Hurricane Katrina – College Essay Example
Hurricane Katrina – College Essay Example

Hurricane Katrina – College Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2449 words)
  • Published: October 3, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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Many states, particularly those impacted by natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes, require assistance. These states lack the necessary public and private institutions and infrastructure to adequately respond to these emergencies. Therefore, a collective effort is needed to address the devastating impact of such calamities. Organizations and political stability must come together to take immediate action and meet the current needs.

It is crucial to identify and sustain disaster prevention and response initiatives that comprehensively support developing and transitional states. Japan serves as an example where seismic events and typhoons lead to destructive mudslides caused by heavy rainfall. Although Japan seems well-prepared for natural disasters, emergency response organizations like fire departments, medical services, police departments, and environmental agencies need skilled professionals with proper equipment. Defining their expanded role is vital, along with ensuring access to technical expertise fo


r effective participation in collaborative relief efforts.

When providing aid, it is essential not to neglect or undermine local bureaus and community groups. The knowledge, expertise, and ability to communicate with local residents are vital for humanitarian relief efforts.International agencies and non-governmental organizations have the task of including and collaborating with local bureaus whenever possible or beneficial. It is essential to identify potential local partners in disaster-prone countries beforehand and provide necessary staff with training to effectively prepare for unexpected crises. Despite the high competency levels of local bureaus and community groups in certain countries, they may still require external technical and logistical support.

In the United States, the Federal Response Plan outlines how the federal government will assist state and local authorities during major catastrophes or emergencies that overwhelm their response capabilities (LeClaire, 2005). This plan designates federal agenc

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responsibility for 12 Emergency Support Functions covering various aspects of disaster response, such as transportation, public works and engineering, mass care, food supply management, energy resources coordination, and other critical functions needed to address challenges caused by disasters.

Recently, Hurricane Pam struck an area comparable in size to the UK causing widespread destruction – a scenario eerily similar to Hurricane Katrina's impact on the Gulf coast of the USA. The devastation led to numerous individuals being severely affected and resulted in a mandatory evacuation order for New Orleans – a major American city.We helplessly witnessed the unfolding catastrophe through television broadcasts, which reminded us of previous internal and external catastrophes in Houston. Efforts were made to prevent a recurrence. The storm caused disruptions in electricity, water, communication, and other critical services. Both local and national leaders underestimated the magnitude of the calamity in terms of human lives and future ecological consequences. The affected areas lacked sufficient physical and human resources to handle the aftermath. Health-care systems became incapacitated while urban lawlessness and crimes increased. American leaders and emergency organizations faced global criticism. The storm led to millions of job losses, particularly impacting Tulane University's reopening for spring semester as it is New Orleans' largest employer. The absence of casino barges has hindered revitalization efforts on Mississippi coast. Currently, insurance agents and construction workers have secured employment in areas damaged by the storm.
The text emphasizes the challenges of monitoring field activities during disasters and urban renewal without clear objectives and standards for joint relief actions. It suggests that setting minimum operational goals would benefit team performance evaluation. The importance of goal setting and considering the impact of

joint relief efforts on beneficiaries in both acute and chronic disasters is highlighted. Coordination and communication are deemed crucial for successful operations, particularly in critical political and media environments where rapid decisions need to be made (WaterWorld.2005).

Prompt assessments of needs following a disaster are always crucial for effective humanitarian action. The text acknowledges that local medical facilities, such as Civil Hospital, may have agreements with nearby hospitals for specific medical procedures and emergencies, including post-disaster care. It stresses the significance of developing a coordinating manual for disaster relief operations to establish basic coordination procedures among different agencies.

Furthermore, it suggests that further research in collaborative disaster relief operations can contribute to immediate field operations as more disasters involve conflicts. The text also recognizes the security implications of disasters, using Hurricane Katrina's impact on New Orleans as an example which exposed extreme poverty within the city.This text discusses the debate surrounding the response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. It emphasizes the urgent need for improved emergency response efforts in the state to react faster to such situations, while also raising questions about whether not responding immediately was a mistake. According to the 2000 Census data, African Americans make up 67.3% of New Orleans' population, with 68% living in poverty, while only 28.1% are White residents. Despite New York City's immediate response to the terrorist attacks, New Orleans failed to adequately prepare for Hurricane Katrina despite having prior knowledge and ample time. The city poorly enforced its evacuation plan and neglected important resources like Amtrak trains, resulting in a high death toll, particularly among impoverished individuals who lacked means of escape. Unfortunately, these individuals

