Comm charts 7-12

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Attention getter
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An action used to draw the attention of the audience and convince them to set aside their personal concerns in order to listen to the speech
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Transition
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A single sentence bridge that connects one main point to the next
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Speech organization benefits
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-Speaker ethos and confidence improves -speech apprehension drops -improves delivery -audience interest and comprehension -less speaker errors
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Speech overview
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Intro- tell them what you’ll be telling them about Body- tell them Conclusion- told them what you told them
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Functions of an intro
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-Tell what you’re going to tell them -begin speech *get audience attention -establish speaker credibility -generate audience good will -communicate speech relevance
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Types of openings
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Questions-bad but help begin speech Startling statements- get attention Quotations-credibility Jokes-generate good will Stories- generalist openings
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Conclusion
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End of the speech, short and read word for word:
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Conclusion structure
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Restate thesis Review of the preview Closing
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Body
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Found in the middle, accounts for 80% of the speech time; contains main points to support the thesis.
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Mainpoints
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A block of time in the body used to develop one main idea that developed the thesis.
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Signpost
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A short , often numerical, cue used by speaker to explain the subpoint structure of a complex point.
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Cause-effect order of main points
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The arrangement of main points to illustrate that one event or thing caused another
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Monroe’s motivated sequence
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A 5 step main point order developed for persuasive speeches: Attention, need , satisfaction,visualization and action
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Summary of chapter 7
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*importance of speech organization -benefits :familiarity with content,increased confidence,and less anxiety, build credibility with audience Composed of : Intro- attention getter Body – main points and transitions/signpost Conclusion – memorized, short
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Purpose of outlining
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To help writers and speakers organize and develop their ideas
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Figure 8.2
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Outlining is the most efficient way to structure a novel to achieve greatest emotional impact
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Guidelines for outlining
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-use # and letters to label main points and subpoints -indent to make mp and sp stand out -subdivide when you have 2+ points to make
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Coordination
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An outlining principle that places equal ideas on the same outline level
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Subordination
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And outlining principle that places subordinate, lower order ideas on a lower outline level than the higher-order ideas
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Balance
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Ensures that ideas are not underdeveloped or overdeveloped
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Extemporaneous preparation outlines
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Construct detailed, logically structured preparation outlines that help them work out all the ideas in their speech and make the relationships between them obvious, then it’s shrunk into abbreviated delivery out lines.
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Chapter 8 summary
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General principles and purpose of outlining: -developed ideas to make the relationships among ideas obvious -3tyoes of outlining: Detailed- used to prep for extemporaneous speeches Abbreviated – present extemp. Speeches Scratch outlines- used to prepare and present impromptu speeches
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Impromptu speech
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A speech delivered with little to no preparation. An impromptu scratch outline developed in a few minuets or seconds may be used to prepare and present an impromptu speech
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Manuscript speech
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A speech written out word for word in essay form. Short manuscript speeches are often constructed without the aid of the speech outline.
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Visual elements of delivery
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-use of space -posture -lower/upper body movement -hand gestures -facial expressions -eye contact -personal appearance
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Visual and aural elements of delivery
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what your audience sees and hears
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Aural elements of delivery
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Pitch, rate, volume, enunciation, pronunciation, accent or dialect, voice quality, verbal clutter
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Figure 9.10
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Emoticons- used to express emotion on line
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Enunciation
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How clearly you say the sounds of your words
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Delivery
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The fifth canon of rhetoric. Presenting your speech to your audience
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Monotone
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The voice that has no pitch variation
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Rate
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How fast or slow you say your words. Speaking rate is usually determined by the number of words you speak per minute
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Volume
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How loudly or softly you speak
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Pronunciation
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How correctly you say your words
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Accent or dialect
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Regional variations in oral pronunciation
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Verbal clutter
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Another word for vocalized pauses, filler words that clutter your verbal message
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4 major types of delivery
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Impromptu delivery Manuscript delivery Memorized delivery Extemporaneous
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Tips for extemporaneous delivery
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Chuck down all main and supporting ideas Don’t focus a lot on detailed prep of outline If possible use index cards – write key words -don’t read word for word
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Summary for chapter 9
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Learned visual and aural elements of delivery Learned strengths and weakness of 4 primary delivery methods: Impromptu, manuscript, memorized and extemporaneous Practice helps you better your delivery Teacher can teach you but you need to stay motivated and receive he knowledge.
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Types of presentation aids
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Visual Audio Audio/visual Sensory
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Graphs and charts
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Show trends, complex numerical data and display information over a long period of time/ a form of visual aid: bar graph, line graph, pie chart, doughnut chart, pictogram, tables, flow charts and picture charts
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Bar charts
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Used to compare two or more individual things in a simple and direct way
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Pie chart
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When you are trying to demonstrate proportion
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Guidelines for charts and graphs
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Use color Keep it short Make it BIG
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Tangible objects/props
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Refers to any object or item you bring to show the audience
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Three guidelines for using tangible objects as visual aids
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-reveal your audit at the right time -make sure you have a plan of how you’re going to introduce your item -make sure that your item is worth having in your speech you don’t want to lose credibility if it’s not relevant
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Guidelines for poster boards:
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-. Use simple words not complete sentences -make sure your poster looks professional and neat
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Audial and visual aids
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Are those aids that have one or both audio capability hearing and or a visual capability
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Sensory aids
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Are Aids that appeal to the senses of the audience, you need to take into consideration possible allergies to your sensory aid
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Proximity and alignment
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Proximity refers to how close items on the slide are to one another and what that communicates. Alignment is the proper adjustments of various components that creates harmony and desirable coordination for example things in a straight line.
