Is Homosexuality a learned behavior or biological Essay
Homosexuality is a controversial issue within any society in the universe and has been debated upon in the populace in recent old ages. The argument on homosexualism has typically concentrated on the societal and legal issues environing the construct and small respect has been given to the cause of the job. The contention that has surrounded the homosexualism issue has spread to the finding of the cause of the phenomenon. This has been brought about by those reasoning that homosexualism is caused by environmental factors whereas others argue that homosexualism is caused by biological factors.
This paper is traveling to give an analysis of whether homosexualism is a erudite behaviour or a biological one. Homosexuality: Homosexuality is a construct that has been controversial in many societies. Though the behaviour has been widely spoken approximately in the recent yesteryear. it was about out in the traditional societies and anyone involved was considered immoral. Homosexuality has been defined as a romantic attractive force towards persons of the same sex. Homosexuality is therefore portion of the three noteworthy sexual orientations exhibited in human species which besides include androgyny and heterosexualism.
Homosexuality has elicited a strong argument non merely on its acceptableness within the society but besides sing its causes. The contention has led to the legal and societal deductions of the issue ruling the media every bit good as the biological argument sparked by the research determination in the recent yesteryear. The cardinal inquiry in respect to the causes of homosexualism has been on whether homosexualism is caused by biological constructs or it is a erudite behaviour that has been entrenched in the cultural norms ( Lawrence. para 1 ) .
Homosexuality is characterized by an single holding sexual penchant with others of the same sex. In females. such penchants are referred to as sapphism whereas in males it is called homosexual. This is in dispute to the conventional social outlooks of heterosexualism. Homosexuality has been met with societal effects particularly for those with same sex sexual penchants. It has been estimated that between 2 and 5 per centum of males are gays whereas between 1 and 2 per centum of females pattern sapphism ( Pease & A ; Bull. para 5 ) .
In the United States. despite the distinction of the phenomenon. most of the provinces do non O.K. of same sex matrimonies. It has been antecedently thought that homosexualism is a pick and that persons do larn the behaviour. A study conducted in 1970 indicated that over 40 per centum of the public were of the sentiment that the immature homosexuals had learned the wont from the older 1s ( Pease & A ; Bull. para 5 ) . Homosexuality as a biological behaviour: In the development of the kid. genetic sciences that are inherited from the parents play a critical function in the finding of character and behaviour.
Genes are known to transport all the biological information and may be falsely placed during the cell division procedure through mutants. Homosexuality is considered as coming from cistron mutant in human development. The biological account of the homosexual behaviour was given drift by Simon Levay who discovered that the hypothalamus of the encephalon in homophiles was little compared to straight persons. He concluded that differences in the encephalon formation were responsible for homosexual behaviour ( Queer Foundation. para 4 ) .
There is besides a hormonal instability amongst the homophiles. Hormones are responsible for commanding and exciting the organic structure and hence any instability in endocrines will take to freak out in the titillating attractive force ( Queer Foundation. para 4 ) . Research has continued to indicate towards a biological cause of homosexualism. There are certain observations that point to the biological causes of homosexualism as observed by Dan Eden. Harmonizing to Eden. the straight persons and homophiles exhibit discernible differences that have a biological orientation.
He observed that the index and the ring fingers are about the same in length for heterosexual adult females whereas in work forces. the index finger is normally shorter compared to the ring finger. On the contrary. lesbians’ finger length were more like men’s and this is besides seen in other character traits including eye-blink forms and other male traits ( Eden. para 1 ) . Research has besides indicated the differences in the encephalon of the males and females. Surveies that have been conducted indicate that there is sexual dimorphism in the hypothalamus of the two sexes.
The males have shown greater differences in footings of cell Numberss compared to the females in this portion of the encephalon. Surveies have indicated that between two and four of the Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus ( INAH ) in males are dual the size found in females. Since the INAH is responsible for sexual dimorphism. scientists believe that differences in this part of the encephalon are responsible for the sexual orientation in persons ( Deem. para 3 ) . Another survey done by scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Sweden reinforced the impression that homosexualism is an congenital phenomenon.
In this survey. both straight persons and homophiles were exposed to arouse endocrines and their stimulation in the hypothalamus measured. There was a great difference in how the hypothalamus in the two classs of sexual orientation reacted to sexual endocrines. Upon being exposed to the male endocrines. the hypothalamus in heterosexual females and homosexual males was activated but heterosexual males did non react to the same. Similar observations were observed when female endocrines were introduced.
