Jonestown and Jim Jones Essay
Jonestown and its leader. Jim Jones
Behind every spiritual or societal motion is the leader that created it. James “Jim” Warren Jones was the male parent of the “People’s Temple” turned “Jonestown” . The life-time of the motion created by Jim Jones started with bright beginnings and concluded with a dark terminal. It was filled with impressive looks of religion and sinister illustrations of control. One can non assist to inquire what it was that created the adult male who started it all and how did it get at its disconnected terminal?
Jim Jones was born on May 13. 1931 in a rural country of Randolph County. Indiana. His female parent. Lynetta Putnam Jones. believed she had in fact given birth to a Messiah. boding Jones’ hereafter as Reverend of the People’s Temple. She claims that her dead female parent appeared to her in a dream stating her that she would bear a boy who would compensate the wrongs of the universe. [ 1 ] In order to maintain her dreams of her boy claiming his messiah-ship alive she raised him with Methodist beliefs. However. due to the economic troubles of the Great Depression the Jones household had to travel to nearby Lynn. Indiana where Jim grew up in a hovel nothingness of any indoor plumbing. With small else to make to ease his state of affairs. Jim became an devouring reader and studied the plants and life of persons such as Joseph Stalin. Karl Marx. Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler. [ 2 ]
Shortly after graduating High School and get marrieding Marceline Baldwin Jones he became a member of the Communist Party of the USA in 1951. In 1960. Indianapolis Democratic Mayor Charles Boswell appointed Jones manager of the Human Rights Commission. Jones nevertheless was non diffident about seeking to portion his positions on integrating with the populace. Some illustrations of his extremist integrationist theories include Jones assisting to incorporate churches. eating houses. the telephone company. the constabulary section. a theatre. an amusement park. and the Methodist Hospital in his country. [ 3 ] Furthermore. included in his attempts. was an incident happening after Hakenkreuz were painted on the places of two African American households in the environing vicinity. Jones personally walked the country. soothing African Americans and reding white households non to travel out. Similarly. he set up variousstings to catch eating houses declining to function African American clients. He besides wrote to American Nazi leaders so proceeded to leak their responses to the media. Finally. when Jones had by chance been placed in the black ward of a infirmary after he had collapsed. he refused to be moved and began to do the beds. and empty the bed pans of black patients in the ward. Boswell had advised Jones to maintain a low profile. but he ignored these warning by happening new mercantile establishments for his positions on local wireless and telecasting plans. When he was asked to discontinue his actions. he resisted and was cheered on at a meeting of the NAACP and Urban League. [ 4 ]
Jim Jones became the topic of unbelievable sums of unfavorable judgment because of his beliefs. [ 5 ] For illustration. white-owned concerns and locals were really critical of him. Histories of hooliganism and panic inflicted on Jim Jones include a swastika being placed on the Temple. a stick of dynamite being left in a Temple coal heap. and a dead cat being thrown at Jones’ house after a endangering phone call. There is guess that Jones himself may hold been an confederate to several of these Acts of the Apostless. [ 6 ]
It is clear that whether these Acts of the Apostless were self-perpetuated or non. Jones met unbelievable sums of resistance in his early old ages when seeking to voice his positions and sentiments. He posed the job to himself of how to show his Marxist positions. His determination was to infiltrate the church when he had witnessed multiple religion healing ceremonials at a Baptist church.
In 1952. Jones became the pupil curate of Sommerset Southside Methodist Church. To his surprise. he was non merely allowed in the church but was given a leading place despite his political positions. [ 7 ] Jones saw how the church drew in monolithic Numberss of people no affair their current societal state of affairs or background. He besides realized the demand these people had for some kind of reassurance from whatever subjugation they felt. Jim Jones would subsequently feed on that failing he saw in people to make his Temple.
