RESEARCHING & REPORTING CO301/401 END OF TERM ASSESSMENT PROJECT: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGES AND LEADERSHIP STYLES ********O******** Prepared for: Mrs. Ewa Maciejewski Prepared by: Le Hang Nguyen 3HE2 Thi Luu Nguyen 3HE2 Date of submission: 11/01/2012 Abstract The research explores the relationship between Ages and Leadership styles, by using a questionnaire survey to collect data from 100 managers from different Hospitality organizations and at different organizational level in Montreux, Switzerland. The research question is identified as “ what role does Age play in the perception of leadership style”.
There have been some research publications focusing on influences of age on the leadership style (for example, Kabacofff and Stoffey, 2011; Mitchell, 2000; Vinnicombe and Kakabadse, 1999). The authors found that the older managers were mature, saw challenges and had long-term perspectives in managing people, in contrast, younger managers were competitive, and result oriented and adopted an open style of management. Since some people have asked what relevant age has to do with leadership, we do a research on 100 managers in Montreux to explore those theories.
The findings suggest that the younger and older manager have different profile in their autocratic and democratic leadership style (consultative and participative). Older manager is more autocratic in decision-making process, more consultative in employees’ opinion and more participative in employees’ performance in comparison with younger manager. However, the two groups of manager both apply laissez-faire leadership style at the same level. Key words: Age group, Leadership, Managers, Autocratic Leadership style, Democratic Leadership style, Consultative Leadership style, Participative Leadership style, Delegate Leadership style.
Acknowledgements The special thank goes to Professor Van Gau Vu, University of Social Sciences and Humanities. The consulting and support that he gave truly help the progression and...
smoothness of the report. Additionally, we would like to thank our friends from Swiss Hotel Management School, who help us in discussing, creating the questionnaire survey and understanding the project. Table of Contents Abstract2 Acknowledgements3 List of Tables4 List of Illustrations5 List of Appendices6 Literature Review8 Methodology10 Chapter 1: Autocratic leadership style11 Chapter 2: Democratic leadership style13
Chapter 3: Laissez-faire (Delegative) leadership style16 Conclusion18 References19 Bibliography20 Appendices22 List of Tables Table 1……………………………………………………………………………………… Table 2……………………………………………………………………………………… List of Illustrations List of Appendices Questionnaire Survey………………………………………………………………………. Literature Review As the difference in ages of workers, managers in today’s organization, different leadership styles may be applied in a same organization. Base on a leadership study of Kurt Elwin (1939), he identified that there are three different styles of leadership: Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-Faire.
Autocratic style is about taking decisions without consulting with others, providing what, when and how things need to be done. Democratic style is usually the most effective one that allows group member’s input in making decision, while Laissez-Faire style offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to them. Kakabadse et al. (1998) concluded in their investigation of senior federal-government Australian civil servants and top directors in the UK National Health Service Trust organization that gender is not a significant demographic factor in defining leadership perspective and performance.
They recommended that organizational demographic factor such as the age of individuals is considerably influential in shaping the philosophy, attitudes an
behavior of leaders in organization. Kabacoff and Stoffey (2001) examined multigenerational differences in leader style and behavior and their impact on individual performance of two age groups: younger (25-35) and older (45-55). The research showed that compared with older workers, younger workers are more likely to seek out opportunities to take charge and push competitively to achieve a high level of results.
Similarly, compared to younger workers, older workers cooperate and delegate more, and show a greater degree of empathy and concern for other workers. From an understanding of these theories, three main key themes are generated, which are about the analyzing of three different leadership styles with its rating from different group of ages: less than 30, from 30 to less than 40, from 40 to less than 50, from 50 to overs base on a questionnaire survey. These key themes will be expanded in corresponding chapters. The study of this research may bring in new insights about the influences of ages on the leadership styles.
Particularly, the research may carry out the understanding of worker and manager’s behavior through the answer choices that affects both individual and organizational outcomes. Methodology Base on the understanding of three different leadership styles, a survey questionnaire is established with 3 different answers, which indicates the correspondent leadership styles. The questions and answers are generated in the way to determine the characteristics of different leadership styles, which are responded by a specific age group. The research is undertaken by interpretivism philosophical perspective.
This research emphasizes the difference between conducting research among people. Particularly, research involves the study of specific phenomenology, which is the behavior of different people with different ages in a working condition as they are leaders. Moreover, the research seek to interpret and understand the social life as well uncover multiple layers of meaning represented by human action (Vrasidas, 2001). The research purpose is Exploratory Study, to explore the role of ages in the perception of leadership styles, to seek a new insight between ages and leadership styles besides other demographic factors.
To investigate the role of ages in the perception of leadership styles, the following single data collection technique or a mono research method was employed in the study. A questionnaire survey was conducted where the population for the study comprised people working in Montreux, Switzerland. A total of 100 questionnaires were sent to potential respondents from various hospitality organizations and at different organizational levels. A total of 60 completed questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 60 percent.
To gather data on age differences and similarities in the leadership styles of Montreux workers, the questionnaire requested respondents to indicate their age among four age groups specified in the survey, namely: less than 30 years, from 30 to less than 40, from 40 to less than 50 and 50 years and above. Moreover, the questionnaires requested respondents answer questions that implied their leadership styles in their day-to-day working activities. Chapter 1: Autocratic leadership style
In our study, we found that there is a significant difference in autocratic leadership style between the older and younger manager. The older manager rated autocratic leadership style significantly more than
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