Examining the growing acceptance of homosexuality Essay
Harmonizing to Jorqensen ( 2009 ) , homosexualism is turning in credence the universe. The universe is opening up presents and is spread outing quickly in towards homophiles yet, it is still looked down upon by some as immoral, inhumane and iniquitous. Although homosexualism is a construct good known to most persons, it still spread hatred, fright and hurting. This is because belief systems are used to quash homosexualism. Conservative and little towns are frequently the least accepting towards homosexualism. Not all, but many of them tend to be more closed-minded and stick strongest to spiritual ideals. The conservative stance claims that homosexualism is a chosen life style and that it is still something one does. Homosexuality is iniquitous, harmonizing to the conservative position, as it is unnatural, aberrant and mirrors that of broken behaviour. ( ibid )
However, it is non iniquitous to be homosexualism based to the progressives, if it is safe, consensual and committed in term a relationship. It is normal and natural to hold these feelings and live this life style, since sexual orientation is fixed and can non be changed. Therefore, it is non curable as what the conservativists claim. Furthermore, Christians need to look more to Christ than to the Bible and seek to acquire over their fright of homosexuals and the results that may come through if they welcomed homosexual to the full into the society and churches. All Christians are suppose to populate out the extremist love and compassion that Jesus exemplified in the Bibles and seek to accept homosexualism. They need to recognize that the universe will non stop when homophiles are given the right to get married or when society is to the full welcome them to play a portion. ( Cleaveland 2008 )
Enforcement of Torahs that are inherited from British settlement has been used as a criterion to guarantee that homosexualism is illegal in Malaysia. Malaysia which besides consider as an Islamic state proscribes homosexualism as a wickedness. Dr. Mahatir Mohamad, Malaysia former Prime Minister had made the statement claimed that democracy would take to homosexualism in 1992. The conflation of this homosexualism with democracy was used to consolidate Malaysia ‘s cultural boundary lines and its postcolonial position in order to keep the pureness and singularity of the Malayan people. In this context, Dr. Mahatir is pulling on cultural specificity to define the autochthonal from the foreign, and homosexualism is conceived of as foreigner and “ other ” in Malaysia Muslim state state. The Malayan Islamic Youth Movement ( Abim ) President Yusri Mohamad said that a homosexual act is a serious immoral and critical offense hence terrible bar and penalty must be carried out. He said the “ doors ” that invite people to perpetrate this wickedness should be for good closed and sealed. ( Offord 1999 )
1.2 Aims of Study
Cameron ( 1997 ) stated that scientists have non been able to reason that there is any cistron or combination of cistrons that will do person homosexual. Genetics is really complex and scientists will go on to analyze both worlds and animate beings chromosomes for linkage to sexual orientation. However, if homosexual urges are non inherited, it may fall into four classs which include homosexual experience, households ‘ abnormalcy, unusual sexual experience peculiarly in early childhood and civilizations influences. Belge ( 2003 a ) claimed that a widely publicized survey in 1999 found that a certain portion of hypothalamus in cheery work forces was smaller than heterosexual work forces. This survey was widely touted at the clip as “ cogent evidence ” and evidences that one ‘s sexual orientation biological and non chosen. But it is still non corroborate to cognize whether these differences in encephalon are present at birth or if they occur over a life-time.
Throughout history there have ever been people who have had homosexual feelings and experiences. In fact, in some civilizations, at some times, these feelings have been celebrated or at least accepted instead than stigmatized. However two major alterations in most of US and America have taken topographic point, which may hold given the feeling that homosexualism, is now more prevailing than at any other clip. As clip base on balls, several Muslim states such as Jordan, Egypt, Indonesia and Malaysia are easy opening up to accept homosexual society excessively. At the same clip there have been a series of of import battles for homosexual and sapphic equality, and to counter homophobia. In Britain this has been marked by demands for the right to be parents ( adoptive and natural ) , the right to fair intervention at work and so on. These have, as has frequently been intended, attracted considerable media, political and legal attending claimed by AIDS and HIV information from AVERT.org ( 2009 ) .
