joel poor-test #4-marketing-Spring 17′-chapter 10,11,12,13, and appendix

is the coordination of all seller-initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to sell goods and services or to promote an idea
communication function of marketing
promotion is viewed as the _________________________of marketing
brand name
package design
retail outlets
integrated marketing communications should point out marketing elements such as ______________________________ and how these elements communicate with the consumer
promotional program
MOST of an organization’s communication with the marketplace takes place through a planned & controlled____________________________

This program combines elements of the promotional mix to provide consistent messages

promotional mix
consists of the basic tools or elements that are used to accomplish an organization’s COMMUNICATION objectives
_______________________________is any paid from of non-personal communication about an ORGANIZATION, PRODUCT OR SERVICE OR IDEA by an identified sponsor
is where there is communication from an unidentified sponsor

****identification is usually not an issue with advertising****

******unless it is a political-issue advertisement which are advertisements that are generally sponsored by organization with dubious/questionable names****
ex:citizens for responsible government

ADVANTAGES of advertising
as a promotional tool, the _____________________________________are:

~cost-effective way of communicating with large audiences that are geographically dispersed
~valuable tool for creating and maintaining brand equity
~combined with other promotional tools to create support from other retailers&trade members
~ability to control the message (what, when, and how, something is said and where it is delivered—-opposite of publicity bc they can’t control these things)

DISADVANTAGES of advertising
~the cost of producing and placing ads, especially television ads, can be expensive
~it can be difficult to determine the effectiveness of advertising
~credibility & image problems
~the huge # of ads creates clutter & consumers are not paying attention to the advertising they see/hear
purpose of advertising
the nature & purpose of advertising differ from one industry to another and depends on the situation, as does the role & function in the promotional program
common classifications of advertising to the consumer market include ___________________________________________ advertising
as well as PRIMARY vs SELECTIVE demand advertising
sales promotion
includes short-term marketing activities that provide additional value/incentive to the sales force/distributors/ consumer and can stimulate IMMEDIATE sales
consumer-oriented & trade oriented activities
sales promotions are broken into 2 major categories: _________________________________________
consumer-oriented sales promotion activies
examples include:
trade oriented activities
examples include:
trade show exhibits
sales contests
dealer pricing incentives
ADVANTAGES of sales promotions
~provides extra incentive to consumers/middlemen to purchase a brand or stock&promote a brand

~appeals to the price sensitive consumer

~effects can be more directly measured compared to advertising

DISADVANTAGES of sales promotions
~many forms of sales promotions do not help establish/reinforce brand image

& short-term sales are often achieved with the expense of long-term brand equity(VALUE/WORTH)

~sales promotion clutter= consumers get bombarded with too many coupons, contests, sweepstakes, and other promotional offers

~consumers become overly reliant on sales promotion incentives —> which then leads to the consumers undermining/damaging the development of favorable attitudes and brand loyalty

~promotion wars also can develop in industries=marketers will use sales promotion incentives extensively which leads too lower profit margins and makes it really hard to sell products at full price

marketing/advertising practitioners use the term_________________________________ to refer to sales promotion activities.

Promotion in the book=an element of the marketing mix by which firms communicate with their customers

**short-term nature**

public relations and publicity
their is a difference
public relations
has a broader objective than publicity

purpose: to establish and maintain a positive image of the company

aka PR: management function that evaluates public attitudes

it identifies public policies/procedures of an individual/ organization with the public interest

executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance

constituents (voters/electors)
PR is often used to communicate with _____________ other than consumers.

ex: lobbying(trying to influence pple on a issue) governmental officials is a PR activity

important communications technique used in public relations

only 1 of 7 tools that may be used

identified sponsorship
publicity is the non-personal communications about an organization, product, service, or idea that is not directly paid for or run under ____________________________sponsorship
ADVANTAGES of publicity
credibility of publicity is higher than other forms of marketing communication

low-cost method of communicating

news value and generates word-of-mouth discussion among consumers

DISADVANTAGES of publicity
lack of control over what is said, when it is said, where it is said, and how it is said (opposite of advertising-bc they can control these things)

it can be negative as well as positive publicity

favorable publicity
firms try to generate ________________________ for their offerings on an ongoing basis
pioneering/new firms in the into stage of the product life cycle have an advantage of ___________________________________ which attracts media attention
low cost
for many start-up innovators, publicity is essential because of its ___________________ cost
personal selling
is direct, person-to-person communication where a seller attempts to assist/persuade (potential/prospective) buyers to purchase a company’s product or service or to act on an idea
personal selling is the #1 tool
It is the most effective promotional tool
is the most expensive tool
ADVANTAGES of personal selling
-the direct contact between buyer and seller allows for more communication flexibility