In this instance. the heterosexual males’ hypothalamus got activated as opposed to heterosexual females and homosexual males ( McHugh. para 3 ) . Surveies by life scientists Ward Odenwald and Shan-Ding Zhang on fruit flies tend to bespeak that homosexualism is a familial issue. In their experiment. the two scientists transplanted a individual cistron into the flies which was responsible for the homosexual behaviour that was observed. They inferred their findings to human homosexualism claiming that since there is the presence of a related cistron in worlds. homosexualism was a familial issue though no much has been done to turn out this claim.
The two scientists are nevertheless cautious on the issue and hopes that their disclosure would be of import in analysing how the familial make up in persons could be responsible in act uponing the sexual orientation ( Thompson/Bethesda. para 2 ) . Homosexual as a erudite behaviour: Socio-behaviorists are opposed to the biological impression in respect to the homosexual behaviour in worlds. Homosexuality is attributed to the environmental factors which hold that homosexualism is a erudite behaviour.
Behaviorists regard childhood experiences as responsible for homosexualism behaviour that is exhibited by persons. As a erudite behaviour. homosexualism can be traced by analysing the drama patterns during childhood. equal dealingss and interaction. and parental influence. Psychoanalysts in peculiar had extended surveies on homosexualism in seeking to explicate the ‘abnormal’ behaviour. Their accounts seem to indicate to an individual’s upbringing as the chief cause of the homosexualism. In simple footings. they were of the position that homosexualism was caused by environmental factors ( Newman. para 1 ) .
Homosexuality has been with us since the antediluvian times and it was accepted in some civilizations. A Grecian philosopher by the name Aristophanes believed that there is a hankering between two psyches to acquire together and that sexual desire on its ain is non responsible for homosexualism therefore civilization has greater influence on the tendency. In Greece. homosexualism was practiced in ancient times between immature male childs and grownup males as portion of induction into maturity. In New Guinea. there are cases where immature males are inseminated by tribal warriors which is allowed y their civilization.
In Crete. the male striplings had to prosecute in a homosexual relationship as induction to maturity ( Johnson. para 17 ) . The societal and cultural environment is hence nucleus in finding of the sexual orientation of the persons. Behaviorists hold that “some sexual and gender designation differences result from functions imposed by household and friends upon kids. such as the masculine and the feminine stereotypes” ( Johnson. para 18 ) . Some surveies have contradicted the familial determinism in homosexualism.
If genetic sciences were to the full responsible for homosexualism. so one would anticipate it will be lasting. Surveies have nevertheless indicated that sexual penchants can alter over clip particularly in females. In a five-year survey conducted on female homophiles. it was discovered that more than? abandoned sapphism with? repossessing heterosexualism. Other surveies have continued to reenforce the impression that sexual orientation is non fixed and can alter over clip. A good illustration is given by Kerry Pacer who was a cheery advocator when in High School but subsequently changed to a heterosexual relationship.
It is hence imperative to observe that in some persons sexual orientation is something that they can take and therefore a erudite behaviour. Some engage in homosexualism after being influenced by their function theoretical accounts or equals ( Deem. para 17 ) . For those reasoning that homosexualism is a erudite behaviour. it is argued that kids from a stamp age have to be taught the acceptable criterions of behaviour in the society and that they should besides be exposed to the right function theoretical accounts. Peer influence. the media and the cyberspace has been blamed for holding influenced the young person in practising bad behaviours like homosexualism.
It is obvious that in the current times adolescents discover their sexual experiences at a stamp age and that any harmful forms of gender can hold a permanent impact on these immature people. Since sexual experience is enjoyable. it is normally reinforced by the experience irrespective of whether it is acceptable or non ( Dolphin. para 21 ) . Decision: The contention environing homosexualism is far from over. Though increased research activity has surfaced to find its cause. there is no cosmopolitan understanding on the affair as the findings can non settle on a peculiar cause of the issue.
It will non be comprehensive to reason that homosexualism is caused by biological factors neither can it once and for all be argued that homosexualism is a erudite phenomenon. The complexness environing the issue has led to a divided sentiment on the affair. However. it would be more accommodating to convey the two places together and acknowledge that each can lend to the same job in a manner. Biological causes can non be dismissed neither can we disassociate the environmental causes. Homosexual behaviour is best understood if biological and environmental factors are incorporated.