Harmonizing to Cameron et Al ( 1989 ) , homosexual will more often exposed themselves to biological jeopardies such as bestiality, consumption of fecal matters. Besides that, they frequently admitted to take parting in binges and reported well larger Numberss of sexual spouses compare to heterosexual. They besides more often are prosecuting in socially riotous sex like rip offing in matrimony and doing obscene phone calls. From the point of views of single wellness, public wellness and societal order, take parting in homosexual activity could be viewed as unsafe to society and incompatible with full wellness.
The first aim of this survey is to place and entree the causes of homosexualism. Second, to analyse the widespread of homosexualism in today ‘s life. Third, to construe the consequence and impact that may happen to a homosexual upon wellness and societal order and suggest relevant recommendations. For this intent of the survey, the research will be undertaken in Malaysia.
1.3 Scope of Study
This survey is on the prevalence of same gender sexual behaviour, desire and individuality in adult females and work forces in societal and demographic groups in Malaysia. To this terminal, the range of the survey covers issues like unnatural and immoral sex, rights for sexual privateness, gender of sexual spouses, and natural choice theory, to advert a few.
1.4 Footings and Definitions
Based on Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality ( 2007 ) , homosexualism refers to an person ‘s individuality based on those attractive force and rank in a community of others who portion them. It besides claimed that homosexualism refers to romantic or sexual attractive force or behaviour among members of the same sex, situational or in an abiding temperament. As a sexual orientation, homosexualism is considered to lie within the heterosexual-homosexuality continuum of human gender.
Oxford English lexicon stated that Homosexual means sexually attracted merely to people of the same sex as oneself. It besides can be defined as sexual orientation or orientations characterized by romantic or sexual desire for, or sexual attractive force toward members of the same sex. The term normally implies an sole or prevailing sexual orientation toward individuals of the same sex, and is distinguished from androgyny every bit good as heterosexualism. In add-on to mentioning to a sexual orientation, the term homosexualism is besides used for sexual behaviour between people of the same sex.
Jonathan Rauch ( 1994 ) claimed that Homosexuality is a curious and rare human trait that affects merely a little per centum of the population and is of small involvement to the remainder.
Harmonizing to Columbia Encyclopedia ( 2009 ) , homosexualism is a term created by 19th century theoreticians to depict a sexual and emotional involvement in members of one ‘s ain sex. Homosexual patterns are non afforded any particular moral or psychological significance in many other civilizations.
1.5 Literature Review
There are a batch of books and literature written provided for this homosexualism survey. Broad and comprehensive researches have besides been carried out. For the intent of this survey, the author has referred of import and related books that examine the homosexualism civilization, bias faced by them and factors lead to homosexual.
Richard Mohr ( 1988 ) claims that homosexualism is neither unnatural nor immoral. He expounds the homosexualism construct in gender favoritism and unjust intervention. Based on his research, he stated that many have been argued that gender is no more ground to deny persons certain legal and societal benefits than is their sex or the colour of their tegument. He claimed that homosexualism is no more “ unnatural ” and “ unnatural ” . Homosexual people are capable to force and torment based merely on their perceived position instead than because what they have performed. An extended survey by the National Gay Task Force found that over 90 per centum of homosexuals and tribades had been victimized in some signifier on the footing of their sexual orientation. In the United State, homosexual people are treated otherwise in many respects than those who prefer relationship with members of the opposite sex. Incidents of favoritism in the workplace, denial of the right to sexual privateness, and the inability to hold their spouse lawfully recognized or to follow kids are illustrations of how they are abundance in our society. All these kind of favoritisms, illegality and the soaking up by homosexual society ‘s hatred of them all interact to hinder or barricade wholly the ability of homosexuals and tribades to make and keep important personal dealingss with their loved 1s.