Jones sought to incarnate the features that would appeal to the most people looking for comfort. He used his positions of socialism. integrating. and perceived subjugation to garner a instead significant following. One manner he embodied these positions. particularly of integrating. was the creative activity of his so called “rainbow family” . Jim and Marceline Jones adopted several kids of at least partial non-Caucasian lineage. The two adopted three kids of Korean-American descent. They were Lew. Suzanne and Stephanie. Jones had long been promoting his Temple members to follow orphans from war ravaged Korea. In 1954. he and his married woman besides adopted Agnes Jones. so 11 old ages old and partly of Native American descent. Suzanne Jones was adopted at the age of six 5 old ages subsequently. In June 1959. the twosome had their lone biological kid. Stephan Gandhi Jones. The twosome besides adopted another boy. who was white. named Tim. Tim Jones’ birth female parent was a member of the Peoples Temple. was originally named Timothy Glen Tupper. Two old ages subsequently. in 1961. the Jones household made history by going the first white twosome in Indiana to follow a black kid. who they named James Warren Jones. Jr. [ 8 ] This act brought Jones’ integrationist positions to finish incarnation. He said to his people that integrating had become much more of a personal issue to him and his household ; that it was a affair of their hereafter in this universe. Jones even translated this term over to the Temple as good by mentioning to them as a “rainbow family” in their ain manner. [ 9 ]
The People’s Temple was started in Indianapolis in the mid 1950’s. Some members recall that the Temple purported itself to pattern what it called “apostolic socialism” . [ 10 ] After Jones had received a considerable sum of unfavorable judgment in Indiana for his integrationist positions. he journeyed to Brazil looking for a safe oasis to travel his Temple ; this trip was besides the first clip that Jones had been to Guyana. After his return. Jones made wild claims that the universe would shortly be engulfed in a atomic war. He even went so far as to foretell a day of the month. This would all go on on July 15. 1967. These events would necessarily so make a new socialist Eden on Earth. and therefore the Temple must travel to be alive in order to take portion in this fantastic Utopia that was to come. Jones read in esquire magazine that the rural Redwood Valley of California was to be safe from atomic war. [ 11 ] As a consequence of Jones’ case. the members left their lives in Indiana behind and the Temple moved to Redwood Valley. California in 1965. The Temple’s popularity grew and in the early 1970s. the Peoples Temple opened other subdivisions in a figure of metropoliss including San Fernando and San Francisco. In the mid-1970s.
the Temple officially moved its central office to San Francisco. CA. [ 12 ]
After the Temple’s resettlement to San Francisco. it became progressively more active in political relations. For illustration. the People’s Temple is credited with a big portion in the mayoral election of George Moscone in 1975. As a consequence of their attempts. Moscone appointed Jones as the Chairman of the San Francisco Housing Authority Commission. [ 13 ] Unique to Jones from other figures considered as cult leaders by the populace is that Jones held the public support and had contact with some of the highest degree politicians in the United States at the clip. A few of these influential politicians include Vice President. later Presidential campaigner. Walter Mondale and First Lady Rosalynn Carter. In September of 1976 Governor Jerry Brown. Lieutenant Governor Mervyn Dymally. and Assemblyman Willie Brown. among others. attended a big testimonial dinner. in which Willie Brown served as the maestro of ceremonials. held in award of Jones. Brown is quoted as stating. “Let me present to you what you should see every twenty-four hours when you look in the mirror in the early forenoon hours… Let me show to you a combination of Martin Luther. Angela Davis. Albert Einstein. and Chairman Mao. ” [ 14 ]
What was life like in the Temple that drew in such a big figure of followings? For most members the life inside the Temple represented precisely what they wanted the universe to go. Blacks and White persons were freely idolizing together. Jones’ boy. Stephan Jones. said “You proverb every walk of life” . [ 15 ] Everyone had their ain grounds for fall ining the Temple ; persons each heard their ain message. Another ex-member. Laura Johnston Kohl. stated her position as “People came to do a dramatic alteration in their lives. to do a dramatic alteration in the world” . [ 16 ] Terri Burford. yet another ex-member. recalls her first brush with the temple. She says.
