Educational Psych. 5-6 Essay

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true
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(T/F) The number of minority group students in the United States has been increasing steadily over the years.
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false
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(T/F) The assumption underlying the cultural deficit model was that many ethnic groups did not want to assimilate completely into mainstream American society.
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true
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(T/F) Both traditional and ethnocentric approaches should be emphasized in multicultural education.
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true
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(T/F) Membership in a particular group determines behavior as well as increases the probability of certain types of behavior.
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true
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(T/F) Socioeconomic status (SES) is positively correlated with school achievement.
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false
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(T/F) The majority of poor children in the schools of the United States are African-American.
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false
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(T/F) Differences in cultural values as well as the dangers of neighborhoods may make the strategy of less parental control both appropriate and useful for children’s learning.
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true
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(T/F) The purposes of creating culturally compatible classrooms are to lessen ethnic prejudice, racism, and sexism and, at the same time, provide equal opportunities for all students.
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true
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(T/F) Segregation was declared illegal by the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.
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false
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(T/F) Discrimination and prejudice are the same negative behaviors.
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false
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(T/F) In a study of the effects of a negative stereotype on college students’ standardized test performances, similar results were found for both African-American and Caucasian students.
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true
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(T/F) Comparisons between males and females on mental ability tests generally show small or no differences.
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false
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(T/F) Gender differences in mathematics achievement are generally the same for all racial groups.
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false
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(T/F) It is difficult for most students whose original language is a dialect to learn the standard speech of their country.
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false
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(T/F) Recent studies show that speaking two languages is detrimental to cognitive development.
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middle class, sectarian values
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Educational practices in American schools during the twentieth century have tended to be based on
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come from an inferior culture that leaves them at a disadvantage
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The cultural-deficit model suggests that immigrant students
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culture
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The rules and traditions that guide the behavior of a group comprise its
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social class
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Membership in what cultural group is the best predictor of cultural differences?
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Marie, who was placed in the low reading group in the third grade, is counseled in the eighth grade into home economics instead of beginning algebra
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Which one of the following student situations is predictive of tracking practices?
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parents’ attitudes toward education
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Which one of the following variables is MOST likely to correlate positively and highest with children’s school achievement?
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it refers to a group of people who receives unequal or discriminatory treatment
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Which one of the following statements is technically TRUE regarding the term minority group?
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different experiences in and out of school
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Researchers generally believe that differences between ethnic groups in cognitive abilities occur primarily as a result of
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“people from that region just aren’t ambitious”
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Which one of the following quotations MOST clearly represents the concept of stereotyping?
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behavior
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As opposed to the term prejudice, the term discrimination refers to
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context
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The term gender is associated with judgments influenced by culture and
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preschool children
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What group of people have the most stereotyped notions of gender roles?
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balance competitive and cooperative approaches
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What type(s) of learning approaches would be the most helpful in eliminating gender bias in the classroom?
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males tend to score highest and lowest on various tests
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Which one of the following differences in test scores between males and females is most clearly documented in the current research literature?
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dialect
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A language variation spoken by a particular ethnic, social, or regional group is called a
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accept students’ dialects as a valid and correct language system, but teach standard English as well
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In order to reduce the possible negative stereotypes about students who speak a different dialect, teachers should
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changing demographics
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What is the primary reason why bilingualism has generated such heated debates in recent years?
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the more skilled the individual is in the first language, the faster he/she will learn a second language
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Research on bilingualism suggests that
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try to make students fluent in both languages
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According to Woolfolk, the most desirable approach to the “language problem” in today’s bilingual schools is to
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Mr. Buhr regularly demonstrated the correct procedures for borrowing school materials during his homeroom period
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Which of the following illustrations is characteristic of a culturally compatible classroom?
