Exam 3 Part 3 Anthropology

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All of the following statements about sexual behavior among the Trobrianders is correct except:
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when the couple is ready to be married, they appear outside the woman’s household
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What percentage of known societies has rules regulating that sexual involvement only take place within marriage?
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15
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Among Christians in the 17th and 18th centuries in New England, adultery was considered
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a serious crime
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A contract in which a woman and man establish a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another and in which the woman involved becomes entitled to bear children is also called
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marriage
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A positive side effect to restricting sexual behavior is that it may also limit
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the spread of sexually-transmitted diseases
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The author uses the Nayar of southwest India to illustrate that rules about sexual access can be highly variable. Nayar women
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go through stages of sexual access
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Because Nayar women live with their dependent offspring and their brothers, they are considered what type of family?
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Consanguineal
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Which of the following statements about the Nayar is correct?
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A man must give a Nayar girl gifts three times a year to formalize the sexual relationship
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The people to whom you are related by marriage are considered what type of kinship?
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Affinal
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Detailed census records made in Roman Egypt show that brother-sister marriages among members of the non-royal farming class were common. What light does this shed on the incest taboo?
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It demonstrates that despite the human tendency to avoid inbreeding, it occasionally occurs and may even be preferred.
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Although all societies have some kind of incest taboo, the relationship which is considered incestuous may vary. Concepts of incest seem to be related to a group’s definitions of endogamy and exogamy, thus suggesting that incest taboos may help to promote:
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stability of the family
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Marriage within a particular group of individuals is called
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endogamy
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When a society proscribes sexual relations among those it considers too closely related, these are rules of
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exogamy
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Regarding cousin marriage, which of the following statements is incorrect?
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in the U.S., some states have no laws prohibiting marriage between relatives
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The French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss says that the incest taboo is universal because
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humans have learned to establish alliances with strangers and thereby share and develop culture
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The most preferred form of marriage around the world is
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polygyny
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is possible only when a man is fairly wealthy
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Polygyny
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All of the following are associated with polygyny except:
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shows the lower status of men than women in these societies
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In Tibet, a young man lives with his older brother, who is married. The younger brother eventually begins to think about setting up his own tent and taking his share of the yak and fields of grass. One night, his brother’s wife gives him her necklace. In Tibetan culture, this is an invitation for him to become her second husband. If he accepts, he will remain with his brother and share the same tent. This type of marriage is called
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polyandry
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An example of group marriage would be
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traditional spouse exchange among the Inupiat Eskimo where adult members have sexual access to each other
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Marriage by proxy, such as that which might occur with a prisoner, a dead partner for inheritance reasons, or between those separated by deployment, is called
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fictive marriage
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An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are
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social clubs
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Which of the following characteristics would be most important in an Indian family’s selection of a bride for their son?
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Character
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My mother’s brother’s son is my
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cross cousin
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The woman-woman marriage custom found in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with all of the following except:***
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***
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Among which group do same-sex marriages provide acceptable positions in society for individuals who might otherwise be marginalized?
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Nandi
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Under cross-cousin marriage, the sister’s son is also the
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brother’s daughter’s husband
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The period of time that a groom spends in service to the bride’s family as a form of economic exchange for marriage is called
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bride service
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In which of the following circumstances would you expect to find the custom of bride price?
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A bride and groom go to live with the groom’s people
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When the economy is based on _____ and when the man does most of the productive work, the bride’s people may give a dowry that protects the woman against desertion. Dowry is also a statement of her economic status.
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agriculture
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In Western societies between A.D. 1000 and 1800, divorce was next to impossible, but few marriages lasted more than about 10 or 20 years, owing to
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high death rates
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Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption are called a(n)
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family
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In the U.S., approximately what percentage of marriages ends in divorce?
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40
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A family established through marriage is called what type of family?
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Conjugal
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Families can be consanguine or conjugal. The conjugal family has many forms. One type of conjugal family is the _____, consisting of the husband, wife, and dependent children.
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nuclear family
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What type of family is typically found among traditional horticultural, agricultural, and pastoral societies around the world?
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Extended
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A residence pattern in which a married couple may choose to live in the husband’s father’s or wife’s mother’s place of residence is called
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ambilocal
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In industrial and postindustrial societies, such as the United States, the most common form of residence after marriage is
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neolocal
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One area that is most changing the composition of families today is that of***
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…***
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Since the early 1970s, about how many foreign children have been adopted into U.S. families?
