsils peyer’s patches sinuses germinal centers
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germinal centers
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All of the following are functions of the spleen Execpt: is a site for interaction of lymphocytes with their antigens removes pathogens, aged erythrocytes, and platelets from the blood stores platelets filters lymph
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filters lymph
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where does filtering and processing for RBCs and pathogens in the blood occur? red pulp of the spleen white pulp of the spleen splenic artery lymph node
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red pulp of the spleen
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in the spleen, what is the site of immune interactions between antigens and lymphocytes? white pulp of the spleen lymph nodes splenic artery red pulp of the spleen
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white pulp of the spleen
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which mucosa -associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is also known as the adenoids? peyers patches pharyngeal tonsils palatine tonsils lingual tonsils
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pharyngeal tonsils
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which of the MALT is a blind sac hanging from the first part of the large intestine? tonsils appendix peyer’s patches
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appendix
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why is a ruptured appendix a medical emergency?
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because pathogens are spilled into the sterile peritoneal cavity
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What is occuring in the germinal centers?
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B cells are activated in response to antigen
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which lympoid organ is primaryly active during the early years of life
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the thymus (responsible for the maturation of T lymphocytes)
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which of these lymphoid organs is part of a collegtion of tissues called the MALT and removes pathogens entering the pharynx?
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tonsils function to protect the throat and surrounding tissues from infection via the mouth and nose
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which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?
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the spleen
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which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus
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the thymus is located in the inferior neck and superior thorax profound to the superior sternum (B)
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which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the wall of the small intestine has the abililty to launch an immune response when presented with appropriate antigens peyer’s patch tonsils thymus spleen
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peyer’s patch
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which of these lymphatic organs is organized with trabeculaee and compartments containing white pulp and red pulp?
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the spleen
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the filtration of lymph and activation of the immune system are two basic functions of _______ tonsils peyer’s patch spleen lymph nodes
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lymph nodes
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which part of the spleen is the site of immune function? white pulp splenic cords splenic sinusoids red pulp
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white pulp (contains reticular fibers with suspended lymphocytes)
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where is the spleen located?
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in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphram and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
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tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsils. what structures found in most other lymphoid organs are missing from the tonsils that allows for the presence of these crypts? lymphoid follicles lymphocytes capsule germinal centers
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capsule absence of capsule allows fluids from the throat and mouth to enter crypts and get close to lymphatic tissue- allows for better immune function, but prone to infection
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which tonsils is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharnyx and is referred to as the adneoids if its enlarged? tubual tonsils pharyngeal tonsils lingual tonsils palatine tonsils
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pharyngeal tonsils
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protein containing fluid within the lymphatic vessels
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lymph
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stores blood platelets
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spleen
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recieves lymph from most of the body
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thoracic duct
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small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
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lymph nodes
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largest lymphatic organ
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spleen
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isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine
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peyer’s patches

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