“I had $ 20 to my name and I was thumbing up between Ukiah and Redwood Valley. where the Temple was. Person picked me up who was a member of the Temple and he said. ‘You know if you’re looking for a topographic point to remain. a topographic point to kip. we’ll acquire some nutrient. I’ve got the topographic point for you. I belong to this fantastic church and they feed the hungry. they take attention of the sick. Furthermore. the individual who runs this thing is God’” . [ 17 ]
This position of Jones as God was more than likely self-perpetuated and his followings latched on to it. In a recording of a discourse at the Temple Jones says. “Some people see me as the representative of the I am… Some people see a great trade of God in my organic structure. They see Christ in me. a hope of Glory. ” Jones besides asked his members to mention to his as “Dad” or “Father” . Members claimed that Jones had a particular gift that no 1 else possessed. they were enchanted by him. [ 18 ] Even foreigners that visited the Temple found their ain sort of sanctuary. Harvey Milk. who spoke at political mass meetings at the Temple and wrote to Jones after his visit to the Temple: “Rev Jim. It may take me many a twenty-four hours to come back down from the high that I reached today. I found something beloved today. I found a sense of being that makes up for all the hours and energy placed in a battle. I found what you wanted me to happen. I shall be back ; for I can ne’er go forth. ” The outlook so apparent from Harvey Milk’s authorship was non alone to him ; it was shared among the members of the temple. [ 19 ]
Life in the Temple was non every bit perfect as it was portrayed to be. The faith healings that were cardinal to his ministry that Jones put on were a fraud. The individual’s that experienced these healings and claimed to hold ne’er met Jones had really set up the whole act. Jones even played on the emotions of new members to beef up his claims. Hue Fortson. JR. recounts the procedure of how these healings on new members were set up by Jones.
“We had saluters at the front door and every clip one entered the service they would take their name purportedly for the mailing list. But lo and behold they staff workers would take that same name on the card. They would travel by people’s houses ; sometimes they looked at rubbish tins. sometimes they’d knock on the doors. if they weren’t at that place they’d interruption a window and they’d go in. So when that individual came back to church. if they decided. they would utilize that individual as one of his healing services. But. fundamentally that was portion of the set up to acquire people into the room. That he had some sort of excess particular gift that no 1 else had. ” [ 20 ]
Save for a few members that played a function in Jones set ups. everyone truly
believed in these healings. “I didn’t know the healings were bogus. I believed in religious healing and I am non the lone individual in the room that believed in it. A batch of people believed in religious healing” said Tim Carter. [ 21 ]
When Chronicle newsman Marshall Kilduff got air current of the People’s Temple he made it his mission to compose an expose on the group. Little did he cognize the sorts of narratives and the figure of people he would meet. What Kilduff would come to happen out stood with unbelievable contrast to the human-centered image that Jones had created for his Temple and its members. Ex-members relayed narratives of systematic maltreatment within the Temple. Terri Buford commented.
