IB Chemistry HL: Topic 2

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Mass, charge, and location of a proton
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1 amu, +1, nucleus
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Mass, charge, and location of a neutron
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1 amu, 0, nucleus
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Mass, charge, and location of an electron
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1/1840 amu, -1, energy cells (outside of nucleus)
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Isotope
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A different number of neutrons than the original atom — same charge, different mass
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Relative Atomic Mass
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The averaged atomic masses of all isotopes (this is how the atomic mass of the elements is determined)
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Mass Spectrometer: Purpose
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Measuring the masses of atoms
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The Steps of Mass Spectroscopy 1-6
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1. injection of sample 2. vaporisation of sample 3. ionisation of sample 4. acceleration of ions 5. deflection of ions 6. detection of masses of ions
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Continuous Emission
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\”The emission spectrum is a combination of the atomic spectra of the various kinds of atoms making up the substance and can be analyzed to determine the substance’s chemical or atomic composition.\” — thefreedictionary.com
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Continuous Absorption
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The range of electromagnetic frequencies absorbed by a specimen.
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Line Emission
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The spectrum of lines or bands emitted by a substance
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Line Absorption
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The spectrum of lines or bands absorbed by a substance
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The difference between line and continuous
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Continuous: broad bands Line: discrete lines or emissions
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Equation for energy and electromagnetic wave length
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E = hv
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E = hv What does it mean?
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E = energy h = planck’s constant v = wave length
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What defines ionization energy
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1. Charge of the nucleus 2. The distance of the outer electron from the nucleus 3. The number of electrons between the outer electron and the nucleus
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First Ionization Energy
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The amount of energy needed to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of a gaseous substance
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Successive Ionization Energy
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The same, but from already charged atoms
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Does ionization energy increase or decrease as successive electrons are removed?
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Increase
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Order of the four energy shells
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s, p, d, f from least to most energy
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The three rules for filling electron shells
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1. Always enter orbital of lowest energy 2. Electrons fill up an orbital singly first, then fill doubly 3. There can be no more than two electrons per orbital

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