-message can be adapted to specific needs or to the situation of the individual customer

-immediate and direct feedback

-promotional efforts can be targeted to specific markets and customers who are the best prospects

DISADVANTAGES of personal selling
-it is expensive with a high cost per contact

-hard to consistent/uniform message delivered to all customers

true or false: if it wasn’t so expensive personal selling would be the preferred promotional vehicle for everything

someone selling trident gum at checkout to a consumer would not be beneficial-but selling a new flavor of trident to walmart could help increase sales and would be considered beneficial by increasing sales

associated with high priced items
personal selling is normally associated with consumer contexts involving higher priced items like automobiles or real estate in virtually every business-to-business promotional effort

the need for personal selling increases with the level of involvement in the buying context

generally as the cost, risk , and complexity of a situation increases the need for personal selling __________________
consumer and trade promotions
publicity & media events
public relations
trade fairs
personal selling
Advertising and online marketing are great but in addition other promotional tools are important for organization’s marketing mix directed to foreign or global markets

examples of tools are:

sales promotion
the extent to which sales promotion is globalized or localized depends on the scale or scope of the ________________________ promotion being discussed
large global media events have been created to maximize company and brand ____________ around the world

***these type of events are produced by well-know/established companies whose products are marketed GLOBALLY*****

ex: Microsoft launches window introductions with gala international media events

global events that are NOT created by marketers but profit from sponsorships are increasing due to the media attention that they receive

ex:superbowl, olympics, & _______________________ events

involves products and services that tie into movies, people, or events, of global recognition and populating

“bask in the reflected glow”

-they basically feed off of another company/product’s brand image

most common in the ENTERTAINMENT industry

true or false: in-store promotions & trade promotions are more localized/adapted than products, services, or advertising
a major barrier to greater globalization of sales promotion activities is the differences in _________________________ across countries

****tools that are taken for granted in the US may be limited/forbidden in another country market***

united states
trade fairs are more popular in Europe and other foreign countries than comparison too ________
trade fairs present many benefits to MULTINATIONAL firms with ___________________ global benefit

~identifying potential distributors for new markets
~introducing the company’s latest products and models
~discovering industry trends and developments
~creating press coverage and media publicity, nurturing fledgling or building morale among local representatives

true or false: global companies often enjoy more opportunities for publicity than domestic-only companies

this is bc their product roll-outs & market expansions raise more interest and interests more people


publicity is generally thought of as being ????

since ads are not created and media time is not purchased

this is not true bc global companies have publicity staffs who spend a great deal of time and effort trying to stimulate/create positive publicity

they do this by using prewritten news releases, photo opportunities, and interviews

this can be costly

goal:to gain control over nature and timing of publicity

public relations (PR) departments are expected to put a positive spin on a ________________________ perceived action or event.
a company is trying to make a good impression by hoping their products displays:
-product quality
-and will impact the consumer’s life
personal selling
is the last marketing activity to be globalized due to one-on-one PERSONAL interactions between the buyer and seller
sales objective
this will be used when the goal of advertising is to get a direct sale

ex: online, tv, & direct mail ads that communicate a direct appeal (BUY NOW) with a direct means to order (1-800-get-thin)

most advertisements have a ____________________ objective because advertising effects are in-direct in the short term

ex: new product is advertised so that potential consumers can become aware of the brand

brand awareness
increasing a consumer’s _________________ will hopefully lead to an increased probability to purchase among the consumers who recognize the brand in a store
aided recall
recognize the ad when shown to them/you
unaided recall
recall the ad WITHOUT it being shown to them
percentage of people exposed to an ad who can:

-recognize the ad
-recall the ad
-have awareness of the brand when given the product category
-associate the brand with an particular attitude


communication objectives are linked through marketing research to INCREASED sales over the ______________term
true or false: there are so many variables that affects sales in the SHORT run that we cannot use a sales objective.
“we know that half our advertising is wasted, we just don’t know which half.”
advertising budgeting
how companies decide on how much money to spend when advertising
“all i can afford” method
used by smaller businesses

simple&sets a limit on spending

“whatever is left” = what is spent on ads

not the best approach

ex: if a company is entering new markets or is threatened by new competition then you may need to increase the money you spend on ads
using the whatever is left method would not work well

percent of sales method
used by small firms

simple method-most popular method/but also the worst method

a % is applied to last years sales or the predicted sales

ex: firm takes 10% of last years sales, but their is a downfall in the economy and sales fall this year . this could mean a cut in ads when you really need to spend more money on ads because this could help you get out of the problem