“There were a batch of whippings in the Temple. Peoples who strayed from the way one manner or the other. talked to an foreigner or had a relationship with an foreigner or something like that. Or did something that was considered Capitalistic. they would acquire beaten in forepart of the church. You couldn’t merely acquire up and go forth ; people would drag you back in. There wasn’t the pick of walking out and stating. ‘this isn’t tolerable’ . You didn’t have that pick. ” [ 22 ]
A figure of recordings from Temple services depict Jones as stating that persons that were sing these whippings were acquiring precisely what they deserved ; that they deserved it all. Jones is on record as stating his followings that he was “the merely true heterosexual” . Yet. there is at least one history of his sexual maltreatment of a male member of his fold in forepart of the followings. apparently to turn out the man’s ain homosexual inclinations existed. Jones is besides recorded as express joying during the proceedings of the maltreatment. He claims that it was something he needed to make in order to command the group. he deemed it necessary. In his head and in the heads of the Temple members sing this. it was the thought that the terminal justified the means. It was all with the end of a perfect Utopian society in head. Kilduff was taken aback by the figure of histories he had received. He reported that in the beginning it was difficult to spot who was stating the truth and who was lying but by the terminal when multiple persons came to him
with the same narratives of maltreatment he could no longer inquiry its legitimacy. When Kilduff had compiled his findings into the expose of the decennary he tried to travel public with it. However. his magazine wouldn’t touch it and neither would many other magazines or newspapers. This was thanks to Jones’ political support from old ages of his human-centered image. It wasn’t until Nine West magazine made the determination to pick up the narrative that Jones made the determination to deracinate his full Temple to the Guyanese land. [ 23 ]
In the autumn of 1973. Jones and an influential Temple member Timothy Stoen prepared an “immediate action” program in order to react rapidly to a constabulary or media dirt based on the Acts of the Apostless of the Temple. The program listed included many options for flight. one of which was a “Caribbean missional post” . For this station. the Temple rapidly chose Guyana because of its socialist political relations and after it researched the Guyanese economic system and extradition pacts with the United States. In October 1973. the managers of the Peoples Temple voted to go through a declaration to set up an agricultural mission undertaking at that place. Former Temple member Tim Carter. who besides traveled to Guyana with the migratory group. stated that the grounds for taking Guyana were “the Temple’s position of crawling fascism. the sensed laterality of transnational corporations on the authorities. and perceived racism in the U. S. authorities. ” Carter besides said the Temple concluded that “Guyana. a preponderantly Indian. English-speaking socialist state. would afford black members of the Temple a peaceable topographic point to live” . This peaceable life for all members but particularly the black members of the Temple was cardinal to Jones’ entreaty. Later. Guyanese Prime Minister Forbes Burnham stated that what may hold attracted Jones was that “he wanted to utilize co-ops as the footing for the constitution of socialism. and possibly his thought of puting up a commune meshed with that” . [ 24 ] Jones besides thought it was of import that Guyana’s leading consisted of several black leaders and that the state was little and hapless plenty for Jones to easy obtain influence and official protection merely as he had done in the States.
An initial group of about 500 members began the building of Jonestown in their new Guyanese place. The Temple encouraged some of its members to travel to Jonestown. officially named the “Peoples Temple
Agricultural Project” . Jones and his Temple members viewed Jonestown as both their ain “socialist paradise” and a “sanctuary” from the increasing media examination they were under stating. “He believed we’re the purest Communists at that place are” . His married woman described Jonestown as “dedicated to populate for socialism. entire economic and racial and societal equality. We are here populating communally” . [ 25 ] The comparatively big figure of immigrants to Guyana overwhelmed the Guyanese government’s relatively little in-migration system. Jones reached an understanding to vouch that Guyana would allow Temple members’ mass migration. In order to carry through this. he told functionaries that Temple members were “skilled and progressive” . he besides reportedly showed off an envelope that held a half of one million dollars. He told the functionaries that he would put the bulk of the church’s assets into Guyana. The Guyanese in-migration processs were besides corrupted to suppress the going of Temple deserters. Just like the out-migration policies of the Soviet Union. Cuba. North Korea and other communist democracies that the Temple wished to emulate. Jones did non allow members to go forth Jonestown. He besides bribed the functionaries to detain processing of the visas of any Temple oppositions wishing to see. [ 26 ]
