Inorganic Chemistry Review

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protons
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found in the nucleus of the atom; amount of charge =1.6X10^-19
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atomic number (Z)
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equal to the number of protons found in an atom of that element
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neutrons
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neutral molecules that don’t have a charge
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mass number (A)
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the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus
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isotopes
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atoms that share an atomic number but different mass numbers
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electrons
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move through the space surrounding the nucleus and are associated with varying levels of energy
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valence electrons
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farthest from the nucleus and have the strongest interactions with the surrounding environment and the weakest interactions with the nucleus
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cation
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positively charged atom
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anion
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negatively charged atom
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atomic mass
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of an atom is nearly equal to its mass number
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atomic weight
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the number reported on the periodic table
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avagadro’s number
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6.02X10^23
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Plancks relation
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E=hf
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Planck’s constant
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6.626X10^-34
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ground state
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state of lowest energy in which all electrons are in the lowest possible orbitals
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excited state
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at least one electron has moved to a subtle of higher than normal energy
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line spectrum
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where each line on the emission spectrum corresponds to a specific electron transition
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atomic emission spectrum
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can be used to fingerprint for the element
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orbitals
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regions of space around the nucleus
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heisenberg uncertainty principle
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it is impossible to determine, simultaneously, with perfect accuracy, the momentum and the position of an electron
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Pauli exclusion principle
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no two electrons in a given atom can possess the same set of four quantum numbers
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electron configuration
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use spectroscopic notation, wherin the first number denotes the principle energy level, the letter designates the subtle and the superscript gives the number of electrons in that subshell (ex: 2p4)
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Aubau principle
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building up principle; each subtle will fill completely before electrons begin to enter the next one
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Hund’s Rule
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within a given subshell orbitals are filled such that there are a maximum number of half-filled orbitals with parallel spins
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paramagnetic
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materials composed of atoms with unpaired electrons will orient their spins in alignment with a magnetic field, and the material will be weakly attracted to the magnetic field
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diamagnetic
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materials consisting of atoms that have only paired electrons will be slightly repelled by a magnetic field
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Periodic Table of Elements
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shows that ordering the known elements according to atomic weight revealed a pattern of periodically recurring physical and chemical properties
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A elements
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representative elements; groups IA through VIIIA
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B elements
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non representative elements; include transition elements and the lanthanide and actinide series;
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metals
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found on the left side and in the middle of periodic table; include active metals, transition metals, and the lanthanide and actinide series of elements
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lustrous
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shiny
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malleability
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the ability to be deformed without breaking
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ductility
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the ability to be pulled or drawn into wires
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non metals
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found predominately on the upper right side of the periodic table; brittle; little to know metallic luster
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metalloids
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semimetals that share characteristics with both metals and non metals
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effective nuclear charge (Zeff)
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a measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons
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octet rule
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the rule that elements tend to be most stable with eight electrons in their valence shell
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atomic radius
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equal to one-half of the distance between the centers of two atoms of an element
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Ionization Energy
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ionization potential; energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species
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first ionization energy
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the energy necessary to remove the first electron
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second ionization energy
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the energy necessary to remove the second electron
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electron affinity
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the energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an elecrron
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electronegativity
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a measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond
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Pauling electronnegativity scale
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ranges from 0.7 to 4
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alkali metals
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possess most of the classic physical properties of metals; densities lower than those of other metals; Group IA
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Alkaline earth metals
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have slightly higher effective nuclear charges and thus slightly smaller atomic radii; Group IIA
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Chalcogens
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an eclectic group of nonmetals and metalloids; not as reactive as the halogens, but crucial for normal biological functions; Group VIA
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Halogens
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highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons;Group VIIA
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Noble gases
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also known as inert gases; minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence electrons; Group VIIIA
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Transistion metals
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considered to be metals and as such have low electron affinities, low ionization energies and low electronegativities;Groups IB to VIIIB
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chemical bonds
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formed via the interaction of the valence electrons of the combining atoms
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exceptions to the octet rule
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1. incomplete octet 2. Expanded Octet 3. Odd Numbers of Electrons
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Incomplete Octet
