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HEED 300 EXAM 4 Essay

question

1. (p. 344) A collection of cells that grow abnormally and are capable of spreading to other parts of the body A. Carcinogen B. Malignant tumor C. Carcinoma D. Stem cell E. Cancer promoter
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B. Malignant tumor
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2. (p. 290) All of the following are chemical barriers involved in immunity EXCEPT A. the skin. B. saliva. C. stomach acid. D. bile.
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A.the skin
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3. (p. 345-346, 352) Which of the following statements about diet’s effect on cancer is FALSE? A. Diets high in fat have been associated with several types of cancer. B. Diets high in fiber appear to increase the risk of colon cancer. C. Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains appear to decrease the risk for multiple cancers. D. Diets that include red and pink fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk for prostate cancer.
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B. Diets high in fiber appear to increase the risk of colon cancer.
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4. (p. 349) The leading cause of cancer death is attributed to what type of cancer? A. colon B. breast C. skin D. lung
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D.lung
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5. (p. 357) Which of the following statements regarding basal and squamous cell skin cancer is FALSE? A. Fair skin and sun exposure increase the risk for both cancers. B. The American Cancer Society recommends a skin exam every three years between ages 20 and 40, and annually after age 40. C. Rates of both cancers are decreasing among younger adults. D. Squamous cell cancers occur most frequently on the scalp, back of hands, tops of ears, and the lower lip.
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C. Rates of both cancers are decreasing among younger adults.
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6. (p. 306-307) Which of the following statements about human immunodeficiency virus is FALSE? A. HIV is spread by the exchange of infected body fluids. B. HIV is a retrovirus. C. The virus first attacks an individual’s immune system. D. An infected person remains symptomatic after the viral load set point is established.
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D. An infected person remains symptomatic after the viral load set point is established
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7. (p. 350) Which of the following statements about colon cancer is FALSE? A. Colon cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death. B. The signs of colon cancer do not usually occur until the cancer is fairly advanced. C. Postmenopausal women who take estrogen therapy have a higher risk of colon cancer. D. Aspirin has been shown to decrease the risk of colon cancer.
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C. Postmenopausal women who take estrogen therapy have a higher risk of colon cancer.
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8. (p. 326) Which of the following statements is true? A. Secondhand tobacco smoke increases the risk of heart disease. B. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement decreases the risk of heart disease. C. High HDL cholesterol levels increase the risk of heart disease. D. High levels of homocysteine decrease the risk of heart disease.
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A. Secondhand tobacco smoke increases the risk of heart disease.
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9. (p. 298) Which of the following statements about antibiotic resistance in bacteria is FALSE? A. Antibiotic use is not a factor in antibiotic resistance. B. Bacteria can only pass resistant genes on to their progeny. C. Resistant genes arise naturally in bacteria. D. Bacteria can share resistant genes with other bacteria.
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B. Bacteria can only pass resistant genes on to their progeny.
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10. (p. 334-335) Cells are starting to have a problem in the uptake and utilization of glucose A. Prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. Gestational
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A. Prediabetes
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11. (p. 336) The two most common forms of chronic lung disease are asthma and A. COPD. B. lower respiratory disease. C. pneumonia. D. smoking.
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A. COPD.
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Lol
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loo
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13. (p. 326) Which of the following statements regarding tobacco use and cardiovascular disease is FALSE? A. Smoking alters the blood-clotting process. B. The risk of heart attack or stroke is related to the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of use. C. Smoking effects appear to decrease about 10 years after tobacco use is stopped. D. Environmental (secondhand) tobacco smoke increases risk for cardiovascular disease.
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C. Smoking effects appear to decrease about 10 years after tobacco use is stopped
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14. (p. 323) A blood clot that develops at a distant site and then travels to a blood vessel, where it becomes lodged and blocks blood flow A. Embolism B. Thrombus C. Aneurysm D. Angioplasty E. Hemorrhagic stroke
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A. Embolism
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15. (p. 289) Megan suffers from candidiasis, a vaginal yeast infection. Which type of microorganism has infected Megan? A. fungus B. protozoa C. virus D. bacteria
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A. fungus
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16. (p. 333) In the United States, ________ people are at high risk of developing diabetes in the next 10 years. A. 53 thousand B. 123,000 C. 43 million D. 79 million
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D. 79 million
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17. (p. 318) The leading cause of death in the United States is A. accidents/injury. B. cancer. C. cardiovascular disease. D. violence.
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C. cardiovascular disease.
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18. (p. 333-335) Which type of obesity is NOT associated with obesity? A. prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. both prediabetes and Type-1
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B. Type-1
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19. (p. 352) Which of the following statements regarding prostate cancer is FALSE? A. Incidence and death rates are significantly higher among Black men than White men. B. Warning signs include difficulty with urination, blood in the urine, and pain. C. Most warning signs occur in the early stages of cancer. D. The greatest risk factor is older age.
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C. Most warning signs occur in the early stages of cancer.
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20. (p. 321) Which of the following statements regarding symptoms of heart attacks is FALSE? A. Pain may radiate to the neck, jaw, left or right shoulder or arm. B. An individual may feel a heavy weight or feeling of pressure in the chest. C. In large studies, more women than men did not have chest pain or discomfort with their heart attack. D. All symptoms occur in all cases; they are just not always recognized.
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D. All symptoms occur in all cases; they are just not always recognized.
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21. (p. 350) Which of the following statements regarding lung cancer is FALSE? A. Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for men and women. B. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. C. For most people, symptoms of lung cancer do not appear until the disease is advanced. D. Chest X-rays are recommended as a routine screening test for lung cancer.
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D. Chest X-rays are recommended as a routine screening test for lung cancer.
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22. (p. 351) Which of the following is NOT a factor that decreases the risk for breast cancer? A. breastfeeding B. low fat diet C. child bearing before age 30 D. use of hormone replacement therapy
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D. use of hormone replacement therapy
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23. (p. 304) Highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract A. Pertussis B. Diarrhea C. Staphylococcus aureus
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A. Pertussis
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24. (p. 334) Insulin receptors in body cells become insulin resistant A. Prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. Gestational
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C. Type-2
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25. (p. 355) Which of the following statements about ovarian cancer is FALSE? A. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. B. A genetic predisposition is the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer. C. Removal of the ovaries decreases the risk of ovarian cancer. D. Women with a genetic predisposition for ovarian cancer have about a 10 percent chance of developing ovarian cancer.
answer