In the summer of 1977. Jones and several hundred more Temple members uprooted and moved to Jonestown with the hopes of get awaying the edifice force per unit area from San Francisco media probes like the expose from Kilduff. In fact. Jones is reported to hold left the same dark that the editor at New West magazine read Jones the article to be published by Kilduff that recounted the allegations by former Temple members. [ 27 ]
An unprepared Jonestown rapidly became overcrowded. edifices fell into disrepair and weeds encroached on Fieldss after the reaching of Jones and his Temple members. The people’s lives in Jonestown significantly changed. Like many socialist states. propaganda trunkss detailing Soviet life given by the Soviet embassy every bit good as docudramas on the jobs of the United States policies were viewed in topographic point of the entertaining films that the first group of Jonestown members enjoyed before Jones’ reaching. School survey and dark clip lectures for grownups became a treatment clip about revolution and enemies for Jones. For the first several months. Temple members worked
all but one twenty-four hours a hebdomad. from 6:00 in the forenoon until 6:00 at dark. with merely an hr for tiffin in the thick of this 12 hr twenty-four hours. Thankfully In 1978. after Jones’ wellness took a bend for the worse his married woman. Marciline. began pull offing more of Jonestown’s operations. As a consequence. the work hebdomad was reduced to eight hours a twenty-four hours for merely five yearss a hebdomad. [ 28 ]
After the day’s work ended. Temple members would go to several hours of activities in a chief marquee. Among these activities were categories in socialism. Hugh Fortson. Jr. remembers these hours of analyzing merely. “It was ever ‘America is traveling to fall’ and Armageddon is coming’’ he said. [ 29 ] Jones thought this system copied that of North Korea’s ; 8 hours of work instantly following 8 hours of intensive survey. This was combined with the Temple’s pattern of bit by bit subjecting its followings to mind control and behavior-modification techniques. Jones would frequently read intelligence and commentary. Jones’ recorded readings of the intelligence were portion of the bulk of the changeless broadcasts over Jonestown’s talker system in order for all members to hear them no affair the clip. Jones’ intelligence readings typically portrayed the United States as a “capitalist” and “imperialist” scoundrel. meanwhile projecting “socialist” leaders in a positive visible radiation. Terri Buford recalls. “From 6 in the forenoon until 10 at dark. we heard him” . [ 30 ] Evidence of Jim Jones’ cognition of what he was making to his followings is clear in his remarks during an interview about an resulting detention conflict with one deserter. Speaking of the kid and if he was taken off he said. “That he’d be deprogrammed. that his head be taken and used by their immorality agencies and whatever chemicals to seek to run out his head. ” [ 31 ]
Among some of the commanding things that Jones subjected his followings to were the “White Nights” . Mass self-destruction had been antecedently discussed in fake events on a regular footing. During at least one such anterior White Night. members drank liquid that Jones falsely told them was toxicant. Grace Stoen recalls one such event. She states.
“I can retrieve we were in a planning committee meeting and Jim says. ‘You know I truly love you cats. I’m traveling to allow you ridicule imbibe vino. You don’t believe I love you. ’ So we were all given this vino that was from the
spread. Jim said. ‘Has everybody imbibe their vino? ’ And some people had said. ‘Well. I don’t want any. ’ Then Jim said. ‘No everybody is traveling to imbibe this. ’ So we all drank it and Jim asks. ‘Has everybody drank that vino? ’ We all said yes. He says. ‘Okay. you all have 10 proceedingss to populate. ” [ 32 ]
Laura Johnston Kohl. who was at that same meeting. finishes the history by stating. “Jim said. ‘That was toxicant. because we need to perpetrate radical self-destruction. ’ We needed to be wholly committed to this cause. period. And you can’t be portion manner ; you can’t make it portion manner. ” [ 33 ]
