Criminology study guide test 1

Aging-out phenomenon
Decline in criminal activities with age – has sparked a lively scientific debate

Birth cohort
A group of people born in the same year

Case study
An analysis of all pertinent aspects of one unit of study, such as an individual, an institution, a group, or a community

Crimes against property
Burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson

Crimes against people
Criminal homicide, forcible, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault

Criminal career
A concept that describes the onset of criminal activity, the type and amount of crime committed, and the termination of such activity.

Data
Collected facts, observations, and other pertinent info

Theory
A systematic set of principles that explain how two or more phenomena are related

Experiment
And investigator introduces a changed into a process and makes measurements for observations in order to evaluate the effects of the change

Felony
Severe crimes subject to punishment of a year or more in prison or to capital punishment

Field experiment
A real world study, Or field, setting

Hypothesis
A testable proposition that describes how two or more factors are related

Index crimes
Collectively part one offenses

Longitudinal studies
A particular group of people over time should enable researchers to uncover the factors that distinguish criminals from non-criminals and those that differentiate criminals in regard to the number and kinds of offenses they commit

Mens rea
Guilty mind

Misdemeanor
Less severe crimes, subject to a maximum of one year in jail

Nonparticipant observation
Do not join in the activities of the groups they are studying; they simply observe the activities in an every day setting and record what they see

Participants observation (what are some ethical issues? )
Take part in many of the activities of the groups in order to gain acceptance but they generally make clear the purpose of the participation

Population
A large group of persons

Sample
Instead of interviewing the total population under study, most researchers interview A representative subset of that population

Primary data
The facts and observations researchers gather for the purpose of a particular study

Random sample
The sample is determined by random selection, where by each person in the population to be studied has an equal chance of being selected

Secondary data
Data that was previously collected for a different investigation

Self-report surveys
To ask people to Report there own criminal acts in a confidential interview or, more commonly, on an anonymous questionnaire

Strict liability
An exception to the men’s Rea requirement

Survey
The systematic collection of respondents answers to questions asked in questionnaires or interviews

Torts
Civil Ron’s for which the law does not prescribe punishment but merely grants the injured party the right to recover damages

Variables
Factors that may change

Victimization survey
Measures the extent of crimes by interviewing individuals about their experiences as victims

Violations
Minor offenses, normally subject only to fines

A
Act

L
Legality

H
Harm

C
Causation

M
Men’s rea

C
Concurrence

P
Punishment

Classical Criminology
The assumption that individuals choose to commit crimes after the consequences of their actions (individuals have free will)

Cesare Beccaria
wanted to change laws he believed in utilitarianism and free will

Jeremy Bentham
Greatest good for the greatest number of people

Utilitarianism
That actions are right if they are useful

Positivism
the theory that laws are to be understood as social rules, valid because they are enacted by authority or derive logically from existing decisions, and that ideal or moral considerations

Physiognomy
a person’s facial features or expression, especially when regarded as indicative of character or ethnic origin.

Cesare lombroso
His theory was the born criminal,he believed that criminals were a lower life form

Atavism
a person whose biological features and socialization skills are far behind the times of the present day.

Phrenology
the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character

Biological determinism
havior is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes.

Endomorph
Most likely to be involved in crime (big boned)

Mesomorph
More than the others, to be involved in illegal behavior

Ectomorph
(Skinny)

Inherited criminality
Claim that criminality was an inherited trait, passed on in genes

Psychological determination
People are criminals because there’s something going on in their mind

Moral insanity
type of mental disorder consisting of abnormal emotions and behaviours in the apparent absence of intellectual impairments, delusions or hallucinations

Intelligence testing
a test designed to measure the ability to think and reason rather than acquired knowledge.

Sociological determinism
Crime was caused by social, economics, and political determinants

Laws of imitation
-People in close contact tend to imitate each other’s behavior
-imitation moves from the top down
-New acts and behaviors either reinforce

Conflict crime
Criminal law expresses the valves of the ruling class in society and the criminal justice system is a means of controlling classes with no power

Consensus model
Developments of legal systems, law making

Crime
Any human conduct that violates a criminal law and is subject to punishment

Criminal justice system
The discovery that varies ways of dealing with law breaking form a system was itself the result of criminal research

Criminologists
Collect info for study and analysis in accordance with research methods for modern science

Criminology
The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon

Deviance
Behavior that violates social norms

Social norms
The customary ways of doing everyday things