-it could be a bad circle of ad budget gets cut-sales fall- and continue to decline

competitive parity method
budget is based on their competitors in the industry

fails to connect the budget to what is needed from advertising

objective and task approach method
objectives/goals of advertising are set first and then decide how you are going to go about in order to accomplish the objectives


advantages: connects advertising goal to the budget
-forces planning/discipline
-learn how to make advertising more effective in the long run

disadvantages:time consuming
hard to decide what is achievable
costly ad budget
no way to measure the ad’s effectiveness

large firms will use this method bc they feel comfortable spending the money and doing the research/seeing the results-small firms do not

ad affect
is the like-ability of the ad itself =this will have a major effect on the consumer’s decision on wether or not they should purchase a product
ad message
an ad message needs to be consistent with the TARGETED market’s interest and the BRAND’S position strategy

-should only discuss/stress one concept (benefit) and take advantage of strengths

selecting the advertising media mix for communication can be difficult due to _________reasons.

the 3 reasons are
-media fragmentation
-increased clutter
-critical-thinking consumers

media fragmentation
at any time-your targeted audience is split amongst hundreds of tv channels and thousands of internet sites—-so its hard to target them all
increased clutter
consumer are bombarded with ads/messages–so ads now have way more competition since they have become so prevalent
critical-thinking consumers
advertising is examined not immediately accepted—–authenticity is valued over all the hype
true or false:you have to establish FREQUENCY AND REACH GOALS. to effectively choose which media mix tools to choose
reach goals
this type of goal=the number of different targeted audience members exposed to the ad at least once within a time frame (ex:month)

#of pple

frequency goals
this type of goal=the number of times on average that the consumers are reached by the ad and then exposed multiple times

#of times

reach x frequency=
low cost$$
lots of info
measurable(click-through rates)

low attention
viewed as invasion by consumers(pop ups)
short message life

no competing causing clutter
repeat exposure
relatively inexpensive$$

non-selectivity of audience-don’t get to choose
creative limitations-grab attention quick


high audience selectivity
color reproduction
pass-along readership
high attention

long closing periods(ads have to be ready 4-6 weeks prior from being published)
wasted circulation
no guarantee of position with paying an extra fee$

low cost$$
mass use
audience selectivity
way to reach low-income people

low attention
listener distractions
audio only
short life

uses senses-sight, sound, motion
attention getting

short message life

direct mail
audience selectivity
no competing clutter
allows personalization

high cost$$
low attention(viewed as junk-thrown out)

local coverage

non-selectivity of audience
short life

sales promotion definition
is the process of providing SHORT TERM incentives to encourage purchases of a product/service

-this offers the consumer a reason to buy now (coupon)

-stimulates reseller effectiveness

-sales promotions have grown due to the pressure to increase sales, increased competition in the market, and the declining efficiency of the other mass communication methods

rather than creating short term sales-sales promotions should:
sales promotions should help:
reinforce the product’s position
build long-term customer relationships
“quick fix”
marketers are avoiding ____________ pricing promotions & designing promotions that help build brand equity(value/worth)

sales promotions are used with advertising, personal selling, or other promotion mix tools

offers/trial of a product

most effective!!!
most expensive$$
^^^^best way to introduce new product though
free-or small cost

can be mailed, handed out, attached to another product, featured in ad, combined into sample packs

are certificates that give the buyer a savings when they purchase specified products

-they promote early brands in the making & stimulate sales of mature brands

-due to clutter companies are giving them out less and targeting them more

cash refund offers
-price reduction occurs after the purchase
-you send proof of purchase then get refunded a portion of the purchase
contests, sweepstakes, and games
gives consumer the chance to win something like cash, a trip, or goods—–this can happen by luck or through extra effort

contest=consumers submit an entry to be judged by a panel that will select the best entries

sweepstake=consumer submits name into drawing

game=everytime they buy something they will be presented with something that may or may not help them win a prize

price packs
-aka cents-off deals
-offers consumers savings off of a regular priced product
-price marked directly on the label/package
-single pack sold at reduced price or two related products banded together and sold
-very effective!!!

