CPR and First Aid

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how to recognize an emergency
how to recognize an emergency
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look for unusual noises, sights, odors, appearances and behaviors example: screams, breaking glass, crashing metal
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safety
safety
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do not risk your own _________________ in orer to rescue or provide first aid to another person
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Good Samaritan Laws
Good Samaritan Laws
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state laws that help protect healthcare professionals and ordinary citizens from liability while giving emergency care to accident victims. You are protected if you are certified and obtain consent, act in good faith, are not paid, use reasonable skill and care, are not negligent (careless), and do not abandon the person
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how to open an Airway
how to open an Airway
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tilt head, lift chin
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signs of life
signs of life
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movement or breathing
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ABCs
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Airway, Breathing, and Circulation (blood flowing through the body)
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How to check Breathing
How to check Breathing
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look for movement of the chest, listen and feel for air movement by placing your ear and then your cheek at the mouth and nose of the victim
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how to check Circulation
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place your index and middle fingers into the groove of the neck next to the voice box to feel the carotid artery pulse
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index finger
index finger
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the finger next to the thumb; also called pointer finger
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voice box
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larynx
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Rescue Breathing
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an emergency technique in which a rescuer gives air to someone who is not breathing. To perform this, a person blows air into a victim’s lungs to give him/her oxygen
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how to give rescue breaths to an adult
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1. tilt head, lift chin, pinch the nose shut 2. take a breath and make a complete seal over the person’s mouth 3. blow in to make chest clearly rise (1 second) 4. Begin CPR/administer AED if breaths go in OR assume unconscious choking if breaths do NOT go in
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Steps to check an injured child or infant
Steps to check an injured child or infant
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1. check scene, then check child 2. obtain consent from parent/guardian if present 3. Tap on shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?” 4. No response, call 911 or if alone, give 2 minutes of care then call 911 5. Open airway, check for signs of life for no more than 10 seconds 6. give 2 rescue breaths if not breathing 7. If breaths go in, check for pulse and severe bleeding. If breaths do NOT go in, begin rescue breathing. No pulse, begin CPR/AED 8. If breathing, place in recovery position and monitor ABCs
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recovery position
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a side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately
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Rescue Breathing for Child/Infant (Age 1-12)
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1. give 1 rescue breath (for about 1 second) every 3 seconds, pinch nose shut, make seal over child’s mouth and nose (infant), blow in to make chest clearly rise 2. After 2 minutes, recheck signs of life and pulse for no more than 10 signs 3. If pulse, but no breathing, continue. If NO pulse, begin CPR/Administer AED
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unconscious choking/ no breaths go in
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tilt head farther back, give 2 rescue breaths, if chest does not rise, give 30 chest compressions; look for an object and remove it if seen; try 2 rescue breaths; continue these steps if breath does NOT go in. If breaths DO go in, check for signs of life and give care.
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conscious choking
conscious choking
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victim can’t cough, speak, cry or breath 1. check scene, check person 2. Have someone call 911 3. obtain consent 4. lean person forward, give 5 back blows with heel of your hand 5. give 5 quick, upward abdominal thrusts (or chest thrusts for infants, pregnant or obese people) 6. continue back blows and abdominal thrusts until object is forced out, the person can breathe or cough forcefully, OR the person becomes unconscious
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two
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number of fingers used in chest compressions for infant
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abdominal thrusts
abdominal thrusts
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the act of applying pressure to a choking person’s stomach to force an object out of the throat
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choking when you are alone
choking when you are alone
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1. self-administer abdominal thrusts 2. place your fist above your navel (belly button) 3. cover your fist with your hand and thrust upward and inward 4. lean over the back of a chair, table or other firm object and quickly press your abdomen upward and inward
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
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life saving technique that combines rescue breathing and chest compressions
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compressions
compressions
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techniques that allow the rescuer to artificially pump the heart, delivering blood to the body and bringing oxygen to the lungs
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heart attack
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when an area of the heart muscle suffers damage and loses function due to lack of oxygen. The heart stops beating
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cardiac arrest
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when the heart stops beating due to stroke, severe injuries, electrical shock, drug overdose, chest trauma, drowning or suffocation. Leads to unconsciousness, no pulse, no signs of circulation
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signs of circulation
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consciousness, a pulse, pink nail beds, warm skin If a person does not have these, they are in cardiac arrest
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Adult CPR
Adult CPR
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1. give 30 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths 2. continue until scene becomes unsafe, you see a sign of life, AED is ready to use, you are too exhausted, or another trained responder arrives and takes over
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Adult CPR skills >12 years old
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hand position: 2 hands in center of chest compression depth: 1 1/2 – 2 inches cycle: 30 compressions, 2 breaths rate: 30 compressions in 18 seconds or 100 per minute
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Child CPR skills (1-12 years old)
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hand position: 1 or 2 hands in center of chest compression: 1-1 1/2 inches cycle: 30 compressions, 2 breaths rate: 30 compressions in 18 seconds
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Infant CPR skills <1 year old
<img src="https://chmanchacentro.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/infant-cpr-skills.jpg" title="Infant CPR skills <1 year old" alt="Infant CPR skills
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hand position: 2 or 3 fingers on lower half of chest, one finger width below nipple line compression depth: 1/2 – 1 inch cycle: 30 compressions, 2 breaths rate: 30 compressions in 18 seconds
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Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs)
Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs)
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portable defibrillators that are available in many public areas. The machine first determines if the victim needs a shock. If shock is needed, the machine talks the rescuer through administering the procedure
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defibrillation
defibrillation
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shocking the heart back into beating again by delivering an electric current to the heart which will, in turn, return the heart to a regular rhythm
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survival rate with AED
survival rate with AED
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30% or higher, according to the American Red Cross, if used within minutes after cardiac arrest
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wound
wound
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a break or tear in the soft tissue of the body
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open wound
open wound
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wound that breaks the surface of the skin
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closed wound
closed wound
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wound that does not break the surface of the skin
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internal bleeding
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bleeding within the body that results from closed wounds such as bruises
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external bleeding
external bleeding
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bleeding at the body surface that results from open wounds, such as cuts
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contusions
contusions
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simplest closed wound, also known as a bruise. They are caused when the body is subjected to a force
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abrasions
abrasions
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most common type of open wound which is characterized by skin that has been rubbed or scraped away
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lacerations
lacerations
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a cut with either jagged or smooth edges, usually from a sharp object. Can also result when a blunt force splits the skin
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avulsions
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injury in which a portion of the skin and sometimes other soft tissue is partially or completely torn away
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puncture
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when skin is pierced with a pointed object
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caring for minor wounds
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1. wash hands, put on disposable gloves if available 2. place sterile or clean cloth on wound and apply direct pressure 3. Rinse wound with water and gently wash 4. Seek medical help if you can’t remove dirt or debris from the wound. Apply antibacterial ointment 5. Cover wound with sterile dressing and bandage. Change dressing at least once a day, keeping wound clean and dry. Seek medical help if wound becomes infected–tender, swollen and red
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caring for serious wounds with severe bleeding
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1. seek medical help immediately, protect yourself from blood by wearing disposable gloves 2. lay victim down, elevate feet and legs. Place in half-seated position if a head wound 3. find the wound by following the blood. Uncover wound if under clothing 4 place dressing over wound and apply direct pressure 5. raise wound above level of heart and continue to apply direct pressure if arm or leg is wounded 6. apply pressure at pressure point if bleeding continues 7. release pressure point and secure with bandage when bleeding stops. Do not remove dressings
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pressure points
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areas where arteries lie over a bone
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signs of internal bleeding
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bleeding from ears, nose, mouth or eyes, coughing up blood, bruises near skin surface
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internal bleeding procedure
internal bleeding procedure
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1. lay person down, raise legs 8-12 inches (unless head injury–of so, put in reclining position) 2. lay vomiting person on left side 3. cover victim with warmth, seek medical help immediately
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shock
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a condition in which some body organs are not getting enough oxygenated blood. It may occur when heart is not pumping properly, a considerable amount of blood is lost from the body hemorrhaging, dehydration or a systemic infection, or when the nervous system is damaged by injury or drugs
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symptoms of shock
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anxious, restless, lethargic (slow-moving), unconscious, pale and cold skin, nauseous or vomiting, increased pulse and respiration rates, bluish tinge to skin, thirsty, dilated (enlarged) pupils
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treating shock
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1. check ABCs and treat for injuries 2. lay victim on back 3. raise legs 8-12 inches 4. cover with blankets, coats 5. call for medical assistance 6. do not give victim anything to eat or drink
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burn
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an injury to the skin and other tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The degree refers to the depth of tissue damage
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first degree burns
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burns that affect only the outer layer of the skin and look pink. Take 3-6 days to heal. No scars.
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second degree burns
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burns that go into the inner skin layer and are red, swollen, and blistered. Take less than 3 weeks to heal. Scars possible.
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third degree burns
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burns that go through all skin layers as well as tissue beneath the skin. Burns appear white, tan or charred black. Skin graft must be performed to heal. Some scarring. Take months to heal.
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treating first degree burns
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apply cool water until pain stops, apply moisturizing lotion
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treating second degree burns
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apply cool water until pain stops, apply antibacterial ointment, seek medical attention if severe
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treating third degree burns
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cover with clean, dry cloth; treat for shock; seek medical attention immediately
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thermal burns
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caused by contact with open flames, hot liquids or surfaces, or other sources of high heat Treat by removing victim from source, cool burn with water, check for bleeding and shock, seek medical attention
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chemical burns
chemical burns
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caused by contact with chemicals that can burn the skin Treat by flushing burn with lots of cool water to remove chemical, or brush powdered chemical off skin with clean cloth
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electrical burns
electrical burns
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direct exposure to electricity Treat by shutting off current, approach only if safe, cool burn with water, check breathing and for signs of bleeding, treat for shock, seek medical attention
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special consideration for burns
special consideration for burns
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Seek medical help if severe 2nd degree, 3rd degree, chemical or electrical burns Never apply ointment or cream to severe burn Never remove clothing stuck to burn wound Always treat burns to face, hands and feet as severe.