D. Women with a genetic predisposition for ovarian cancer have about a 10 percent chance of developing ovarian cancer.
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26. (p. 339) A person with which of the following is most likely to require supplemental oxygen in later stages? A. asthma B. bronchitis C. chronic bronchitis D. emphysema
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D. emphysema
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27. (p. 321) An insufficient supply of blood to tissues A. Atherosclerosis B. Ischemia C. Myocardial infarction D. Congestive heart failure
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B. Ischemia
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28. (p. 344) A substance or an agent in the environment that increases the chance of genetic alteration and cancer development A. Carcinogen B. Malignant tumor C. Carcinoma D. Stem cell E. Cancer promoter
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A. Carcinogen
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29. (p. 328) Which of the following statements regarding high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is FALSE? A. HDL levels are mainly determined by genetics. B. Alcohol use influences HDL levels. C. HDL levels vary greatly with age. D. HDL levels are higher among women and Blacks.
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C. HDL levels vary greatly with age.
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30. (p. 360) Belinda recently completed a treatment program for breast cancer. For the last year, she took a drug treatment that worked to interfere with rapid cell division; what type of cancer treatment did Belinda undergo? A. immunotherapy B. gene therapy C. radiation D. chemotherapy
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D. chemotherapy
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31. (p. 332) A procedure in which blocked heart vessels are opened physically A. Embolism B. Thrombus C. Aneurysm D. Angioplasty E. Hemorrhagic stroke
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D. Angioplasty
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32. (p. 314) Which of the following is one of the ABCDs of STD prevention? A. Avoid unfamiliar people. B. Begin using condoms within the first year of having intercourse. C. Change sheets frequently. D. Promote detection of STDs.
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D. Promote detection of STDs
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33. (p. 292) The lymphocytes that monitor blood and tissue fluids are which type of cell? A. A cell B. B cell C. P cell D. T cell
answer

B. B cell
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34. (p. 356) Which of the following is NOT a type of skin cancer? A. squamous cell B. sarcoma C. melanoma D. basal cell
answer