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Creativity
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The speaker is an artist and words and images are your tools to which you create a captivating work of art the art can be informative or persuasive.Creativity and imagination’s are incredibly powerful tools
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The 5 to 8 rule
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Keep your slide to 5 to 8 words makes it more impactful and also forces you to pick only the best and most relevant ideas
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Summary of chapter 10
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Tools available to make speech come to life: -presentation needs and their disadvantages and advantages -how do use the presentation aids and when to use them to help create success one expect of speeches
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Alignment
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The proper adjustment of various components that create harmony and desirable coordination off your referred to as things in a straight line
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Handouts
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Any paper, pamphlet, or paper-based information item you provide your audience with
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Asynchronous
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One of the two types of mediated communication, in which the transmission of information is conducted without both participants participating at the same time. For example, an assignment on the online website is considered asynchronous communication
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Evocative images
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Images that evoke an emotional response
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Synchronous
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One of two types of mediated communication, in which all participants are on mind and communicating at the same time. For example, you and your friend are using FaceTime on your iPhone is synchronous communication
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Consider the space when presenting with technology
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Unless you own the hardware and plan to bring it with you to present you’ll need to depend on your speaking Benny to provide the hardware
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Consider the preparation process
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Think about what technology is most suitable for your presentation, be prepared for technology to fail, or for the browser to encounter virtual memory issues while preparing the presentation. Be prepared to spend a lot of time working on the presentation
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Good design versus bad design
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Vision trumps all other senses Present when idea at a time Simple is better Stimulate multiple census Use evocative, emotion provoking images featuring people
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Vision trumps all other senses
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Adding a picture to your presentation will allow your audience to remember 65% of what was presented
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Simple is better
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It is harder for audience to process information presented simultaneously in oral form and written text.
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Stimulate multiple senses
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Connecting sensory experiences together which faction and emotional support, helps build a web of meaning that is easier for the audience to remember
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Mediated presentations
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Or simply presentations that use computer-based technologies in order to present to an audience.
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Back up plans
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Be prepared for technology to fail, make a PDF of your completed presentation mode it to your phone tablet laptop and flash drive to ensure that you always have a backup plan
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Summary of chapter 11
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It’s about presentation technologies: -how do use them -why to use them -making sure to consider the space/venue of presentation and the preparation process for the technology being used
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Attending
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The second stage in the listening process where you use the mental process of focusing or concentrating on specific message for a period of time
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Action center and listening
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Listeners who wants messages to be highly organized, concise, and error-free
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Ambushing
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Happens when you listen to the message within all terrier motive to find information you can use to her at the speaker
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Pseudo listening
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Happens when we pretend to listen and use verbal and nonverbal responses to continue the charade
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Dialect
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Verizon people using the same language pronounce their words differently in different geographic regions
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Hearing versus listening
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Hearing is the physical process of perceiving audible stimuli without focusing on the stimuli Listening is A transactional process of selecting, attending, understanding, evaluating, recalling, and responding to what was heard. Listening helps gain knowledge and learn from others.
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Listening process
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Selecting attending understanding evaluating recalling responding
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Selecting
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The first stage in the listening process when a person chooses to hear specific message
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Understanding
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The third stage in the listening process when you assign meaning to the message
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Evaluating
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The fourth stage in the listening process where the receiver and Elijah’s, judges, and assesses the message, often to determine the intent and accuracy of the speaker statement
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Responding
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The sixth stage in the listening process happens when the listener acknowledges verbally or nonverbally to the speaker whether or not the message has or has not been received
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Why do we listen
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We listen for information and comprehension Empathetic listening Critical and evaluated listening Appreciative listening Listening for cultural understanding
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Empathetic listening
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Requires a comprehension of another person’s feelings thoughts believes and actions, this listening requires listeners to imagine things from the perspective of the speakers often a time requires a response to sympathize or empathize
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Critical and evaluated listening
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Is listening with the purpose of judging the value or worth of the message
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Appreciative listening
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Is listening for re-creation or enjoyment
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Types of listeners
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People center listeners- feelings of people Action center listeners -want presentation to be organized(comprehensive and evaluative) Content centered listeners -about the facts and details Time center listeners -want the message to be concise, the more with the purpose of reducing time demands
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Listening barriers
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Anything that interferes with the listening process that does not allow the speakers message to be understood properly by the receiver: internal and Extertal noise
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Physical noise
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When environmental sounds interrupt your message where the listener cannot literally hear your words
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Psychological noise
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Is characterized by the interference in the listening process due to internal, emotional conditions
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Physiological noise
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Deals with bodily conditions that break your concentration and keep you from listening to the stimuli
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Immediate behaviors
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Are verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors that create a sense of psychological closeness with others increasing the effect for the speaker
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Information overload
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Occurs when to much new information is provided to us in a short period of time.
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Selective listening
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Happens when you only process the message that appeals to yourself
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Self efficacy
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An individual’s willingness to attempt a task based on the perception they hold of their own ability to achieve the expected or desired outcome
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Chapter 12 summary
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Understanding Listening process, and listeners to improve speech delivery and listening qualities

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