Yet another illustration of Jones’ commanding nature is in his “special privileges” . While Jones banned sex among Temple members outside of matrimony. he himself voraciously engaged in sexual dealingss with both male and female Temple members. Jones claimed that he detested prosecuting in homosexual activity and did so merely for the male temple members’ ain good. supposedly to link them symbolically with him. [ 34 ]
The bulk of Jones’ political Alliess in the States severed their connexions after Jones’ going. nevertheless. some did non. Willie Brown spoke out in support at a mass meeting at the Peoples Temple in San Francisco. More significantly though for Jones and the Temple. Moscone’s office issued a imperativeness release saying that Jones had broken no Torahs during his clip in the US. [ 35 ]
In the autumn of 1977. relations of Temple members in Jonestown formed a “Concerned Relatives” group. The group ventured to Washington D. C. in the winter of ‘78 to turn to their concerns for their household in Jonestown. The groups’ attempts raised the wonder of Congressman Leo Ryan. There was turning force per unit area in the States to look into the Temple. On April 11. 1978. the Concerned Relatives distributed paperss. including letters and affidavits. that they en titled an “Accusation of Human Rights Violations by Rev. James Warren Jones” to the Peoples Temple. members of the imperativeness and members of Congress. In June 1978. escaped Temple member Deborah Layton provided the group with a farther affidavit detailing alleged offenses by the Peoples Temple and deficient life conditions in Jonestown. [ 36 ]
In November 1978. U. S. Congressman Leo Ryan led a venture to Jonestown to look into allegations of human rights maltreatments from the paperss distributed by the Concerned Relatives. Ryan’s going comrades included relations of Temple members. Don Harris. an NBC web intelligence newsman. an NBC camera operator and newsmans for assorted newspapers. The battalion arrived in Georgetown on November 15. Then on November 17. Ryan’s deputation traveled by aeroplane to Jonestown. The deputation left hastily with a figure of temple deserters on the afternoon of November 18 after Temple member Don Sly attacked Ryan with a knife. Congressman Ryan and his people succeeded in taking 15 People’s Temple members out of Jonestown to the flight strip where their planes were waiting. At the clip. Jones had made no effort to forestall their going. [ 37 ]
As members of Ryan’s deputation boarded two planes at the flight strip. Jones’ “Red Brigade” . his armed guards. arrived in a dawdler and opened fire on the group of get awaying persons. Simultaneously. one of the supposed deserters. Larry Layton. drew a arm and began firing on members of the party that had already boarded a little Cessna. Among those that the guards killed were Congressman Ryan ; Don Harris. a newsman from NBC ; Bob Brown. a camera operator from NBC ; San Francisco Examiner photographer Greg Robinson ; and Temple member Patricia Parks. Those that managed to last the onslaught were future Congresswoman Jackie Speier. so a staff member for Ryan ; Richard Dwyer. the Deputy Chief of Mission from the U. S. Embassy at Georgetown ; Bob Flick. a manufacturer for NBC News ; Steve Sung. an NBC sound applied scientist ; Tim Reiterman. a San Francisco Examiner newsman ; Ron Javers. a San Francisco Chronicle newsman ; Charles Krause. a Washington Post newsman ; and several deserting Temple members. [ 38 ]
Subsequently that same twenty-four hours. 909 dwellers of Jonestown. 303 of them kids. died of evident nitrile toxic condition. largely in and around the chief marquee. This became the individual greatest loss of American civilian life in a non-natural catastrophe ; that is until the September 11. 2001 onslaughts. [ 39 ] No picture was taken during the mass self-destruction. although the FBI did retrieve a 45 minute sound recording of the self-destruction in advancement. On that tape. Jones tells Temple members that the Soviet Union. with whom the Temple had been
negociating a possible hegira for months. would non take them after the Temple had murdered Ryan and four others at a nearby flight strip. Jones justified his actions by stating. “So my sentiment is that we be sort to kids and be sort to seniors and take the potion like they used to take in ancient Greece. and measure over softly because we are non perpetrating self-destruction. It’s a radical act. We can’t travel back. They won’t leave us entirely. They’re now traveling back to state more prevarications which means more congresswomans. And there’s no manner. no manner we can last. ” Jones and several members argued that the group should perpetrate “revolutionary suicide” by imbibing cyanide-laced grape-flavored Flavor Aid. Jones put into his followers’ minds that there was no hope for anything any longer. This was their lone manner out ; they might every bit good do it on their footings. He furthered