B. sarcoma
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35. (p. 312) The most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States is A. hepatitis C. B. chlamydia. C. the human papillomavirus (HPV). D. the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). E. gonorrhea.
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C. the human papillomavirus (HPV).
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36. (p. 289) Which of the following is NOT an example from the parasite category? A. helminths B. ectoparasites C. protozoa D. fungi
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D. fungi
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37. (p. 344) What determines which type of cancer an individual is diagnosed with? A. the tissue in which a cancer originates or the primary site B. the type of stem cell that mutates C. the initiating event agent D. the location to which the cancer metastasizes B. the type of stem cell that mutates C. the initiating event agent D. the location to which the cancer metastasizes
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A. the tissue in which a cancer originates or the primary site
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38. (p. 300) Leading cause of infectious disease and death in children worldwide A. Hepatitis C B. Pneumonia C. Malaria D. Tuberculosis
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B. Pneumonia
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39. (p. 347-348) Tanning lamps emit mostly UVA radiation that is associated with signs of skin aging, such as wrinkling and sagging. In addition, which of the following skin cancers have been associated with tanning beds? A. squamous cell and basal cell B. only melanoma C. melanoma, basal cell, and squamous cell D. There is no increased risk of skin cancer associated with tanning beds.
answer

C. melanoma, basal cell, and squamous cell
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40. (p. 287) When a tick transfers Lyme disease from a deer to a human, the tick is considered the ________ in the chain of infection. A. host B. vector C. reservoir D. infectious agent
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B. vector
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41. (p. 320, 325) Which of the following statements about peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is FALSE? A. PVD most often involves the muscles of the legs. B. PVD is made worse by tobacco use. C. PVD is a clue to advanced atherosclerosis. D. PVD is often fatal in older adults.
answer

D. PVD is often fatal in older adults.
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42. (p. 328) Which of the following statements regarding cardiovascular health and diabetes is FALSE? A. People with diabetes are two to four times more likely than people without diabetes to develop cardiovascular disease. B. Blood vessels in diabetics are particularly susceptible to atherosclerosis. C. Atherosclerosis occurs at an earlier age and is more extensive in diabetics. D. People with diabetes are less likely to have “silent” heart attacks.
answer

D. People with diabetes are less likely to have “silent” heart attacks.
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43. (p. 335) Accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases A. Prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. Gestational
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D. Gestational
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44. (p. 288) Which of the following statements regarding bacteria and viruses is FALSE? A. Bacteria can be found in almost all environments. B. Viruses represent some of the smallest pathogens. C. Bacteria may inhabit a host harmlessly. D. Viruses are able to replicate on their own.
answer

D. Viruses are able to replicate on their own
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45. (p. 323) The rupture of a blood vessel and the release of blood into the brain tissue A. Embolism B. Thrombus C. Aneurysm D. Angioplasty E. Hemorrhagic stroke
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E. Hemorrhagic stroke
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46. (p. 347-348) Which of the following is NOT a source of ionizing radiation? A. radon B. UVA rays C. medical X-rays D. computer screens
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B. UVA rays
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47. (p. 344) Which of the following does NOT trigger an initiating event? A. a carcinogen B. an error in duplication C. stem cell protection D. radiation
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C. stem cell protection
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48. (p. 324) Kevin woke up and had difficulty speaking. He went to the hospital and, several hours later, his speech was back to normal. What medical condition best describes Kevin’s situation? A. hemorrhagic stroke B. thrombotic stroke C. myocardial infarction D. transient ischemic attack
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D. transient ischemic attack
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49. (p. 301) A mosquito-borne disease caused by four species of the Plasmodium parasite A. Hepatitis C B. Pneumonia C. Malaria D. Tuberculosis
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C. Malaria
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50. (p. 351) The genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with an increased risk for what type of cancer? A. colon B. breast C. skin D. brain
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C. skin
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51. (p. 334) Visceral fat, as indicated by abdominal circumference and lack of physical activity, appears to be a strong indicator of risk for which type of diabetes? A. prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. gestational
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C. Type-2
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52. (p. 326-327) Which of the following is NOT one of the major controllable risk factors known to increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease? A. tobacco use B. hypertension C. vitamin deficiency D. high LDL cholesterol
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C. vitamin deficiency
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53. (p. 290) Develops as you are exposed to potential infections and vaccinations; recognizes specific targets A. Innate immunity B. Acquired immunity C. Virulence D. Acute inflammatory response
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B. Acquired immunity
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54. (p. 326) What is the leading controllable risk factor for all forms of cardiovascular disease? A. hypertension B. tobacco use C. obesity D. alcohol use
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B. tobacco use
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55. (p. 319) The right ventricle of the heart A. receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. B. receives oxygen-poor blood from the body. C. pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body. D. pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
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D. pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
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56. (p. 333) Probably caused by a combination of genetic, autoimmune, and environmental factors A. Prediabetes B. Type-1 C. Type-2 D. Gestational
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B. Type-1
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57. (p. 324) What is the condition in which the heart becomes scarred after a throat infection with a strain of streptococcus bacteria (usually strep throat)? A. congestive heart failure B. rheumatic heart disease C. congenital heart disease D. cardiomyopathy
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B. rheumatic heart disease
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58. (p. 298) The main factors believed to influence bacterial resistance are A. poor hand washing, and frequency of resistance genes among bacteria. B. the rate of bacteria growth, and poor hand washing practices. C. overuse of antibiotics and human evolutionary changes. D. the frequency of resistance genes among bacteria, and antibiotic overuse.
answer

