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Educational Psychology – Chap 5, 6, 7

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Individual Differences
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Diversity in abilities and characteristics (intellegence, personality, etc.) among students at a particular gender or cultural group.
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Differentiated Instruction
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Practice of individualizing instructional methods-and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals-to align with each student’s existing knowledge, skills, and needs.
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Intellegence
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Ability to apply prior knowledge and experiences flexibly to accomplish challenging new tasks.
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fluid intellegence
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Ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations.
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crystalized intellegence
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Knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experience, schooling, and culture.
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Distributive intellegence
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Enhancement of thinking through the use of physical objects and technology, concepts, and symbols of one’s culture, and/or social collaboration and support.
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Intellegence Test
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General measure of current level of cognitive functioning; often used to predict academic achievement in the short run.
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IQ score
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Score on an intellegence test, determined by comparingg a person’s performance with that of others in the same age group.
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Cognitive Style
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Characteristic way in which a learner tends to think about a task and process new information; typically comes into play automatically rather than by choice.
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Disposition
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General inclination and desire to approach and think about learning and problem-solving tasks in a particular way; typically has a motivational component in addition to cognitive components.
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Gardner’s Multiple Intellegences
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There are 8. Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist.
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Cognitive Processes
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Particular way of thinking about and mentally responding to a certain event or piece of information.
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Neuropsychology
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Study of how various brain structures and functions are related to human learning and behaviors.
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Cognitive load
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Cognitive burden that a particular learning activity places in the working memory at any one time; includes both the amount of information students must simultaneously think about and the specific cognitive processes students must engage in to understand what they’re studying.
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astrocyte
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Star-shaped brain cell hypothesized to be involved in learning and memory; has chemically mediated connections with many other astrocytes and neurons.
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learning
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long-term change in mental representations or associations as result of experience
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cognitive psychology
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general theoretical perspective that focuses on the mental processes underlying learning and behavior
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cognitive process
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particular way of thinking about and mentally responding to a certain event or piece of information
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information processing theory
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theoretical perspective that focuses on the specific ways in which learners mentally think about, or process, new information and events
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sensation
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one’s ability to detect stimuli in the environment
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perception
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one’s interpretation of stimuli
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constructivism
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theoretical perspective proposing that learners construct, rather than absorb, knowledge from their experiences
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memory
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ability to mentally save something that has been previously learned; also, the mental “location” where such information is saved
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storage
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process of putting new information into memory
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encoding
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changing the format of new information as it is being stored in memory
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retrieval
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process of finding information previously stored in memory
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sensory register
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component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief period of time (two or three seconds at most, depending on the modality)
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attention
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focusing of mental processing on particular stimuli
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working memory
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component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information for a short time
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central executive
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component of the human memory system that oversees the flow of information throughout the system
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maintenance rehearsal
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rapid repetition of a small amount of information to keep it fresh in working memory
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long-term memory
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component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time
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activation
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degree to which something in memory is being actively attended to and mentally processed
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declarative knowledge
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knowledge concerning the nature of how things are, were, or will be
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procedural knowledge
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knowledge concerning how to do something (e.g. a skill)
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conditional knowledge
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knowledge concerning appropriate ways to respond (physically or mentally) under different circumstances
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explicit knowledge
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knowledge that a person is consciously aware of and can verbally describe
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implicit knowledge
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knowledge that a person cannot consciously recall or explain but that nevertheless affects the person’s thinking or behavior
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rote learning
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learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it
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rehearsal
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cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over within a short timeframe (typically a few minutes or less) as a possible way of learning and remembering it
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meaningful learning
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cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know
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elaboration
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cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know
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organization
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cognitive process in which learners make connections among various pieces of information they need to learn (e.g. by forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-effect relationships)
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concept map
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diagram of concepts and their interrelationships; used to enhance learning and memory of a topic
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visual imagery
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process of forming mental pictures of objects or ideas
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knowledge base
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one’s existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general
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prior knowledge activation
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process of reminding learners of things they already know relative to a new topic
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meaningful learning set
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attitude that one can make sense of the information one is studying
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mnemonic
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memory aid or trick designed to help learn and remember one or more specific pieces of information
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verbal mediator
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word or phrase that forms a logical connection, or bridge, between two pieces of information
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keyword method
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mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects (keywords) that either sound similar to or symbolically represent those ideas
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superimposed meaningful structure
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familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information to facilitate recall
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situated learning and cognition
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knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts, with limited or no retrieval and use in other contexts
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hot cognition
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learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged
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automaticity
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ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task
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retrieval cue
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stimulus that provides guidance about where to look for a piece of information in long-term memory
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recognition task
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memory task in which one must identify correct information among incorrect statements or irrelevant information
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recall task
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memory task in which one must retrieve information from long-term memory with only minimal retrieval cues
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wait time
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length of time a teacher pauses, either after asking a question or hearing a student’s comment, before saying something further
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consolidation
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neurological process in which newly acquired knowledge is firmed up in the brain; often takes several hours, sometimes even longer
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decay
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gradual weakening of information stored in long-term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently
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interference
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phenomenon whereby something stored in long-term memory inhibits one’s ability to remember something else correctly
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construction
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mental process in which a learner takes many separate pieces of information and uses them to build an overall understanding or interpretation
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reconstruction error
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construction of a logical but incorrect memory by combining information retrieved from one’s long-term memory with one’s general knowledge and beliefs about the world
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individual constructivism
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theoretical perspective that focuses on how individuals construct meaning from their experiences
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social constructivism
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theoretical perspective that focuses on people’s collective efforts to impose meaning on the world
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distributed cognition
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process whereby learners think about an issue or problem together, sharing ideas and working collaboratively to draw conclusions or develop solutions
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concept
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mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common
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undergeneralization
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overly narrow view of the objects or events that a concept includes
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overgeneralization
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overly broad view of the objects or events that a concept includes
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schema
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tightly organized set of facts about a specific topic
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script
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schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity
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theory
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integrated set of concepts and principles developed to explain a particular phenomenon
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worldview
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general, culturally based set of assumptions about reality that influence understandings of a wide variety of phenomena
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conceptual understanding
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meaningfully learned and well-integrated knowledge about a topic, including many logical connections among specific concepts and ideas
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authentic activity
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classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world
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problem-based learning
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classroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex problem similar to one that might exist in the outside world
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project-based learning
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claassroom activity in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex, multifaceted project that yields a concrete end product
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service learning
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activity that promotes learning and development through contributing to the betterment of others and the outside community
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model
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a physical or symbolic representation of a phenomenon that depicts its key components and important interrelationship
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community of learners
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class in which teachers and students actively and collaboratively work to create a body of knowledge and help one another learn
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misconception
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belief that is inconsistent with commonly accepted and well-validated explanations of phenomena or events
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conceptual change
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significant revision of an existing theory or belief system, enabling new and discrepant information to be better understood and explained
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confirmation bias
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tendency to seek information that confirms, rather than discredits, current beliefs