BETTER THAN coupons on stimulating short-term sales!!!!!!

-goods are either offered for free or at a low cost as an incentive to buy a product

-may come inside the package, outside the package, or through the mail

-advertising specialties aka promotional products are useful-they are printed with:advertiser’s name, logo, or message and given as gifts to the consumer

point-of-purchase promotions
displays and demonstrations that take place at the point of purchase/sale
true or false: manufacturers direct more sales promotion dollars towards retailer & wholesalers (78%!!) than in comparison to consumers (22%!!)
consumer promotions
many tools used for __________________________ promotions can also be use as a trade promotion
discount off the list price
discount is offered on each case purchased during a stated period of time
(only so much off per case)
if the retailer agrees to feature the manufacturer’s products in some way

advertising allowance: compensates retailer for advertising the product
display allowance:compensates retailer for using a special display

free goods
manufacturer offers this-they are extra cases of merchandise-and they are given to resellers who buy a certain quantity# or if they feature a specific flavor/size
push money
cash or gifts offered to dealers/sales force in return for them to “push” their products (manufacturer’s goods to the consumer)
conventions & trade shows
organized in order to help promote products-firms show their products here

-vendors receive many benefits at a trade show:
new opportunities for sale leads
contact customers
introduce new products
meet new customers
sell more to your existing/present customer
educate customers with publications&audiovisuals

-reach a lot of people that haven’t yet been reached

sales contest
contest for salespeople or dealers—–this helps motivate them to increase their sales performance in a time period

motivate and recognize good company performers

receive trips, cash prizes, or other gifts

ex:movie/commercial we watched in class

customer loyalty
rising marketing costs make it imperative that ___________________ loyalty is maintained over the long run

4-10x more expensive to obtain a new customer vs keeping an existing one

marketers target the ________________ bc they can hope that they will use their product/service for a lifetime
new costumers
strong relationships with your customers helps with fostering positive word-of-mouth (WOM) referrals which help attract ______________ customers
unsatisfied customer= produces negative word of mouth=higher marketing costs
(B2B) business-to-business
customer relationships are most important in the business to _______________ world where the stakes of each sale are HIGH and potential buyers is LOW

ex: Boeing needs a good relationship with American Airlines

proctor and gamble needs to maintain a good relationship with Walmart

personal selling helps them develop&strengthen their relationship

The focus should be on improving the _____________________ rather than a particular sale in regards to B2B selling bc the stakes are high.

-trust is critical

-maintaing a good relationship is critical with all companies in order to keep an open door- today’s non customer could become your most profitable customer in the future

transaction selling
girl scout cookies
used car
focus is on “making the sale”

repeat sale is unlikely
dependence between buyer&seller is low

relationship selling
focus is on helping the customer and building the relationship is a result

repeat sales are critically important
dependence between buyer&seller is high

locating and qualifying prospects
the preapproach
planning a sales call
the approach
making a good first impression
the presentation
present the value proposition
uncovering&handling objections
the follow up
checking-in with customer right after the order/solution/outcome is delivered
transaction & relationship selling methods should be very simple and follow the traditional sales process

while the B2B selling method is very _________ and may be repetitive involving several meetings

“people don’t care about how much you know until they know how much you care”
this is true in regards to potential customers-if they don’t feel they can trust you they will not give you the time of day—–help the customer rather than making a sale—-make that your priority
consulting process(three-stage)
he used this in both selling and teaching

learns about marketing concepts/or the business industry, looks over them and thinks about what will be most beneficial/applicable to his students/clients, finally he teaches and communicates the material to help us learn/or to help the clients

effective listening
staying present in the moment
focusing on that the client is literally saying
sustaining/maintaining concentration

“seek first to understand, before being understood”

you do this to see if the customer even has the potential to be able to be helped by your company’s solution

manager will back salesperson’s request for flexibility if it will result in INCREASED sales and a BETTER relationship with the customer

example: an old student of his was a sales person for Kelloggs -she recreated a huge giant-size tub of _______________ crackers for her Walmart customer–bc they realized they were loosing football tailgating sales to other super markets and caterers

you have to ____________ your customer’s assumptions-they hired you for a purpose—-they want new insight and your expertise in a consultative & problem-solving role

