Critical Thinking in Nursing (Chapter 14)

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Crtical thinking is
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thinking about thinking while you are thinking about thinking; and active organized, cognitive process used to carefully examine one’s thinking and the thinking of others
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A critical thinker
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identifies and challenges assumptions, considers what is important n in a situation, imagines and explores alternatives, considers ethnical principles, applies reason and logic and thus makes informed decisions
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Three important aspects of critical thinking
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reflection, language, and intuition
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reflection
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the process of purposefully thinking back or recalling situations to discover their purpose or meaning
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language
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the ability to use language is closely associated with the ability to think meaningfully
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intuition
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the direct understanding of particulars in a situation wihtout conscious deliberation
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Levels of Critical thinking
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basic, complex, and commitment
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Basic
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a learner must trust that experts have the right answer for every problem
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Complex
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a person begins to detatch from authorities and analyze and examine alternatives more independently
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Commitment
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the individual anticipates the need to make choices without assistance form others and then assumes accountability for them
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General Critical thinking processes include
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the scientific method, problem solving, decision making, diagnostic reasoning and inference, clinical decision making
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The Scientific Method
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An approach to seeking the truth or verifying that a set of facts agrees with reality, used when testing research questions in nursing situtaions
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Problem Solving
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When a problem arises we obtain information and use teh information plus what we already know to find the solution, also we must evaluate the solution over time to be sure that it is still effective
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Decision Making
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An end point of critical thinking that hopefully leads to problem resolution
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Diagnostic Reasoning and Inference
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a process of determining a client’s health status after the nurse assigns a meaning to the behaviors, physical signs, and symptoms presented by the client; part of this is inference which is the process of drawing conclusions from related pieces of evidence
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Clinical Decision Making
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requires careful reasoning so that the options for the best client outcomes are chosen on the basis of the client’s condition and the priority of the problem
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Decision Making Criteria
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What needs to be achieved (healing the skin,a safe home environment), What needs to be preserved (mobility, nutrition, comfort, and safety), What needs to be avoided (further tissue injury or infection and further falls)
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Five Steps of the nursing process
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Assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
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The purpose of the nursing process is
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to diagnose and treat human responses to actual or potential health problems
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The nursing process must be
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creative and innovative in order to be responsive to the continually changing needs of a client
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Five components of critical thinking
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specific knowledge base, experience, competence, attitudes, standards
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Specific Knowledge base
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Includes basic nursing education, continuing education, and additional collee degress
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Experience
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A nurse must have opportunity to practice and make decisions about client care in order for this to develop
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Competence
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Must be competent in order to use critical thinking
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Attitudes
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Attitudes define how a person will use critical thinking; Confidence, Thinking Independently, Fairness, Responsibility and Accountability, Risk Taking, Discipline, Perseverance, Curiosity, Integrity, Humility
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Standards
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Intellectual Standards Professional Standards

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