He attempts to reply that the inquiry whether or non sexual orientation is something that is moderately thought to be within one ‘s ain control normally appeal merely to assorted claims of the biological or “ mental ” scientific disciplines. But to resulting argument over cistrons, endocrines, twins, early childhood development, and the similar, is every bit unneeded as it is presently inconclusive. All that is needed to reply the inquiry is to look at the existent experience of homosexual people in current society and it becomes reasonably clear that sexual orientation is non likely a affair of pick. On the other manus, the pick of “ gender ” of a sexual spouse does non look to show a fiddling desire. Gay people abide in being cheery even in the face of persecution shows that being homosexual is non a affair of easy pick. He claimed that one does non happen “ gays-to-be ” set a mark to be a homosexual in the hereafter and so puting about planning and geting the ways and the agencies to the terminal. Typically gays-to-be merely find themselves holding homosexual brushs and yet at least ab initio defying rather strongly the designation of being homosexual but ends up holding them anyhow. As a consequence, the experience of coming out to oneself has for homosexuals the basic construction of a find, non the construction of a pick. ( ibid )
Harmonizing to Michael Levin ( 1984 ) , he argues that homosexualism is unwanted because it is a abuse of bodily parts. His statements are based on natural choice theory, and he is peculiarly critical of useful defences of homosexualism. He maintains that naming homosexualism nonvoluntary topographic points it outside the range of moral rating, and goes on to reason that homosexualism is likely to take to unhappiness. He defends the position that homosexualism is unnatural and therefore unwanted non because it is iniquitous or immoral, or because it weakens society or shackles evolutionary development, but for a strictly mechanical ground. It is a abuse of bodily parts. Clear empirical sense attaches to the thought of the usage of such bodily parts as genitalias and it is bad or at least unwise thing to utilize a portion of your organic structure for what it is n’t for. Despite the promotion presently enjoyed by the claim that one ‘s “ sexual penchant ” is cipher ‘s concern but one ‘s ain, the intuition that there is something unnatural about homosexualism remains critical.
However Cornivo ( 1997 ) rejects the position that homophile is immoral. He responds straight to two recurrent statements against homosexual that it is unnatural and it is harmful. In his survey, he found that many contend that homophile is “ unnatural ” in the sense of being unusual as most people engage in heterosexual than homosexual relationship. The thought of it can non ensue in reproduction besides make the society experience it is unnatural. Many surveies propose that homosexual people are “ born that manner ” and it is a lifestyle pick. Peoples surely do n’t look to take their sexual feelings, at least non in any direct or obvious manner. Rather, they find certain people attractive and certain activities eliciting, whether they “ make up one’s mind ” to or non.
He claimed that many people have a incorrect apprehension and bias towards homosexual people. Peoples might reason that homosexualism is harmful and will easy take to AIDS. But this claim is incorrect. It is non the homosexualism that is harmful, but it is the virus and the virus may be carried by both heterosexual and homosexual people. Other than this, for those who think that homosexualism threatens kids might intend that the increasing visibleness of homosexual relationships makes kids more likely to go homosexual. However, once more the statement for this position is obviously round. One can non turn out that making X is bad by reasoning that it causes other people to make X, which is bad. They must first set up and bespeak independently that X is bad. Therefore, there is non a shred of grounds to show that exposure to homosexualism leads kids to go homosexual. ( ibid )
Based on Thomas J. Sullivan ( 2007 ) , the universe does non split merely into homosexual and the heterosexual. Some work forces and adult females combine both signifiers of gender in their lives, whereas others are entirely one or the other. In some instances, homosexualism is a affair of experimentation where people are looking for something new, different and exciting. A research on twins has provided some grounds of a familial influence on sexual orientation. Twinss who portion the same familial stuff ( monozygotic twins ) are much more likely both to be gay than twins who do non portion the exact same familial stuff ( dizygous twins ) or to adopted brothers who portion no familial stuff. However, it may be that what is inherited is non sexual orientation straight but instead behaviours that are more likely to be shaped into homosexualism in the proper environment. A familial sensitivity may go shaped by societal interaction during childhood and the teenage old ages. Some psychologists have tried to explicate homosexualism as originating from some psychological maladjustment, perchance stemming due to household abnormalcy. For some people, the procedure of self-definition through the looking-glass ego comes into drama excessively. In all likeliness, both biological science and societal focal point will be found to play their portion as good.
