HDev chap 4

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Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive development
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I – sensorimotor II – preoperational III – concrete ops IV – formal ops
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Piaget’s Theory Knowledge
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evolves & grows through inter-action with the physical world
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Key Concepts to Piaget’s Theory
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schemas, assimilation, accommodation, object permanence, centration, conservation, active/constructive learning
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Genetic epistemology
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source of knowledge, Piaget
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Piaget’s Adaptation by building
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schemes = mental representations of the world through direct interaction with it
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Piaget believed a child’s schemes (organized ways of making sense of experience) change and go through stages of
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qualitative changes with age
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schemes that are physical, motor action patterns
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percepts
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mental level schemes are
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concepts
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Perceptual Categorization is based on similar
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overall appearance or prominent part
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Conceptual Categorization is based on common
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function or behavior, later add event categories
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Piaget’s hypothesized 5 underlying mental processes of adapting to the world
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Assimilation ,Accommodation, Equilibrium ,Disequilibrium, Equilibration
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Equilibration
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restore equilibrium, accommodation is used to replace now-outmoded ways of thinking with more advanced, qualitatively different schemes
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Assimilation is a part of
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adaptation in which the external world is interpreted through existing schemes
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Accommodation is the part
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of adaptation in which new schemes are created or old ones adjusted to produce a better fit with the environment
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Equilibrium exists when children are not
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changing very much and they are in a steady, comfortable cognitive state, assimilation is used more than accommodation
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Disequilibrium is the state of
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cognitive discomfort which occurs during times of rapid change
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Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development involve
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qualitative changes & reorganizations of Schemes
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Sensorimotor stage from
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0-2, infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment, and attain “object permanence.”
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Preoperational stage from
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2-7,symbolic understanding emerges: symbols, symbolic play, egocentrism
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Concrete Operations stage from
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7-11, conservation, logical thought
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Formal Operations stage from
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11-up, deductive, abstract reasoning
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6 Sensorimotor SubStages
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1:Reflexive Schemes (Birth to 1 Month) 2: Primary Circular Reactions (1 to 4 Months) 3: Secondary Circular (4 to 8 Months) 4: Coordination of Secondary Circular Reaction (8 to 12 Months) 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12 to 18 Months) 6: Mental Representation (18 Months to 2 Years)
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Circular reactions are the means by which infants
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build schemes
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Piaget regarded newborn reflexes as the building blocks of
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sensori-motor intelligence
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Reflexive Schemes (Birth to 1 Month)
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exercising reflexes
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primary circular reactions are oriented towards the infants’
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own bodies and motivated by basic needs, The First Learned Adaptations
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secondary circular reactions
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infants repeat actions that affect the environment, Reactions Making Interesting Sights Last
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Coordination of Secondary Circular Reaction are Intentional or
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goal-directed, behavior is the combination of schemes to solve problems, substage 4
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Piaget regarded means-end action sequences as the first sign that babies appreciate
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physical causality, substage 4
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Object permanence is the understanding that objects
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continue to exist when they are out of sight, it is not yet complete in substage 4
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A-not-B search errors are committed by infants in substage
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4, Infants 8- to 12-months-old only look for an object in hiding place A after the object is moved from A to hiding place B
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Substage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions
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Discovering New Means Through Active Experimentation (12 to 18 Months), repeats actions with variation, advanced understanding of object permanence, no longer make the AB search error
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Substage 6: Mental Representation
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8 Months – 2 Years, can solve problems symbolically, deferred imitation, functional play, make-believe play
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Mental representations are internal images of
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absent objects and past events
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Representation allows deferred imitation-the ability to
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copy the behavior of models who are not immediately present
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Functional play is
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motor activity with or without objects during the first 1 ½ year, sensorimotor schemes are practiced
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At the end of the second year, representation permits toddlers to engage in
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make-believe play
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Research by Renée Baillargeon indicates that babies as young as
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3 1/2 months of age understand object permanence
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Perceptual View that schemes develop through
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looking and listening rather than just through acting on the world
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Recent Research on Sensorimotor Development
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infants display a wide array of understandings earlier than Piaget believed
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New research shows that even very young babies are knowledgeable about object
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characteristics
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Researchers often use a violation-of-expectation method in which they
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habituate babies to a physical event and then determine whether they dis-habituate to a possible event or an impossible event
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The violation-of-expectation method reveals that young infants are aware of
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object substance, physical limits on object motion, and the effects of gravity
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Piaget’s work inspired a wealth of research on
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infant cognition
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Piaget’s observations have been of great practical value
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for teachers and caregivers
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Piaget’s View of Preoperational Thinking, Stage 2 beginnings and development of
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symbolic forms of communication and understanding
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Preoperational (pre-ops) thought is also defined by inability to
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reason, to go beyond appearance, to go beyond ego-centric perspectives
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Language is the most important
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symbolic system
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Dual Representation
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Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol, Video of Judith DeLoche on “scale model” , Mastered around age 3, Adult teaching can help
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Pre-ops take the World at Face Value. They can’t …
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• Reason well on Conservation tasks • They are centered – stuck on one aspect • They do not understand reversibility • They do not understand class inclusion • They have trouble with seriation tasks • Bigger=more, taller=older
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Preoperational Limits on Understanding appearance:
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dictates reality
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Centration:
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Focus on one aspect and neglect others
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Irreversibility
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Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps
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Conservation includes a variety of tasks involving changing
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the shape of a substance to see if children can look beyond the appearance of the substance
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Pre-ops peculiar perceptions
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lack identity constancy, Animism, Anthropomorphism, Artificialism, Egocentrism
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identity constancy
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A scary mask turns a person into a monster
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Animism
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Giving life to inanimate objects
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Anthropomorphism
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Giving human characteristics to non-humans
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Artificialism
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Humans make everything, including natural phenomenon
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Egocentrism
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The inability to see another’s point of view
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Language
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form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules
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4 Prelinguistic Stages
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crying, cooing, babbling, intonation
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Baby Sign
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gestures, 9 months
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Linguistic Stages
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single-utterances, telegraphic speech, and learning the rules of grammar
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Getting Ready to Talk: the developmental sequence Of Cooing and Babbling
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• 2 months • 4 months • By 4 months, infants gaze. • At the end of the first year, preverbal gestures
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On average, children say their first word at around
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12 months of age, with a range of 8 to 18 months.