the hopelessness of the state of affairs by stating them that people were traveling to jump in on them. They were traveling to hit the babes and torment the members. Jones continually says how he has tried to forestall this from go oning for months. how he has ever had the people’s best involvement in head. and how he has ne’er lied to them. He told them that this was the clip to decease. to decease with some self-respect. In the 45 minute entering a member. Christine Miller. opposed Jones’ extremist proposition toward the beginning of the tape. [ 40 ] Harmonizing to at large Temple members. kids were given the drink foremost and households were told to lie down together. Jones was subsequently found dead in a deck chair with a self-inflicted gunfire lesion to his caput. An necropsy of Jones’ organic structure besides showed degrees of Pentobarbital. which may hold been deadly to worlds who had non developed physiological tolerance. His drug use which included LSD and marijuana was confirmed by his boy. Stephan Jones and their household physician in San Francisco. [ 41 ]
Jones can be compared with other extremist spiritual leaders. One illustration of these leaders is David Koresch ; the leader of the Heaven’s Gate group situated in Waco. Texas. Their clip as a community besides ended in calamity. While Koresch had a set universe position that he would non hold compromised for anything in the universe. Jones had more of an eclectic universe position. His divinity could be tailored to suit his societal motives. He picked the facets of faiths that he thought would prefer the growing of a socialist society. He besides viewed himself and his followings as the purest signifier of
their sort. This purist society has revelatory undertones. The creative activities of their ain Utopia would take to the ultimate Utopia to come. Jones and Koresch were besides the lone persons allowed entree to outside information. As antecedently stated. Jones read the intelligence and discussed the societal issues of the twenty-four hours with his followings. but he was the keeper of cognition. Both leaders spent hours on terminal with their followings discoursing about their positions on the universe. Besides. each leader was granted particular privileges. Koresch and Jones shared their positions of sexual dealingss ; for the members it was restricted and for them it was unregulated.
The revelatory nature of the Jonestown community is besides really clear. The most noteworthy is the changeless force per unit area from foreigners. In their universe they were oppressed for their beliefs and sought safety with like-minded people. That brought them to Jonestown and the following illustration of their revelatory nature. The members of the Temple wished merely for the purest of societies and they worked difficult to accomplish that Utopia in Guyana. The move to Guyana was a consequence non merely of the perceived persecution they were under but besides on Jones’ drama on societal anxiousness of the terminal of the universe due to atomic warfare. All of these state of affairss exemplify the revelatory nature of the People’s Temples and Jonestown. In the old ages following the slaughter the position of Jonestown has skewed from a spiritual group to a cult. The involvement and probe of the alleged cult has besides weaned. A member of the Concerned Relatives group has said. “As shortly as we label a faith a cult. we dismiss it. We no longer have to look into it. what did they believe? It doesn’t affair. ” [ 42 ]
[ 1 ] Reiterman. Tom ; Jacobs. John. The Untold Story of Rev. Jim Jones and His Peoples ( Dutton: Raven. 1982 ) [ 2 ] Hall. John R. . Gone from the Promised Land ( Transaction publishing houses. 1987 ) [ 3 ] Wessinger. Catherine. How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven’s Gate. ( Seven Bridges Press. 2000 ) [ 4 ] Reiterman ; Jacobs. Untold Story
[ 5 ] Wessinger. Millennium Comes Violently
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[ 12 ] Layton. Deborah. Seductive Poison. ( Anchor. 1999 )
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[ 15 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.
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[ 18 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.
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[ 20 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.
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[ 34 ] Reiterman ; Jacobs. Untold Story
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[ 37 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.
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[ 39 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.
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[ 41 ] Wessinger. Millennium Comes Violently
[ 42 ] Witness to Jonestown. 2008. Film. 8 Dec 2012.