Homosexuality is seen by Islamic bookmans to be iniquitous and a kinky divergence from the norm. All Islamic schools of idea and law consider homosexual acts to be improper. For them all worlds are of course heterosexual. They even claimed that human inherent aptitudes can be subjected to Acts of the Apostless of will. Sexuality is merely based on a pick of individuality, which develops into actions and hence, sexual phantasies. Human existences are capable to command their ideas, and take what they want to be, what they choose to make and what they choose to believe. There is a consensus among all Islamic bookmans that anyone can alter themselves if they wish to. ( Nadzrin 2003 ) It has been suggested that homosexualism is genetically inherited and for those who have this sensitivity are victims of it and non evildoers of any kind. However, major household jobs perchance related to a homosexual or bisexual household member, such as the sexual maltreatment of male childs. Other jobs may be related to households sorrowing because an progeny committed self-destruction. Most of them normally do non cognize their kid was homosexually oriented and that their gay hatred was implicated in these deceases. A important figure of homosexual and sapphic young person are besides ejected from their places and stop up on the street after their homosexual nature was discovered to be therefore going either blowouts or street arabs by their households. ( GLBT Education 1992 )
Despite societal scientific discipline and biological research, it is still non known what causes person to be homosexual. The author claimed that if homosexualism is caused by familial or congenital traits, so they would unable to alter their sexual orientation even if they wanted to. However if homosexualism is caused by some environmental factor, so homosexuals and tribades could alter and go consecutive with therapy. Research has been conducted and found out most homosexual people will state u that being homosexual is non something they choose by giving account that why would anyone take to be something that could do them to be scorned by society, rejected by their household and deny their rights. That is non to state that all of being homosexual people is negative. In fact, one time they come out, they will claim that they have ne’er been happier or more fulfilled. Homosexual people said that they do non take their sexual orientation but they do take whether or non to come out of the cupboard. The National Mental Health Association says that many research workers believe that sexual orientation is complex, and that biological science plays some function. This means that many people are born with their sexual orientation, or that it is established at an early age. Surveies of indistinguishable and fraternal twins suggest that there is a familial influence on sexual orientation. If being homosexual were purely familial, so in indistinguishable twins, there would be a 100 % harmony rate for sexual orientation. These surveies show that people with the same familial make-up ( indistinguishable twins ) are more likely to portion sexual orientation than those with different familial make-up ( fraternal twins. ) Genetics entirely can non do sexual orientation, but they do play a portion. ( Belge 2003 B )
1.6 Application of Model
Homosexuality is defined as holding sexual feelings and sexual behaviour with the people of the same sex. The author has analyzed many theoretical accounts about homosexualism and found the theoretical account by Thomas J. Sullivan most apt for this survey. This holistic theoretical account helps to place different biological and situational causes of homosexual. Society can do usage of this theoretical account to place homosexual factor among the citizen. This would assist to turn up the exact grounds for doing homosexualism and so they can take proper safeguards to avoid being portion of them. The theoretical account consists of factors familial influence on sexual orientation, proper environment which lead to homosexual, the procedure of self-definition and household abnormalcy.