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Between 1 1/2 and 2 years, toddlers combine
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two words,soon their utterances increase in length and complexity.
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Young toddlers add to their vocabularies
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slowly, 1-3 words a month
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Between 18 and 24 months, a spurt in
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vocabulary often occurs with children adding from 10 to 20 new words a week
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An improved ability to categorize experience and retrieve words from memory supports a spurt in
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vocabulary growth at 2
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rapid word learning may depend on a
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growing capacity to grasp others’ intentions
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Telegraphic speech is the
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two-word utterance phase of toddlers which leaves out smaller and less important words
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Many early word combinations do not
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follow adult grammatical rules
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Production is the
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words and word combinations that children use, requires active recall of the word and its meaning
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Comprehension is the
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language that children understand, recognition of word meaning
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comprehension develops ahead of
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production At all ages
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Three Building Blocks for Language & Linguistics
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Phoneme, Morpheme, Grammar
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Phones
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smallest unit of all human sounds
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Phoneme
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smallest unit of speech of one’s language
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Morpheme
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smallest meaningful unit of language
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Grammar
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rules specifying how phonemes, morphemes, words, and phrases should be combined to express thoughts
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Syntax
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rules for word order
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Semantics
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the meaning of words
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Overregularization
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regular tense with irregular words: I have two hands, therefore, I have two feets.
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Overextensions
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is the extension of a word meaning to a broadly incorrect use: If children have a dog at home, they may determine that all four legged creatures are dogs. Or, children may decide that their animal is a dog and every other animal must be something else (an under extension)
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Children learn grammar in stages show an understanding at
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age 2, increases astronomically in the first 6 years
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Nature Perspective of language development
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language is an inborn capacity that develops by maturation, Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD)
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Chomsky’s language acquisition device (LAD) is a supposed
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brain mechanism that prepare us for learning semantics
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Nurture Perspective of language development from a complex system of
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rewards, punishments, and imitation
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Vygotsky believed that complex mental functions and
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abilities originate in social interaction
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Vygotsky emphasis is on assisted ___ vs Piagetian
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learning, active or discovery learning
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Research indicates that adult guidance and support within the zone of proximal development is related to
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advanced play, language, and problem-solving skills during the second year
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Vygotsky: two central concepts
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Zone of Proximal Development, Saffolding
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Zone of Proximal Development: The difference between
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solving a problem by oneself and solving it with the help of another is the. ZPD refers to a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone, but can do with the help of more skilled partners
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Saffolding provides proper support for
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learning -tailored to the child, and taken away when child can do it on his or her own without support. E.g. learning to ride a bicycle, Infant directed speech, Graded schooling
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Becoming an effective scaffolder
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Break complex problems into smaller strategies, Give non-threatening feedback, Continue to give assistance as long as it takes, Set frameworks and motivation for learning
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Other societies see scaffolding differently but a developing sense of
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“Self” (me vs. you) is central, Rouge test at 15- 18 months
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Information-Processing Perspective- Development is
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continuous rather than distinct,The scientific method is paramount to research,use the computer as a metaphor for the mind, do not consider social/cultural forces
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Information Processing Perspective of memory increases in capacity as the frontal lobes activate 4 things:
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Executive functions, Rehearsal, Selective attention, Inhibiting responses
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Information Processing Perspective-Executive functions is
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strategies for problem solving
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Information Processing Perspective-Rehearsal
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Repeat information to embed it into memory
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Information Processing Perspective-Selective attention develops
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focus
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Information Processing Perspective-Inhibiting responses
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Young children and adults with frontal lobe damage have trouble inhibiting, A good game to test inhibiting capability and train inhibition is “Simon Says”
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Information Procesing Perspective How can we use the Information Processing Perspective Theory?
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rehearsal, focus, remind, scaffolding
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Early “mental” abilities & the “behaviorist language” of early learning
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by reinforcement
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naive biology
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biological processes not including external motivations
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an orienting response
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eyes fixated, heart rate slows
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Habituation
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diminished response to a familiar stimulus
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infants as young as __________ can differentiate two objects from three objects
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5 months
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The __________ principle of counting states that there must be one number name for each item counted
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1 to 1
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According to Vygotsky, __________ speech is another term for thought
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private
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Infants pay more attention to
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infant-directed speech.
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Linguistic intonation is best described as a variation in sound
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pitch
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As a typical 2-year-old, Webster would have a vocabulary of
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several hundred words
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fast mapping
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process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure
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telegraphic speech
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early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram–‘go car’–using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting ‘auxiliary’ words
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overextension
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When a word is used too broadly (i.e., beyond its traditional categorical boundaries)
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Applying rules to a word that is actually an exception to the rule constitutes
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overregularization, “runned” instead of “ran”
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Operant conditioning- when a child’s behavior leads to pleasant consequences, the child will probably behave
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similarly in the future

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