were overlooked during rescue efforts.In my opinion, both Louisiana Governor Blanco and New Orleans Mayor Nagin could have made better decisions that might have saved thousands of lives.Their choices cannot be undone and living near the coast will always present challenges during evacuations.Regardless of the government in power,Hurricane Katrina would have had devastating consequences for both people and landscape of New Orleans.President Bush,Governor Blanco ,Mayor Nagin,and ex-FEMA director Michael Brown's critical mistakes in attempting to contain damage could have saved many livesDespite being aware of New Orleans' high poverty rates, officials ignored this fact when issuing a mandatory evacuation order. The implementation of the order resulted in significant administrative errors, leaving 120,000 people stranded without transportation. Due to an inadequate evacuation plan, individuals were expected to find their own means of escape, leaving many poor, elderly, and sick residents without assistance. Mayor Ray Nagin promptly issued the order recognizing the danger posed by Hurricane Katrina but Governor Blanco's hesitation caused an unfortunate delay. This delay prevented enough time for arranging transportation for those in need. Expressing frustration towards the government's reluctance to assist with the evacuation process, Mayor Nagin took action and criticized the federal government publicly for their lack of involvement and delay in providing buses. Throughout the disaster response and recovery efforts, there was a communication gap among city, state, and federal officials which received heavy criticism from both local and national media. Local officials raised concerns about the limited presence of military and FEMA shortly after the catastrophe occurred.President Bush faced criticism for his handling of Hurricane Katrina, continuing with his scheduled activities until several days after the hurricane hit. The aftermath

of the hurricane left victims feeling abandoned. President Bush's appointment of an inexperienced attorney named Brown as FEMA manager proved to be a significant mistake that hindered reconstruction efforts. Brown's directive for emergency services not to respond without official requests from local authorities caused conflicts among state, local, and federal governments, resulting in a loss of essential materials for aid. His lack of experience in crisis relief impeded reconstruction and rescue efforts, leading to preventable deaths. Vice President Dick Cheney also made questionable decisions during this time by diverting power crews from restoring electricity to hospitals to focus on fuel flow at substations despite concerns raised by workers. Despite Cheney's aim to prevent fuel price gouging, it ultimately failed as fuel costs skyrocketed after the hurricane. This graph illustrates the impact of these actions. The accompanying information sheet highlights the neglectful attitude of authorities and governments towards victims of Hurricane Katrina during relief efforts. It is well-known that regardless of where a category five hurricane makes landfall, it will have disastrous effects.
New Orleans' cultural diversity, geographic layout, and increased poverty levels made it evident that Katrina would swiftly and fiercely devastate the city. As meteorologists had predicted, the hurricane rapidly flooded the city, resulting in tragic loss of life for those who chose not to evacuate. Regrettably, there was a lack of prompt implementation of government assistance policies which led to avoidable fatalities. Common areas in homes vulnerable to hurricane damage include roofs, windows, and doors. To minimize harm, reinforcing these areas is crucial. Strengthening the roof can be achieved by adding more beams and securing trusses with braces. Installing storm shutters made of thick

boards is a simple yet effective method to protect windows and doors. Having emergency plans in place is imperative for governments to prevent damage from category four hurricanes or stronger storms. George Bush faced criticism for his handling of Hurricane Katrina as some accused him of neglecting the poor predominantly black communities in New Orleans despite being warned 24 hours before the hurricane hit and having time for evacuation; there was a lack of provided services. However, during Hurricane Rita, the US government promptly responded by sending hundreds of buses to evacuate cities. Certain high-ranking officials were accused of insensitivity towards poverty and social issues within the city.Many planners and scholars have advocated for the development of mechanisms to accommodate displaced poor populations and encourage their return, as this storm provides an opportunity to address poverty and land usage issues more effectively than before (Cutter and others 2006). The question arises regarding the number of African Americans who will choose to return to New Orleans after the storm and how it will impact future cultural and racial demographics. Prior to the storm, approximately two-thirds of Orleans Parish consisted of African Americans, but due to a lack of official data, determining the current percentage is challenging. The potential long-term loss of African Americans in New Orleans raises concerns about the city's future cultural and racial composition. Mayor Ray Nagin expressed worry about losing this Democratic voting group and its influence on the political landscape. Additionally, there are concerns about changes in cultural dynamics as Latino workers increasingly participate in the city's reconstruction.Hurricane Katrina impacted various neighborhoods, including impoverished and African American communities, as well as affluent

predominantly Caucasian areas like Lakeview. It also caused extensive damage to middle-class predominantly African American regions such as New Orleans East, and desirable waterfront properties like Venetian Isles and south Slidell.

