Cultural Anthropology Test 1 Study Guide

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4 Major Subfields of Anthropology
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archaeological, linguistic, cultural, biological/physical
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Archaeological Anthropology
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the study of material remains to study human behavior
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Linguistic Anthropology
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the study of human language
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Biological/ Physical Anthropology
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the systematic study of humans as biological organisms
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Cultural Anthropology
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the study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings
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Ethnography
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detailed account of particular culture; based on participant observation fieldwork
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Ethnology
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cross cultural study
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Anthropology Phase 1
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Classificatory/ Descriptive Period
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Morgan and Tylor
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unilinear evolution
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Unilinear Evolution
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idea that societies evolved on a common track from simple to complex
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Franz Boas
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father of cultural anthropology; historical particularism
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Historical Particularism
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looking at each culture in its own terms; considers the history of each culture and how it developed
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Anthropology Phase 2
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Modernism; structuralism
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Brown
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structural-functionalism
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Structural Functionalism
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everything in society works to serve a specific purpose but in society, everything works together; contrast to Marxism
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Malinowski
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Functionalism and Economic Anthropology; studied men’s wealth exchange of kula ring; first participant observation fieldwork
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Functionalism
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Everything people do they do to satisfy a basic human need
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Strauss
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Structuralism
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Structuralism
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the mind constructs everything in binary oppositions
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Anthropology Phase 3
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postmodern; relativistic period
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Processes of Evolution
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divergent, parallel, convergent
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Ancestor Development
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Homo habilis → homo erectus → homo neanderthalensis → homo sapiens
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Emic Perspective
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story told from people being studied
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Etic Perspective
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story told from the observer/ outsider
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Glottochronology
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historical linguistics; suggests that suggests that core vocabularies change 14-19% every 1,000 years
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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
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language influences the way we think/ see the world
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Enculturation
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transmission of a society’s culture from one generation to the next; learning one’s own culture
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Acculturation
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forced, such as a lower group being forced to learn the ways of a dominant culture
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Nurture
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tabula rasa; John Locke; society shapes us
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Nature
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Phineas Gage; biology shapes us
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Sex
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is biological
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Gender
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is cultural
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Sahlins and Borshay Lee
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Zen Road to affluence
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Zen Road
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achieves affluence by desiring little; !Kung San
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Galbraithean Road
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achieves affluence by producing much; Western society
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Factors of Production
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land, labor, technology
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4 Types of Subsistence
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Horticulturalists, Pastoralists, Agriculturalists, Foragers
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Horticulturalists
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cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoestropical locations; small groups; closed corporate communities; complementary gender divisions
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Pastoralists
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mountainous, infertile locations; larger groups; hierarchical gender division
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Agriculturalists
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plant cultivation by continuous engagement of land and labor and use of technology; modern developed locations; immobile; strict gender division
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Foragers
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everyone has right to everything; egalitarian gender division; small groups
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Modes of Exchange
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reciprocity, redistribution, market
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Conspicuous Consumption
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maintain superiority through a display of material wealth
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Modes of Reciprocity
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generalized, balanced, negative
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Informal Economy
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market not regulated by government; illegal drugs, babysitting, housekeeping
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Prestige Economy
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status gained through massive displays of generosity; Potlatch
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Substantivists
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Polyani and Sahlins; economies get their meanings from surrounding culture; Western economic models are not universal
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Formalists
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Schneider; all people desire to maximize their gains; Western models are universal
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Weiner
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women’s wealth in Trobriand society; studied banana leaf bundles and yam exchange
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Affinal
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of marriage
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Patrilateral
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of father
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Matrilineal
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of mother
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Avunculocal
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husbands live with mother’s brothers; occurs after marriage in Trobriand society
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Consanguineal
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of blood
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Men produce yams FOR
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own matrilineage and sister’s husband
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Men receive yams FROM
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wife’s brothers (affinal)
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Trobriand Engagement
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couple receives yams from wife’s family at husband’s house
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Trobriand Trial Period
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couple eats yams from husband’s family
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Duties of Owners
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must distribute wealth
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Duties of Workers
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must give service (mourning, grave preparation, body painting, etc.)

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