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these elements are stable with fewer than eight electrons in their valence shell and include hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, and boron
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Expanded Octet
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any element in period 3 and greater can hold more than eight electrons, including phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and many others
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Odd Numbers of electrons
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any molecule with an odd number of valence electrons cannot distribute those electrons to give eight to each atom;
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ionic bonding
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one or more electrons from an atom with low ionization energy, typically a metal are transferred to an atom in a high electron affinity
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covalent bonding
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and electron pair is shared between two atoms, typically non metals, that have relatively similar values of electronegativity
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corrdinate covalent
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when both shared electrons are contributed by only one of the two atoms
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crystalline latice
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consists of repeating positive and negative ions
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bond length
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the average distance between the two nuclei of atoms in a bond
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bond energy
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the energy required to break a bond by separating its components into their isolated, gaseous atom states
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polarity
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occurs when two atoms have a relative difference in electronegativity
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non-polar covalent bond
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no separation of charge across the bond
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polar covalent bonds
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atom that share electrons unevenly due to differing electronegativity
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dipole moment
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P=qd measure in debye units
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bonding electrons
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the electrons involved in a covalent bond and are in the valence shell
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nonbonding electrons
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electrons in the valence shell that are not involved in covalent bonds
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lewis structure
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system of notation developed to keep track of the bonded and nonbonded electron pairs
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resonance
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different forms of a single compound
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lewis dot diagram
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the chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots
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formal charge
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V-N-1/2N
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Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory VSPR
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a system that reflect the actual geometric arrangement of atoms in a compound
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electronic geometry
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describes spatial arrangement of all pairs of electrons round the central atom including both bonding and lone pairs
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molecular geometry
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describes the spatial arrangement of only the bonding pairs of electrons
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molecular orbital
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describes the probability of finding the bonding electrons in a given space
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intermolecular forces
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bonding forces that keep a substance together in its solid or liquid state and determines whether two substances are miscible or immiscible in solution
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london dispersion forces
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weakest of all intermolecular forces
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dipole-dipole interaction
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present in the solid and liquid pass but become negligible in the gas phase because of significantly increased distance between gas particles
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H-bonds
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dipole-dipole interactions with hydrogen;stronger that regular d-d interactions
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compounds
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pure substances composed of two or more elements in a fixed proportion
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molecule
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a combination of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
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formula unit
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represents the empirical formula of the compound
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atomic weight
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misnomer because it is actually a weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element, not their weights
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formula weight
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found by adding up the atomic weights of the constituent ions according to its empirical formula
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mole
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a quantity of any substance equal to the number of particles that are found in 12 grams of Carbon-12
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Normality
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a measure of concentration in units (equivalents/L)
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equivalents
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mass of compound (g)/gram equivalent weight (g)
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Molarity
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Normality/n
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structural formulas
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show various bonds between the constituent atoms of a compound
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law of constant composition
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states that any pure sample of a given compound will contain the same elements in an identical mass ratio
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empirical formula
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gives the simplest whole-number ratio of the elements in the compound
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molecular formula
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gives the exact number of atoms of each element in the compound and is a multiple of the empirical formula
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combination reaction
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two or more reactants forming one product
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decomposition
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the opposite of a combination reaction: single reactant breaks down into two or more products.
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combustion reaction
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a special type of reaction that involves a fuel, usually a hydrocarbon
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double displacement reaction (metathesis reactions)
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elements from two different compounds swap places with each other to form two new compounds
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neutralization reactions
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specific type of double displacement reaction in which and acid reacts with a base to produce a salt and usually water
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limiting reagent (reactant)
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limits the amount of product that can be formed in the reaction
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excess reagents
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reactants that remain after all limiting reagent is used up
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yield
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refers to either the amount of product predicted or actually obtained
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theoretical yield
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the max amount of product that can be generated as predicted from the balanced equation, assuming that all of the limiting reagent is consumed, no side reactions have occurred, and the entire product has been collected
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actual yield
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the amount of product one actually obtains during the reaction
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percent yield
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actual yield/thoretical yield X 100%
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electrolytes
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solutes that enable solutions to carry currents

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