-ex: seven-eleven & consumer packaged goods company—–they say they are going to reduce their purchases—-the CPG company comes back with saying what their competition is doing and that it is smart to be worried about excess inventory but worse to be out of stock and challenges them with how that will effect them

teaching a sales pitch
you do this when offering a different point of view to customer in order to help them

1. assess problem
2. offer different perspective that challenges view
3. layout the case/solution–let the customer see return on investment or positive change if your solution (#2) works
4. Make it connect emotionally
5.convince them
6.offer a solution-why yours is better than theirs or other firms (your competitors)

*****do not offer the solution until the nature of the solution is agreed****

.post-sales service
whats important:
make sure your companies solution did what that company needed it to do and fulfilled its intended purpose

make sure the customer is satisfied!!!no matter the solution type!! or how small/large the sales firm!!!

this is how you build a relationship!!

you will be seen as a trusted consultant rather than a salesperson

ex:he helped broccoli grower (largest) gain new customers through advertising, and he never had to “sell” to them again bc he gained their trust

infrequent buyers who are trying to make _________________ purchases may be served well by social media
(B2C)business to consumer
in the business to _______________ world it is NOT cost effective to use personal selling as a promotional tool

social media can be used to communicate but advertising is good for persuading

social media can reveal things
facebook profile-company website-twitter feeds are all used to listen to consumers about what they have to say about the brand

sometimes what a company is trying to reveal/convey about their brand is not being translated/heard by their consumers–via marketing

solution:marketing can improve
target audience needs to change
fundamental/basic product change is needed

support issues
HIGHER customer satisfaction with LOWER costs by managing customer ______________ issues in social media

***category leaders will be people who create positive customer experiences on the PRE and POST sales side*****

kaldi’s coffee-couldn’t find parking–tricia zimmer ferguson tweeted back directions of where to park and that they would get a free coffee to help build a relationship
viral marketing
using pre-existing social networks~~self-replicating viral process~~~~~~video or audio clips(youtube)~~~~the best example is Hotmail “get your private, free email at http:/ to spread the word(virus) and build the network”

Barrack Obama used this method in 08′ & 12′ for his campaign to generate donations and organize volunteers

2 goals of viral marketing
#1) consumer to take action as a result of the message and to #2) forward he message (more effective to receive from friend rather than a company)

they have had good success by providing something of value for FREE
utilizing existing networks(youtube/facebook)
expanding the company network by putting links on other websites-blogs-feeds-and programs

if you want someone to forward something you have to tap into their __________________________

the 6 emotions are:

viral example
wwf- world wildlife fund used snap to show that endangered animals are disappearing as quickly as snaps are disappearing
-they combined meaningless selfies to something important(animals)
-in addition they used a hashtag which got it trending on other social media platforms

2015 webby award winner

marketing mix (for p’s) is related to the type of buying decision
routine buying decision/low-involvement goods
priced low,intensively distributed, relies on advertising as promotional tool (ex:include chewing gum)
limited buying decision
moderate price,selective distribution, balanced promotional tools

coverage&sales effort

some combination of advertising,sales promotion, and personal selling are used as the promotional tools

extensive buying decision/high-involvement goods
has a high price, exclusively/selectively distributed,
personal selling promotional tool(ex:steinway piano)
execute product decisions and position
rolls royce-highest quality
kia-lowest cost
taco bell
perceived as average–spot in the market open for a lower cost fast food restaurant–so taco bell tries to do that in order to increase sales and gain market growth-they expanded distribution & promotion
lochhead vanilla
sell exclusively to william sonoma-prestige pricing- and have very selective distribution to maximize a sales push -no advertising but want publicity in a superior cook book-generate word of mouth-they dont want to cater to the general audience bc they won’t pay the high price
laptop-not best price-not the best quality-but the value is good-limited buying decision-advertising-contests-find a good fit with promoting and pricing combination to create a demand
you have to know your customer’s needs!!!!

do not try to meet everyone’s needs
don’t intensify the distribution process-take the growth process slow and focus on a SELECTIVE distribution strategy that compliments the brand’s reputation and position

disciplined but creative
uber& airbnb?? peer-to-peer business model?? n

cell phone/mobile phone
the most PERSONAL platform-it is pervasive (with you from the am to pm) & proximity (its always with you)

no matter what strategy it needs to:
reinforce the brand
engage the consumer

must feel consistent

people click on their phone 150-200 times a day

the mobile has created deeper forms of brand loyalty and paths to ________________
“mobile-only” tools
push notifications
location based services
sms coupons
you can have a brick and mortar store presence and still utilized mobile phone opportunities for an integrated in-store experience

ex: Macy’s “magic fitting room” (virtually try on outfits)

the mobile phone’s BIGGEST impact is the influence they have over in-store sales —they can help increase the average size of the orfer