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fracture
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crack or break in a bone
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dislocation
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injury in which a bone has been forced out of its normal position in a joint
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open fracture
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skin is broken and bone ends may stick out of skin; obvious wound
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closed fracture
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skin is unbroken. Injured bone causes pain and tenderness, loss of function, deformity, unnatural movement, swelling, bruising, grating sensation
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treating a fracture
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check for bleeding, call for medical help, splint the area in position it was found, placing padding between splint and body, cover wounds with clean, dry dressing
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splint
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device used to stabilize a body part Used to reduce pain, prevent further damage of tissues surrounding fracture, reduce bleeding and swelling
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applying a splint
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1. Find materials to make splint (heavy cardboard, rolled newspapers) 2. hold splint close to injured area 3. place padding between splint and body 4. Use extra padding around body deformities, body hollows 5. Extend splint beyond joint above and below fracture 6. tie splint comfortably to body
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sprain
sprain
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injury in which the ligament in a joint is stretched too far or torn
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ligament
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tissue that connects bone to bone
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strains
strains
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injury in which muscle or tendon has been stretched too far or torn
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RICE method
RICE method
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treating injuries to bones, joints and muscles 1. Rest–don’t use injured area 2. Ice–use ice pack to reduce swelling 3. Compression 4. Elevation
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compression of bone, joint or muscle injury
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wrap injured area with elastic bandage to prevent movement or swelling
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elevation
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raise injured area above heart level when lying or sitting down
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neck or spinal injuries
neck or spinal injuries
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no obvious signs or symptoms are possible; swelling and bruising; numbness, tingling or loss of feeling in arms and legs; unable to move arms or legs; pain, difficulty breathing; shock
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treating neck or spinal injury
treating neck or spinal injury
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do not move person get medical help immediately steady and support head and neck by holding in position found if person MUST be moved keep your arms steady by placing them on your thighs, or place heavy objects on either side of head steady and support victim’s feet
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temperature at which death is likely
temperature at which death is likely
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106 degrees fahrenheit Danger: Do not leave a baby in a car on a hot day due to risk of death
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shivering
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helps keep body warm by producing heat
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hyperthermia hyper=above; therm=heat
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condition in which body’s internal temperature is higher than normal Stage 1: Heat exhaustion Stage 2: Heat stroke
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heat exhaustion
heat exhaustion
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condition in which the body becomes heated to a higher temperature than normal causes: exercising or working in hot, humid place when heavy sweating causes loss of body fluids
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symptoms of heat exhaustion
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cold, moist skin; normal or above skin temperature; headache; nausea; extreme fatigue (tiredness)
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treatment of heat exhaustion
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move to shady place; remove clothes; apply cool, wet towels; use fan; give victim half a glass of cool (not cold) water every 15 minutes
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heat stroke
heat stroke
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condition in which the body loses its ability to cool itself by sweating because the victim has become dehydrated
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symptoms of heat stroke
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hot, dry skin; higher than normal body temperature; rapid pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; could lose consciousness
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treatment of heat stroke
treatment of heat stroke
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seek medical help, move to cool place, cool body rapidly by immersing victim in cool (not cold) water or placing icepacks where large blood vessels are; only give food/water if not vomiting
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prevention of heat-related illness
prevention of heat-related illness
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drink at least 6-8 ounces of water 10 times a day when active in warm, humid weather
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frostbite
frostbite
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condition in which the body tissues become frozen, circulation ceases when ice forms within the tissues
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symptoms of frostbite
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skin looks white, gray or blue; numbness; severe pain when warmth is returned to area
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treatment of frostbite
treatment of frostbite
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do not rub; remove wet or tight clothing; cover with dry, sterile dressing; warm the area slowly with warm, not hot water
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hypothermia hypo=under therm=heat
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condition in which the internal body temperature becomes dangerously low because the body loses heat faster than it can generate heat
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symptoms of hypothermia
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stiff muscles, cold skin; shivering; weakness and dizziness; slow breathing and heart rate`
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treatment of hypothermia
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remove any wet clothing and wrap the person in blankets, towels, or newspapers; offer warm food or drink; do not use hot drinks, water or electric blankets
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prevention of hypothermia
prevention of hypothermia
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wear several layers of clothing, a warm hat and go inside frequently to warm up
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steps to checking an injured person
steps to checking an injured person
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1. Check the scene, remove hazards (dangers), determine how many victims 2. tap shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?” 3. Call 911 if no response 4. open airway, check for signs of life for no more than 10 seconds 5. No breaths go in, then look for severe bleeding and begin CPR/AED 6. If breathing, put in recovery position, check ABCs

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