Familial influence on sexual orientation
Scientists have no thought whether all or merely some of the homosexualism is biologically linked. But an happening of homosexualism among brothers have been conducted by Bailey and Pillard ( 1991 ) claimed that
52 % of indistinguishable ( monozygotic ) twins of homosexual work forces were similarly homosexual
22 % of fraternal ( dizygous ) twins were similarly homosexual
11 % of adoptive brothers of homosexual work forces were similarly homosexual
Whereas the research of happening of homosexualism among sisters ( 1993 ) claimed that
48 % of indistinguishable ( monozygotic ) twins of homosexual adult females were likewise homosexual ( sapphic )
16 % of fraternal ( dizygous ) twins were similarly homosexual
6 % of adoptive sisters of homosexual adult females were likewise homosexual. ( ibid )
Proper environment which lead to homosexual
This can be shown from an illustration that people may inherit a inclination toward gender nonconformity, such as a inclination for a immature male child to act in a stereotypically girlish manner ( be sisters ) . Then the reaction of others to that gender nonconformity may promote ways of thought and behaving that come to be defined as “ homosexual ” . ( J. Sullivan 2007 )
Procedure of Self-definition
This can be explained by if person labels an person as homosexual, such labeling increases the opportunities that the people will come to accept the label him or herself. This can take to more chances to research homosexualism. So the labeling and self-definition procedures can precipitate gradual alterations in a individual ‘s self-concept, along with a turning association with people in the homosexual community. These alterations in bend may assist solidify the individual ‘s cheery self-definition and life style. ( ibid )
This may due to the grounds by holding a parent or a sibling with homosexual inclinations and excusing homosexualism as a legitimate life style. Their construct of welcoming homosexual will ask for their wonder and encourages them to research more by being one of them. ( Belge 2009 )
The causes of homosexual identified by the theoretical account used herein can be applied at all degree of society, as it is simple to understand and analyse. By accommodating this theoretical account to this survey, one can place the causes of homosexual and seek to cut down the chance of being one of them.
1.7 Research Methodology
The survey was conducted by utilizing both primary and secondary informations. Primary informations are carried out by garnering informations and information from the society in US. The technique used is questionnaires. It is one of the more appreciate instruments because it captures the positions of a broad spectrum of respondents. A set of questionnaires were distributed to the random work forces and adult females from Malaysia. The questionnaire is divided into 3 subdivisions. Section B and C extracted from Thomas J. Sullivan ( 2007 ) . The subdivisions explained in inside informations as below: –
Section A- Personal Profile of Respondents.
The questionnaire itself was self developed. It comprised of 10 inquiries to garner information of the populace, for illustration, age, gender, instruction degree, all of which to be looked at to see if one or more has any peculiar correlativity to homosexual.
Section B- Real Society Questions.
The existent questionnaires consist of 24 inquiries, but merely 15 inquiries were selected in this context. This subdivision is to see if homosexual was or is being suffered and what biass they are confronting in the existent and existent universe.
Section C- Viewpoint Questions.
The existent questionnaire consists of 45 inquiries, merely 25 inquiries used in this context. This questionnaire is to roll up the populace ‘s perceptual experience and sentiments of homosexual and subjective to the societal and demographic group in US.
The type of research used is random trying ; the questionnaire was given to random 50 work forces and adult females in US. Out of the 50 respondents, the distribution of questionnaire was 30:20 for work forces and adult females. The questionnaire was sent via electronic mail to them. Respondents were given a one-week clip frame from the day of the month of distribution to return the electronic mail.
The informations aggregation processs was done by utilizing the 5 point Likert Scale- Never, Seldom, Sometimes, Very Often and Almost all the clip. Statistical analysis will be performed on the information collected.
However, the secondary research information was gathered signifier published stuffs from Kuala Lumpur Library and from published stuffs such as diaries, books, newspaper and magazines articles.
Chiefly, people are self oriented and many could non understand the character and designation of homosexual. Let entirely, tangibilise it. Due to the “ confidentiality factor ” resulted in some of the replies being subjective and obscure, to state the least. However, it is hoped that the findings would be good and supply a theoretical model for farther research.
Chapter 2 – This chapter encompasses the background, growing and development of homosexual.
Chapter 3 – This chapter discusses profoundly the current state of affairs of the society in sing homosexualism or another influence the homosexual grounds.
Chapter 4 – This chapter consist of research findings and application of theoretical account.
Chapter 5 – This chapter includes reasoning comments and recommendations.