Parental Involvement And Its Relationship To Discipline In Elementary Schools Essay Example
Parental Involvement And Its Relationship To Discipline In Elementary Schools Essay Example

Parental Involvement And Its Relationship To Discipline In Elementary Schools Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2204 words)
  • Published: August 13, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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There is a vast amount of research on the correlation between parental engagement and school discipline, including studies, expert opinions, theory documents, plan descriptions, and guidelines. These studies provide valuable and up-to-date information on the topic. The way parents raise their children is greatly influenced by their own family experiences (Hops et al., 2003). Moreover, socioeconomic status plays a significant role in parenting behavior and can directly impact student behavior in schools (Hops et al.). Families from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may face more stress, leading to stricter parenting styles. Additionally, minority cultural groups may experience added stress due to racism (Pinderhuges et al., 2000). All these factors contribute to parental engagement and its connection to school discipline.

While discipline issues have always existed in schools (MacDonald, 2002), what is alarming is the severity and prevalence o


f these concerns. School campuses that were once considered safe havens now witness daily violence (MacDonald). These discipline problems affect all segments of society. O'Donoghue (2005) observed that in the 1990s, discipline concerns were primarily associated with inner city areas; however, worries about parental engagement have become widespread in schools throughout the United States. In today's society, children are in great need of guidance and support from adults.According to Johnson (1999), parents play a crucial role in their child's education by providing support and advocacy, as young people often make poor choices under the influence of confused peers. However, there is a growing trend of parents becoming less involved in schools. This lack of involvement has negative impacts on children's behavior and academic achievement.

The U.S. Department of Education (2005) reports that American mothers spend an average of less than 30 minute

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a day talking, explaining or reading with their children, while fathers spend less than 15 minutes interacting with them. Many parents are not fulfilling their responsibilities to the extent they should be.

Parental engagement is essential for maintaining discipline within schools. Epstein and Salinas (2004) categorized parental engagement into different types such as advocacy, decision-making, and co-production. Advocacy refers to politically active involvement by parents, decision-making involves being part of commission members, and co-production entails participating in activities that contribute to school development and planning efforts.

In 2005, data provided by the Children's Defense Fund highlighted issues such as suspensions, arrests, dropouts, and corporal punishment in American schools.To enhance discipline in schools, school authorities should adopt a proactive approach rather than a reactive one. Teachers need to possess expertise in behavior management strategies that create school environments conducive to rule adherence and positive interactions among students and authority figures (Lewis & Sugai, 1999). Instead of relying solely on punishment-centered zero tolerance policies, it is crucial to prioritize positive incentives that motivate all students to exhibit appropriate behavior (Lewis & Sugai). When developing disciplinary action plans, involving parents at every stage is essential for gathering their input and fostering a sense of shared responsibility. According to the National Parent Teacher Association (2004), there are three crucial forms of parental engagement for a child's education: (a) parents acting as primary educators at home, (b) parents collaborating with the school as partners, and (c) parents advocating for their children in society. The active participation of parents plays a critical role in the success of these endeavors. Barton, Coley, and Wenglinsky (1998) identified four key components of parental involvement: parents' fundamental

responsibility, effective communication between home and school including student monitoring, parental engagement within the school setting itself, and parental involvement in learning activities at home.

In today's society, children require more parental involvement and attention than ever before (Comer, 2006). This text highlights the importance of parents being central to a child's education. It suggests that strengthening parent-school relationships and supporting parents in their role as teachers is crucial for improving student behavior.

The study aims to investigate issues surrounding parental involvement in schools through surveys that aim to understand parent experiences. The research offers new insights into the connection between parental involvement and discipline, addressing questions about the correlation between parental involvement and student discipline referrals, as well as the relationship between socio-economic status and parental involvement.

However, there are limitations to this study, such as its focus on two specific schools in a particular territory and potential dishonesty in parental responses. Therefore, caution should be exercised when interpreting the findings of this study on the relationship between parental engagement, student academic success, and discipline referrals due to the small sample size of respondents.

Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize the significance of this study as it can provide valuable insights for school boards, judges, and school personnel to enhance parental involvement. Previous research has shown that active parental involvement in their children's education leads to a decrease in discipline referrals and an increase in academic progress.

Not all parents actively engage in their children's education, despite its importance. Strong parental support is necessary for academic growth regardless of age. The U.S. Department of Education (2005) emphasizes the significance of parents spending time speaking, explaining, or reading with their

kids as neglecting these activities can have negative effects on student performance and communication with teachers. This is particularly true for male parents who spend less than 15 minutes daily interacting with their children.
Implementing a discipline program is crucial for schools' success as discipline issues can harm academic achievement, which researchers strongly emphasize. The relationship between academic achievement and behavior in school is evident, underscoring the need to address discipline problems to minimize their impact. Effective collaboration and communication between parents and school staff are vital when addressing these issues.
In the United States, children and teenagers often make poor choices influenced by their peers; however, many schools do not sufficiently involve parents in supporting and engaging with the school community. Research conducted by Waggoner and Griffith (2001) shows that students whose parents were involved performed better on standardized tests compared to those with uninvolved parents.Kornbluth's study discovered that parental involvement in their children's education leads to better academic performance and discipline. The San Diego County Office of Education states that parents who nurture their children at home, establish academic goals and expectations, and actively participate in their education greatly contribute to academic success. Moreover, Parlardy (2005) stresses that parental involvement reduces disruptions in the classroom, disciplinary actions, and improves both the overall school environment and student achievement. Cotton's (2001) research emphasizes the significance of effective discipline strategies at both the schoolwide and classroom levels, which include staff commitment to achievement, parental involvement, and maintaining high expectations for students and faculty members. Clearly defined regulations and a positive school climate are essential for education. Wright et al.'s (2004) research reveals that the No Child Left Behind