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500,000
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A network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations is
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kinship
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Descent groups are associated with all of the following except:***
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…***
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All of the following are types of descent except
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institution
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Which of the following is not a Maori cultural concept?
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namus
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In what country do we find aboriginal Maori people?
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New Zealand
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In the Biocultural Connection box Maori Origins, what was the focus of the research on the Maori people?
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Connecting DNA types with the people’s origin myths
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Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome studies of the Maori indicate that their creation myth telling of their origins from the ancient place of Hawaiki is consistent with an origin in
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Polynesia and Southeast Asia region
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When kinship membership is traced either through males or through females but not both, it is called
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unilineal
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If you are a member of a patrilineal descent group
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your sisters belong to the same patrilineal descent group that you do
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All of the following statements regarding a lineage are correct except:
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it always involves a totem
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You belong to a patrilineal descent group. Which of the following belong(s) to the same group?
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Your father’s sister
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An extended unilineal descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor but who cannot trace their genealogical links to that ancestor is called a(n)
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clan
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Among the Han, brothers and their sons were part of the same household and paternal uncles were like second fathers. What type of descent is this?
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Patrilineal
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All of the following statements about Han genealogy are correct except:
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the tsu is a corporate kin group that traces its ancestry back about five generations through the female line
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A clan is similar to a lineage except:
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clan members are unable to trace exact genealogical links to their common ancestor
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Matrilineal descent groups are associated with farming societies in which _____ performs most of the labor in the house and gardens
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women
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A boy is born into a society that practices matrilineal descent. The person who exercises authority over him is***
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…***
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Among the Hopi, which of the following functions as a landholding corporation, allocating land for the support of member households?
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Lineages
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Among the Yako of Nigeria, an individual might inherit grazing lands from his father’s patrilineal group, and livestock and ritual knowledge from his mother’s matrilineal group. This is an example of which kind of descent?
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Double
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A young man of Jewish affiliation moves to New York City to find a job. Seeing no reason to \”go it alone,\” he calls everyone he knows from both his mother’s and father’s side of the family, and attends various meetings to which he is invited. He is invited to multiple events and gatherings by virtue of his being related to various ancestors on both parents’ side. These groups support him when he runs out of money and help him find an apartment and a job. We can say that he is a member of either a bilateral descent group or which of the following?***
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…***
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Bilateral descent is commonly found among all of the following except:
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tribal societies
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What are honor killings?
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Murder condoned by the genealogical group in order to retaliate for shame of unapproved sexual activity
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The Turkish honor killings that van Eck studied were occurring in which country?
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Netherlands
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Namus is another name for
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Turkish honor
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Approximately how many Micmacs are members of the Aroostook band today, according to official criteria?
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850
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What was the primary purpose of advocacy anthropology among the Micmac?
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To help them obtain official tribal recognition
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Which anthropologist worked with the Aroostook band of Micmacs in Maine?
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Harald Prins
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Through what practice do lineages develop new alliances within the larger social system
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Exogamy
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The splitting of a descent group into two or more entities is called
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fission
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A totem is all of the following except
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found in all societies that have lineages
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Clans, because they may have members living in many different villages, depend on _____ to provide symbolic identification and promote solidarity
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totems
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A phratry is a unilineal descent group composed of two or more _____ that believe they are related to each other
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clans
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Members of a moiety
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belong to one of two major descent groups in a society
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North Americans assume that they are related equally to the relatives on both the mother’s and father’s side. The group composed of such people to whom these individuals feel that they belong is called what kind of descent group?
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BIlateral
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Jane Leek, born and raised in the U.S., decides to hold a family reunion. She invites her siblings, parents, both sets of grandparents, her great-aunts and great-uncles, their children, her aunts, uncles, and their children. This group brought together for a temporary time, with such vague boundaries, is called a(n)
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kindred
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If two people are given the same kinship term, this means that
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they occupy a similar family status
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In which kinship terminology are ego’s \”brother\” and \”sister\” distinguished from \”cousins\” and both father’s brother and mother’s brother are given the same kinship term, \”uncle\”?
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Eskimo
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The Hawaiian system of kinship terminology is usually associated with what type of descent?
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Ambilineal
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In _____ kinship terminology, the term \”brother\” is given to ego’s brother, father’s brother’s son, and mother’s sister’s song; a different term is used for the sons of father’s sister and mother’s brother. \”Mother\” refers to ego’s mother and mother’s sister; \”father\” refers to ego’s father and father’s brother. Separate terms are used for mother’s brother and father’s sister.
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Iroquois
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New reproductive technologies are
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changing the traditional understandings of kinship

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