# Developing & Conducting Investigations Study Cards

independent variable
The part of an experiment that is changed by the scientist

conclusion
The part of an experiment where you analyze the results

if, then, because
Three words that should appear in a hypothesis

Scientific Method
A procedure that is used by scientists to solve a problem

hypothesis
The part of an experiment where you predict results.

dependent variable
The part of an experiment that is measured by the scientist.

A study was done to find if different tire treads affect the braking distance of a car. What is the independent variable?

A study was done to find if different tire treads affect the braking distance of a car. What is the dependent variable?
braking distance

The time it takes to run a mile depends of the person’s running speed. What is the independent variable?
person’s running speed

The time it takes to run a mile depends of the person’s running speed. What is the dependent variable?
time it takes to complete the mile

The height of bean plants depends on the amount of water they receive. What is the independent variable?
the water they receive

The height of bean plants depends on the amount of water they receive. What is the dependent variable?
height of the bean plants

What is one reason you would do background research?
1. safety
2. better predict results
3. connect it to the real world

The distance a paper airplane travels depends on the length of the airplane. What is the independent variable?
length of the paper airplane

The distance a paper airplane travels depends on the length of the airplane. What is the dependent variable?
the distance the plane travels

Does the number of times you dip a wand into bubbles affect the number of bubbles made? What is the independent variable?
number of times the wand is dipped into the bubbles

Does the number of times you dip a wand into bubbles affect the number of bubbles made? What is the dependent variable?
how many bubbles are made

What procedure is used by scientists that helps them solve a problem or answer a question?
scientific method

What is the term that means an educated guess or prediction?
hypothesis

What variable is used to collect data from?
dependent variable

What variable does the scientist change to perform the experiment?
independent variable

What is the part of the scientific method that discusses results and tells whether the hypothesis was correct or incorrect?
conclusion

What three words should be in your hypothesis?
if, then, because

Identify the independent variable in the question: How does the temperature of clay affect how easy it is to mold into a shape?
temperature of the clay

Identify the dependent variable in the question: How does the temperature of clay affect how easy it is to mold into a shape?
easiness to mold the clay

What measurement tool is used to measure the mass of an object?
triple beam balance

What measurement tool is used to take the temperature of a substance?
thermometer

What measurement tool is used to measure length?
ruler, meter stick

What measurement tool is used to measure the volume or capacity of a liquid?

Which kind of data is collected using numbers?
quantitative

Which kind of data is collected using your senses?
qualitative

Make 2 qualitative observations about your laptop.
black, bright screen

Make 2 quantitative observations about your laptop (you can make them up, but use the correct words and make them realistic!)
.8 kg, 44 cm long

Write a possible hypothesis for the question: Which type of soda will people most like in a taste test?
If different soda brands are tested, then people will prefer Coke, because it is more popular.

What measurement tool? mL

N or L? The marble had a mass of 4 g.
Quantitative (N)

N or L? The ice is cold.
Qualitative (L)

N or L? The coke can has 255 mL of soda.
Quantitative (N)

What is qualitative data?
Data collected using observations from the 5 senses.

What measurement tool? degrees Celsius
thermometer

N or L? The temperature is 30 degrees C.
Quantitative (N)

N or L? The movie was long.
Qualitative (L)

N or L? The football game lasted 60 minutes.
Quantitative (N)

N or L? The wall is green.
Qualitative (L)

N or L? The dog was growling.
Qualitative (L)

N or L? The concert was loud.
Qualitative (L)

What measurement tool? m
meter stick

What measurement tool? g
triple beam balance

Write a hypothesis: Which brand of batteries lasts the longest?
If brands of batteries are tested, then Energizer will last the longest, because the Energizer bunny ads are funny. (Answers may vary)

What is quantitative data?
Data collected using numbers

N or L? The man is 2 m tall.
Quantitative (N)

Write a hypothesis: Which brand of soda will people prefer, Sprite or Sierra Mist?
If people are choosing their favorite soda, then they will choose Sierra Mist, because the commercials say it has a refreshing taste. (Answers may vary)

What measurement tool? mass
triple beam balance, scale

What measurement tool? length
meter stick, ruler

Write a hypothesis: Which color of light do plants germinate the most in: White, Green, Red, Dark
If seeds are germinated in the dark, then they will germinate more, because seeds germinate under the soil where it is dark. (Answers may vary)

What measurement tool? temperature
thermometer

What measurement tool? capacity (volume of a liquid)
triple beam balance

Write a hypothesis: How does listening to music while studying affect a students performance on a test?
If students listen to music, then they will perform better, because the students will study longer if they listen to music they enjoy. (Answers may vary)