After the storm, Meghan Stromberg noticed sailing boats washed ashore and proposed that neglecting privileged wealthy communities might actually assist in the city's recovery efforts. Homeowners in those areas possess more resources to rebuild quickly. However, concerns arise regarding whether individuals with the necessary technical and entrepreneurial skills for reconstruction will return. These skills are often highly sought after elsewhere, leading people to contemplate staying where they currently reside.

Mark Drennen, the head of Greater New Orleans Inc., a public-private partnership focused on regional economic development, frequently discusses concerns about companies delaying their return to New Orleans at meetings he attends (Mowbray 2005). The longer these companies delay their comeback, the less likely they and their employees will come back.

Nevertheless, there is an optimistic aspect referred to as the "red-beans-and-rice effect." This term encompasses the unique spirit and culture of New Orleans that keeps locals returning despite better economic opportunities elsewhere.Some speculate that the rebuilding process may attract adventurous individuals who see potential and bring along a diverse group with entrepreneurial skills (Mowbray 2005). Already, there is a noticeable shortage of workers in various fields. To address this issue, The Business Roundtable, an association of large-company CEOs based in Washington, has created a program focused on enrolling and developing 20,000 new construction workers for the Gulf Coast region. Currently, there is a shortage of 150,000 workers in this area (Sayre 2006). Moreover, within the city's poor population, there is also a scarcity of minimum-wage workers particularly

in fast-food chains and convenience stores. In response to this shortage, a major burger chain is offering a $500 monthly bonus for new hires while other establishments are advertising entry-level pay rates exceeding $9 per hour. Additionally, plumbers, linemen, and other skilled tradespeople are highly sought after due to hurricane-related impacts (Mowbray 2005). "Now Hiring" signs can often be seen at business entrances today as they indicate the need for new employees. The future of New Orleans will be influenced by those who choose to return or not after the hurricane as well as by unknown newcomers to the city. This will have implications for its racial and cultural composition as well as its economic vitality (Frey 2005). The extensive scale of the disaster and lengthy rebuilding process provide research opportunities for geographers.The newly formed footprint of the New Orleans metropolitan area is a fascinating subject for planners, economists, and urban geographers. Cultural geographers, population geographers, researchers, physical geographers, and environmental geographers are all interested in various aspects such as the significant diaspora from New Orleans, waste management geography, bird and animal habitats, and environmental risks along coastlines. Hurricane Katrina revealed vulnerabilities to the environment, social issues, and policy shortcomings in New Orleans; however, there is gradual recovery taking place. Tourists have already begun returning to the French Quarter and progress has been made in reviving the convention industry. Trust is being placed in a restored levee system but only time will determine if the "new" New Orleans has truly learned from Katrina or if it will face another disaster. Hopefully future scholars will not have to wonder how people manage to survive in such

an unnatural and impossible city.

A hurricane cannot be fully stopped or destroyed but it can be weakened and its impact minimized. Scientists are studying different methods including using a substance that can absorb large amounts of water; however this idea is simple yet impractical. In conclusion, while modern technology allows for easy prediction and understanding of hurricanes stopping them is nearly impossible. Therefore more research should focus on prevention.
The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina showcased the vulnerability of marginalized communities, including the poor and minorities, who were among those most heavily impacted. This event also exposed long-standing environmental and economic disparities in New Orleans that have received extensive media coverage and academic analysis. References: "Hurricane Katrina." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004. 10:55 UTC May 03, 2007 . "Storm Surge." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004. 10:55 UTC May 03, 2007 . An article in The San Francisco Chronicle compared the response to Hurricane Katrina to a second disaster. The main focus of the article was Congress' reactions to the catastrophe and its impact on affected areas. It also discussed the challenges faced in restoring normalcy and highlighted the crucial role played by media coverage. Homeowner's policies were emphasized as vital during such catastrophic events.The text brought attention to the Katrina Index study, which examined factors related to post-Hurricane Katrina reconstruction efforts.It primarily centered around the destructive impact of Hurricane Katrina and subsequent recovery efforts made thereafter.

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