D. the frequency of resistance genes among bacteria, and antibiotic overuse.
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59. (p. 348) Many naturally occurring environmental exposures increase risk for cancer. Residents in many parts of North America are exposed to low levels of the radioactive gas ________ in their homes, particularly in homes with basements. A. dioxin B. PCB C. nitrate D. radon
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D. radon
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60. (p. 292) After an infection or immunization, memory cells develop and can lead to a rapid response if the same organism is encountered by the body again. The person is said to have A. been treated. B. innate immunity. C. resistance. D. immunity.
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D. immunity.
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61. (p. 362) Approximately how many people living in the United States have had cancer? A. 2 million B. 3 million C. 9 million D. 12 million
answer

D. 12 million
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62. (p. 327) Elevated levels of which type of lipoprotein are clearly associated with atherosclerosis? A. very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs) B. low density lipoproteins (LDLs) C. intermediate density lipoproteins (IDLs) D. high density lipoproteins (HDLs)
answer

B. low density lipoproteins (LDLs)
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63. (p. 290) Designed to rapidly dispose of pathogens in a nonspecific manner A. Innate immunity B. Acquired immunity C. Virulence D. Acute inflammatory response
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A. Innate immunity
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64. (p. 307) Which of the following is true regarding perinatal transmission of HIV? A. Women in the United States and Canada are not routinely offered HIV testing during pregnancy, but they should request it if they feel they are at risk. B. Breast feeding is not a risk for HIV transmission, and women with HIV infection in the United States and Canada are encouraged to breast feed. C. The risk of transmission from mother to child can be significantly reduced by the use of antiretroviral medication during pregnancy and delivery. D. The risk of perinatal HIV transmission only occurs at the time of delivery.
answer

C. The risk of transmission from mother to child can be significantly reduced by the use of antiretroviral medication during pregnancy and delivery.
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65. (p. 300) What is the most common infectious disease worldwide? A. HIV B. hepatitis C C. tuberculosis D. human papillomavirus
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C. tuberculosis
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66. (p. 300-301) Most common infectious disease worldwide A. Hepatitis C B. Pneumonia C. Malaria D. Tuberculosis
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D. Tuberculosis
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67. (p. 292) Which type of white blood cell is responsible for the antibody production in the acquired immunity response? A. phagocytes B. mast cells C. lysozymes D. B cells
answer

D. B cells
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68. (p. 344) A cancer that originates from a cell of epithelial origin A. Carcinogen B. Malignant tumor C. Carcinoma D. Stem cell E. Cancer promoter
answer

C. Carcinoma
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69. (p. 330) Which of the following statements regarding differences between men and women with heart disease is FALSE? A. If a woman has a heart attack, she is less likely than a man to die from it. B. Women are more likely to have no symptoms prior to a heart attack. C. Women are more likely to delay seeking treatment. D. Health providers may be less likely to think about heart disease in women than in men.
answer

A. If a woman has a heart attack, she is less likely than a man to die from it.
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70. (p. 288) Single-celled organisms that can be found in almost all environments A. Antibodies B. Bacteria C. Phagocytes D. Lymphocytes E. Antigen
answer

B. Bacteria
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71. (p. 327) Which of the following ethnic population groups has the highest rate of hypertension? A. Black B. White C. Hispanic D. Asian American
answer

A. Black
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72. (p. 290) Series of cellular changes that bring blood to the site of an injury or infection A. Innate immunity B. Acquired immunity C. Virulence D. Acute inflammatory response
answer

A. Innate immunity
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73. (p. 323) Which of the following conditions, with sudden onset, is NOT a signal that a stroke has occurred? A. difficulty with speech B. numbness C. ringing ears D. headaches
answer

C. ringing ears
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74. (p. 321) Heart attack A. Atherosclerosis B. Ischemia C. Myocardial infarction D. Congestive heart failure
answer

C. Myocardial infarction
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75. (p. 290) Which of the following is NOT a physical barrier against infection? A. lysozyme B. cilia C. nasal hairs D. skin
answer

A. lysozyme
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76. (p. 288) The speed and intensity with which a microorganism is likely to cause an infection A. Innate immunity B. Acquired immunity C.Virulence D. Acute inflammatory response
answer

