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Comm 131 – Flashcard

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Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation is called
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visualization
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Representing someone else’s information in a speech or paper as though it were your own is called
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plagiarism
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four causes for poor listening discussed in your textbook
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Not concentrating Listening too hard Jumping to conclusions Focusing on delivery and personal apperance
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The __________ reveals precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech
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specific purpose
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Demographic audience analysis focuses on demographic factors such as:
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age gender religion group membership racial ethnical cultural background
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name 5 resource locations
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librarians search engines reference works newspapers academic data bases
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technically ________ state both the ideas the speaker is leaving and one she or he is coming to
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main points
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list 6 methods you can use to gain the attention and interest of an audience in the introduction of a speech
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relate the topic to audience state the importance of your topic startle the audience question the audience begin with a quote tell a story
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The _______ meaning of a word includes all of the associations and feelings the word touches off in different people
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connotative
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while the _______ meaning of a word is best thought of as its dictionary definition
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denotative
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a speech that is fully prepared in advance but delivered from a brief set of notes of speaking outline is called
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extemporaneous
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a speakers credibility is affected by
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competence and character
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a speech that gives thanks for a gift or an award is called
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speech of acceptance
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types of outlines
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working outline formal outline speaking outline
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working outline
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preparation / rough draft main points, thesis statement, supporting materials
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formal outline
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entire speech, worded very neatly,
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a speaking outline
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used when practicing and presenting your speech
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Informative speeches
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seek to provide facts, statistics, or general evidence. They are primarily concerned with the transmission of knowledge to the audience.
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Persuasive speeches
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are designed to convince the audience that a certain viewpoint is correct. In doing so, the speaker may utilize information.
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Rhetorical Devices: Sound
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alliteration & onomatopoeia
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alliteration
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repetition of the same sound at the beginning of nearby words
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onomatopoeia
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a word which imitates the sound of itself e.g. “buzz”, “whoosh”, “meow”
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Rhetorical Devices which change word meanings
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Personification, Metaphor, Simile
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Personification
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giving human qualities to abstract ideas, inanimate objects, plants, or animals
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Metaphor
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a comparison of two seemingly unlike things
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Simile
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same as metaphor, but using either “like” or “as”
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3 types of persuasive speeches:
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fact, value and policy
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Introduction includes
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grabs audiences attention thesis & purpose overview of speech / main points
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Conclusion includes
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summarize main points
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Ethical considerations in public speaking
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• Speaker should be giving correct information, role of the speaker is to utilize the time of the audience • Make sure goals are ethically sound, be fully prepared, be honest, avoid name calling and other abusive language, put ethical principles into practice
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3 types of plagiarism
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global (copy entire speech) patchwork (uses multiple sources to make speech) incremental (fails to give credit to parts of speech)
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Ethical obligations of listener
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pay attention, not prejudge the topic you’re listening to, maintain free and open ideas
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2. Types of outlines in public speaking •
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• Preparation outline and Speaking outline
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Preparation Outline
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specific purpose, central idea, clearly label intro/body/conclusion, consistent, stat main and sub points (have full sentences, label transitions, include bibliography, include title
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Speaking Outline
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helping you to remember what to say, have quotes/stats, cues to yourself that might sharpen your delivery, plainly legible, as brief as possible, reminding you quickly, cues for delivery of the speech- emotion, voice modulation, pitch, move across the room, etc.
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Types and definitions of logical fallacies
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Formal and informal
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Formal Fallacies
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occur when there is a problem with the form, or structure, of the argument.
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Informal Fallacies
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an error in reasoning that occurs due to a problem with the content, rather than mere structure, of the argument
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Types / roles of credibility
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. Initial credibility Derived credibility Enduring credibility
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Initial
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comes from a speaker’s reputation and occurs even before the speech starts- more experienced speaker brings this kind of credibility
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Derived
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is created by the content and delivery of the speech, ideas that are organized and well supported with convincing evidence will enhance derived credibility as will a delivery that is practiced and engaging
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Enduring
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the impression a speaker leaves with the audience; if the audience has an enduring feeling of trust after the speech, they are more likely to believe the speaker and do what he or she has asked
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Persuasive Essays
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Problem/cause solution Comparative-Advantage Problem/Solution
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Problem/cause
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• Requires speaker to identify causes, preferable approach • Identifying problem, analyzing causes, proposing solutions`
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comparative/advantage
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• Audience knows of problem, different solutions exists • Compare and contrast to establish your solution as better
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problem/solution
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• Need, plan and practicality • Flip side: opposing change in policy; solution proposed causes problems