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thrive in spite of the difficult circumstances
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Resilience children not only survive in difficult times, they also
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provide a safe and orderly classroom and develop positive teacher-student relationships
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According to Borman and Overman (2004), teachers can do the following to create resilient classrooms
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field-independent
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Research on African-American students suggests that the typical learning style of this group is
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reasoning by inference
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The learning style of Native Americans appears to be
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when it is appropriate to talk to another student as well as to respond to the teacher
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Participation structures in a classroom would generally dictate
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false
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(T/F) Learning is defined as a deliberate action that produces a positive result.
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true
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(T/F) In Pavlov’s experiment the conditioned stimulus was the tuning fork tone.
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true
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(T/F) Extinction in classical conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus.
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false
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(T/F) B.F. Skinner established the basis for operant conditioning and E.L. Thorndike was responsible for developing the concept of operant conditioning.
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false
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(T/F) Negative reinforcement introduces an aversive stimulus to decrease the frequency of a behavior
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true
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(T/F) Detention after school is an example of both presentation and removal punishment.
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false
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(T/F) The act of providing an antecedent stimulus immediately before a particular behavior is to take place is called prompting.
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false
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(T/F) In using the Premack Principle, it is important that the higher frequency behavior happens first.
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true
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(T/F) Positive practice involves having students give correct responses several times immediately following errors
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false
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(T/F) Removing something aversive as soon as the desired behavior occurs is an example of punishment.
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false
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(T/F) Ms. Tolleson is effectively using social isolation when she removes Mark, who is being disruptive, for a period of 60 minutes.
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true
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(T/F) Mr. Matin interviews a student about her disruptive behavior to learn about her reasons for the behavior. This approach is an example of doing functional behavioral assessment.
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false
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(T/F) A contingency contract is an example of a system for rewarding positive group consequences.
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false
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(T/F) Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning theory but is irrelevant to Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
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false
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(T/F) Researchers agree goals-setting is most beneficial for self-management when students keep their goals private.
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observable actions
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Behavioral theories of learning emphasize
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two events through pairing
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The principle of contiguity involves an association between
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in a contiguous relationship
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In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be
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extinction
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Ray’s temper tantrums have finally driven his mother to her “wits’ end.” Ray’s mother resolves that she will ignore the tantrums no matter what. This plan is an example of
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consequences
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The law of effect in Thorndike’s theory of learning is related to the concept of
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negative reinforcement
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Removing an aversive stimulus to increase the frequency of a behavior exemplifies
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negative reinforcement
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You finally take out the garbage in order to get your father to stop pestering you. Your behavior is being influenced by
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variable ratio
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Slot machines that pay off after an indeterminate number of uses illustrate what schedule of reinforcement?
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variable interval
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What schedule of reinforcement is most likely to be involved when teachers give “pop” quizzes?
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variable ratio
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The schedule of reinforcement that is the most appropriate to use in the classroom because it encourages persistence and high rates of response is what type of schedule?
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variable
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Persistence in responding is increased by what type of reinforcement schedule?
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a preferred activity is a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity.
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The Premack Principle states that
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describes the sequence of skills leading to a goal
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Which one of the following is a major advantage of task analysis?
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soft and private
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The most effective reprimands are those that are
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group consequences
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The Good Behavior Game is based on the application of
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unpopular students who are unable to perform well
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Woolfolk suggests that programs for promoting group responsibility may be particularly hard on
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may be both a positive and a negative influence
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Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding the use of peer pressure in applying group consequences? Peer pressure
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varied in price so that all students may be rewarded
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Rewards to be purchased with earned tokens should be
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individual performance contracts with each student.
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In a contingency contract program, teachers set up
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self reinforcement
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The concluding step of the self-management process is
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self instruction
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Cognitive behavior modification adds what to the management process?
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Attention, retention, production, motivation
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Which one of the following in the correct sequence of phases for Bandura’s model of observational learning?
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response cost
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Each time Robert fails to do his homework, five points are deducted from his total course points. The procedure being used by the teacher is
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develop sentences using commonly misused words.
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An example of the use of positive practice is having students
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performance is otherwise too poor to gain reinforcement
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Shaping is an appropriate method for developing new behavior when

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