act affects various stakeholders such as parents, instructors, decision makers, and students regarding discipline and parental involvement. Waggoner and Griffith (2001) support the idea that involving parents strengthens relationships between teachers, parents, and students while reinforcing teacher expectations at home.Parental engagement is essential in homework assignments because it allows parents to understand the curriculum and teacher expectations, which in turn helps them provide better assistance to their children with schoolwork. According to Kornbluth (2006), involved parents have been found to improve test performance for students compared to uninvolved parents. Furthermore, Epstein and Salinas (2004) emphasize the importance of involving the community in school activities by partnering with businesses and having them serve on school councils alongside parents. This collaboration allows for community participation in decision-making processes and helps align goals between the community and the school, ultimately fostering a harmonious relationship. The ultimate objective is to reduce disciplinary infractions and enhance student learning.
Parental involvement encompasses various interactions among parents, students, and the school. These interactions can include attending meetings or conferences with teachers as well as representing other parents in decision-making situations. Parents can play different roles in their child's education, ranging from being actively involved to less involved or not involved at all. There are multiple strategies and activities that can be utilized to promote parental involvement. For example, parents can volunteer to read to a class or assist their child with take-home learning materials.Research consistently demonstrates that parental involvement in a child's education positively affects discipline and academic achievement. When discussing parental engagement, it is crucial to consider Brandt's (1979) four fundamental premises. The first premise proposes that the family can enhance their

ability to create a learning environment focused on cognitive and emotional factors (parent impact model). The second premise asserts that a child's health, nutrition, social development, and psychological well-being influence their academic learning (comprehensive services model). The third premise emphasizes the significance of schools being responsive to parents' needs in order to improve discipline and achievement for children (school impact model). Finally, the fourth premise highlights the interconnectedness of everything within the community (community impact model).

According to Swap (1998), there are various models of parental engagement, each with its own premises and goals that all participants should clearly comprehend. Swap describes four models alongside their respective goals. The protective model aims at minimizing conflicts between parents and educators by segregating their roles while ensuring that parents do not interfere with school matters. The second model seeks to involve parents in supporting the school's objectives, whereas the third model strives to integrate aspects of families into expanding and enriching the curriculum.The fourth model emphasizes collaboration between parents and educators for the success of all children (Hampton, Mumford, and Bond, 1998). However, there are barriers to effective parental involvement such as troubled home environments involving issues like drug abuse, neglect, alcohol addiction, and domestic violence (Hampton et al., 1998). On the other hand, Kornbluth (1997) argues that not all students face difficulties due to irresponsible or uninvolved parents; some come from good homes with parents who are doing their best. Various circumstances like language barriers, work schedules, transportation, and access to childcare can impact parents' ability to contribute to their children's education (Kornbluth). According to Seeley (1999), parental involvement in education is challenging because some non-threatening school

staff members believe they are solely responsible for educating children. Seeley suggests that parents may have inadvertently received the message that their involvement in their children's education is not necessary. The study highlights the importance of convincing all parties involved in a child's education about the need for parental involvement. Once parents and teachers acknowledge this significance, they will be motivated to do whatever it takes to achieve desired goals. Davies (1998a) explains that reaching out to families has become more complicated due to the increasing number and diversity of students' ethnic, economic, and social backgrounds.Educators who only focus on traditional families may face difficulties when dealing with the diverse array of family types present in today's society. According to Davies, educators need to address their own misconceptions about parents. Despite the availability of government intervention programs, statistical data shows that children born into mature, educated, employed, and married families have a higher chance of success compared to those lacking such familial support.

Coolahan et al.(2002) have delved into how parenting styles are influenced by ethnicity and parental characteristics. They observed that parents from different cultures possess unique traits that result in the use of varied parenting approaches. These cultural differences can be seen in beliefs surrounding disciplinary methods like paddling, indicating potential variations in parenting practices.

Research indicates that autocratic parenting is more common among African-American households than European-American ones. Interestingly, within the same socioeconomic status (SES) group, families from different cultural backgrounds experience varying levels of stress. For instance, African-American households with low SES report higher levels of stress compared to European-American counterparts due to additional race-related stressors.

Asian-American culture also differs from European and Mexican-American

cultures in terms of parenting styles.Liu's (2003) research identified two primary parenting styles in Asian-American families: care and momism. The care style involves parents showing affection, emotional warmth, empathy, and closeness to their children. This text highlights how these different parenting styles impact child development and mentions the prevalence of a strict parenting approach called momism in Asian-American families. Momism enforces rules and discourages independent behavior, potentially leading to dysfunction within the family. On the other hand, nurturing parenting styles are linked to closer and more functional families.

The text also suggests that African-American families from lower socio-economic backgrounds may have a punitive attitude towards their children due to higher stress levels, resulting in an authoritarian parenting style. It is crucial to note that authoritative parenting has been associated with positive psychosocial outcomes and improved academic performance across all cultural groups.

The style of parenting plays a significant role in a child's development as sensitive and responsive maternal behavior contributes to healthy mother-infant relationships and prevents behavioral disorders (Schaefer, 2000). In Gosche's (2005) study, the focus was on examining behavioral instability and suboptimal parenting over four generations.The research discovered that insufficient parenting may be passed down to future generations, resulting in the emergence of unstable behavior in children who have experienced inadequate care from their parents. The study noted that when children are exposed to increased levels of negativity from their parents, they become more susceptible to exhibiting aggressive behavior as they grow into adolescence and adulthood. Furthermore, this hostile and aggressive conduct may also manifest towards their own children.

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