C.Virulence
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77. (p. 345) The most significant risk for most cancers is A. age. B. sex. C. ethnicity. D. family history.
answer

A. age.
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78. (p. 326) Which of the following statements regarding tobacco and cardiovascular risk is FALSE? A. Tobacco damages the inner lining of blood vessels. B. Tobacco triggers spasms that close off blood vessels. C. Tobacco decreases levels of HDL cholesterol. D. Tobacco decreases levels of LDL cholesterol.
answer

D. Tobacco decreases levels of LDL cholesterol.
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79. (p. 300) Kills 1.5 million children worldwide each year A. Pertussis B. Diarrhea C. Staphylococcus aureus
answer

B. Diarrhea
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80. (p. 304) Most common cause of skin infections A. Pertussis B. Diarrhea C. Staphylococcus aureus
answer

C. Staphylococcus aureus
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81. (p. 347) Mary Lou’s cancer began in her skin and then spread to her liver and brain. What type of cancer does Mary Lou likely have? A. brain B. basal cell C. squamous cell D. melanoma
answer

D. melanoma
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82. (p. 309) Which of the following statements regarding gonorrhea and chlamydia is FALSE? A. The highest rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia infection are found in men and women aged 15 to 24 years. B. Women with either infection are usually asymptomatic. C. Antibiotics are available for treatment. D. Most men with chlamydia infection will have symptoms.
answer

D. Most men with chlamydia infection will have symptoms.
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83. (p. 289) Which of the following statements about microorganisms that cause human infection and disease is FALSE? A. Prions appear to be made entirely of protein. B. Examples of ectoparasites are fleas, ticks, lice, and scabies. C. Bacteria can normally be found in humans. D. Protozoa rarely cause illness in humans.
answer

D. Protozoa rarely cause illness in humans.
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84. (p. 323) Blood clot that forms in a narrowed or damaged artery A. Embolism B. Thrombus C. Aneurysm D. Angioplasty E. Hemorrhagic stroke
answer

B. Thrombus
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85. (p. 296) Transmitted to approximately 10 percent of all blood transfusion recipients prior to 1990 A. Hepatitis C B. Pneumonia C. Malaria D. Tuberculosis
answer

A. Hepatitis C
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86. (p. 289) Tapeworms belong to which category of organisms involved in human infection and disease? A. helminths B. prion C. ectoparasite D. protozoa
answer

A. helminths
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87. (p. 288) The term used to describe the speed and intensity with which a pathogen is likely to cause and infection is A. immunity. B. virulence. C. vector. D. susceptibility.
answer

B. virulence.
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88. (p. 332) Marian recently went through a surgery in which blood vessels were taken from her legs and then attached to her coronary arteries to allow a bypass of blood flow around some narrowed vessels. Which surgical procedure was performed on Marian? A. angioplasty B. echocardiogram C. coronary artery bypass grafting D. coronary catheterization
answer

C. coronary artery bypass grafting
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89. (p. 352) One of the main screening tests available for prostate cancer is the ________ test. A. PSA B. CBC C. CA125 D. BRCA1
answer

A. PSA
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90. (p. 344) Which of the following is NOT a safety mechanism in place to help maintain cell order and decrease the chance of cancer developing in the body? A. initiating event B. cellular “suicide” C. stem cell protection D. cellular growth signals
answer

A. initiating event
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. (p. 301) Which of the following statements regarding tuberculosis is FALSE? A. Urbanization and swelling cities have contributed to the spread of tuberculosis. B. Treatment for tuberculosis that is not drug-resistant requires six to nine months of medication. C. Resistant tuberculosis is becoming a concern worldwide. D. People with HIV infection have no greater risk than the general population for active tuberculosis.
answer

D. People with HIV infection have no greater risk than the general population for active tuberculosis.
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92. (p. 334) Type-2 diabetes accounts for ________ of all cases of diabetes. A. less than 10 percent B. half C. 60 to 70 percent D. 90 to 95 percent
answer

D. 90 to 95 percent
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93. (p. 336) Which of the following chronic lung diseases is indicated if you have the following symptoms: an ongoing cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness? A. bronchitis and emphysema B. emphysema C. asthma D. asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema
answer

D. asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema
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94. (p. 289) Mad cow disease is caused by what type of poorly understood microorganism? A. prion B. protozoa C. bacteria D. fungi
answer

A. prion
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95. (p. 343) The replication of a single cell to produce thousands of copies of itself A. Clonal growth B. Metastasis C. Oncogene D. Primary site
answer

A. Clonal growth