4 mobile principles
the 4 principles include:
invite consumers to engage with the brand but do not INTRUDE
relate to needs of the CONSUMER
create enough design/modular content

serve location-relevant content

new outreach

removes the friction between desire and attainment (problem&solution)

simple and direct-provide immediate solutions

principles of mobile phone privacy
principles include:

transparency & consumer choice

essential if you are asking to use their location or personal directory (contacts, calendar, messages, etc)

provide clear and meaningful notice to the consumer about what you are doing with their information that you have received
consumer choice
offer your consumer control by giving them a choice, allow them to opt-in or opt-out so they can do what they are comfortable doing
school app can inform people by using
push notifications:works when people are not engaged in the app at the time

ibeacons:tailored to location on campus

in-app messaging: banner messages

the maturity stage of the product life cycle is associated with which of the following?
which of the following is associated with intensive distribution?
which of the following is most appropriate to use when the levels of product complexity and risk are extremely high?
according to the book, prior to making a sales call, what is a key are of knowledge a sales person should possess??
a. a thorough knowledge of the company they represent, including its past history
b. in-depth knowledge of the market for their merchandise
c. accurate knowledge of the buyer or prospect to whom you are selling too
d. all of the above
e. two of the above
according to the book, which of the following is a major objective of trade promotions?
a. support advertising and consumer promotions
b. serve as a reward for past sales efforts
c. reduce manufacturer’s inventories
d. all of the above
CONSULTATIVE SELLING-which is also the the same as a long term ally
team leader
business consultation
which of the following is associated with the seller being a long-term ally with the buyer????
A.) it might make it difficult to cut back on sales promotion without losing market share
according to the book, which of the following is a potential problem of marketers depending on the use of sales promotion?
this strategy involves personal communication
this advertising method is NOT cost effective
Budweiser ads
use compassion & humor with animals in their commercials
peoples preferences
d. Which one do students like best?

i. Dos Equis (Most interesting man in the world)

1. Funny, good writing

ii. Joel likes Carlton Draught

1. Suspenseful, creative

cant be measured though
generally fear appeal ads are not effective
For routinely purchased products, it’s not too difficult to increase likability and ___________________ favorability
Demonstration of products appeals to primary demand and early adopters; don’t focus on demand
humor appeal is important when
4. Humor Appeal

a. Are effective in particular for products in the mature stage of life cycle

i. Want a connection to brand and product

ii. Helps convert ad likability to product likability

controversial ads
Sometimes controversial ads can cause some negative publicity but might still effectively reach target market


outdoor ad examples
6. Outdoor Ads

a. Giant Bic Razor cutting through the grass

b. FedEx envelope t-shirt

c. Karate ad punching crack in sidewalk

IMC-integrated marketing communications
this is the concept of designing/combining marketing activities- like advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations—in order provide a CONSISTENT message across all audiences is referred to as IMC
factors that affect your promotional mix decision:
target audience,stage of PLC, product characteristics, buyer decision stage, distribution channel strategy
purchase risks include:
financial, social, or physical risks

**the higher the the risk, the greater the need for personal selling vs advertising!!****

push strategy:
you use this strategy when targeting channel members

personal selling
sales promotions

pull strategy:
you use this strategy when targeting consumers/end users:


difference between B2C and B2B
B2B: the goods/services are NEVER used for personal use/consumption

doesn’t matter the product just the reasoning for the transaction

B2C:buying for your own benefit

ex:buy gear to fix your mountain bike: b2c
ford buys gear to fix a machine: b2b
xerox buys soft drinks for its cafeteria:b2b
u start a landscaping business and purchase a lawnmower:b2b*************
us government buys anything: b2b**********

inelastic demand
only one option=so you pay a lot

ex:caterpillar machines-buy certain parts

fluctuating demand
interest in these products changes over time

ex:stove top stuffing-easter candy-swimsuits

seasonality, availability, pricing

1 in 9 americans work in sales
2nd largest category

people spend 40% of their time persuading others or influencing/convincing them

so many occupations involve selling:
entrepreneurship, education, medicine

burst or pulse
varying the intensity of an ad and its frequency & reach
service quality attributes
reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangibles

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