CMS Unit 1 Exam

What is an “organization”?
‘social structures created by individuals to support the collaborative pursuit of specified goals’
Would the text describe our organizational world as more or less complex than 100 years ago?
more complex
What are the five basic elements of organizations?
1) Social Collectivity
2) Organizational/Individual Goals
3) Coordinating Activity (day-to-day comm.)
4) Organizational Structure
5) Embedding within environment
What are the five lenses for the study of organizations and organizational communication?
1) Classical
2) Human Relations/Human Resources
3) Cultures
4) Systems
5) Critical
Classical Approach
organizations as machine structures
Human Relations/Human Resources
organizations as families
Cultures Approach
organizations as stories and rituals, subcultures
Systems Approach
organizations as organisms, or networks, interdependence, parts working together
Critical Approach
organizations as systems of domination
Why study organizations?
Ubiquity, social benefits and ills, mediating effects, collective actors
organizations are part of our daily lives, they surround us
Social Benefits and Ills
problems organizations can create – to prevent ills and still get the benefits
Mediating Effects
in society, we get things done with collectives/organizations – behavior is shaped by organizational structures
Collective Actors
organizations themselves are societal actors and have a mind of their own separate from those who comprise it (own property, elect reps, get sued)
What should the goal of organizations be ?
to make organizations better
Why study organizational COMMUNICATION?
communication is a sight of intervention, if you change the communication you can change the organization
What is your own take away from “lenshifting” during the Lenses activity?
there are different ways of looking at situations and dealing with them
businesses move manufacturing and service centers to countries where labor is cheap
Globalization – positives
opportunities for entrepreneurs
Globalization – negatives
domestic job loss, exploitation of workers in 3rd world nations, environmental problems, increase inequality, weaken cultural diversity, advance corporate interest rates at the expense of the well-being of ordinary citizens
Multinational Organization
has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country
where does “hyper globalization” come from?
it comes from deeply integrated economic systems in order to enhance the goals of national sovereignty and democratic politics — scale back
Terrorism, what do we want to do about it?
enhance border security, improve tracking of possible terrorist activities, develop ability to first-response organizations to act quickly – homeland security
Terrorism and communication
understand how terrorists recruit and socialize, how they make decisions and develop leadership
Organizations of important for what involving climate change?
for (global) debates, dealing with effects like forest fires, addressing it which can be an opportunity for businesses to raise level of responsibility, govt. reps working to find ways the nation can work together to eliminate it, “greening of organizations” as opportunity for profit and social responsibility, effectively enhance awareness
Changing Demographics and communication
results in multicultural workplaces, workers with increasing responsibility to aging family members, workers with longer commutes/telecommute, challenge of treating different ethnicities equally
(Cooperatives) individuals with similar needs and goals to come together in organizations that are motivated by a concern for democracy, social justice, and environmetal global responsibility
SMCR model
SOURCE transmits a MESSAGE through a CHANNEL to a RECEIVER
example of SMCR model
supervisor asking for volunteers to work on the weekend through an email sent to all her employees
example of SMCR model: source?
example of SMCR model: message?
to work on the weekend
example of SMCR model: channel?
example of SMCR model: receiver?
Transmission Model of Communication
communication is a way of moving information from sources to receivers (like SMCR model)
Constitutive Model of Communication
communication seen as a process that produces and reproduces shared meanings
communication as shared dialogue and way to enhance understanding about self and others
communication is best seen as a means of…
persuasion and motivation
Machine Metaphor
large organizations couldn’t exist without specific concrete machines that allow us to coordinate activity at such a large scale
According to the Machine Metaphor, businesses ought to be…
reliable, standardizable, predictable
According to the Machine Metaphor, the ultimate goal of organizations is
the ratio of the useful work performed by a machine or in a process to the total energy expended or heat taken in -google
every part has a specific function
Specialization of tasks – division of labor – how organizations can be seen as machine-like
machines are designed in such a way that the parts in one machine are the same as those in a similar machine and can be replaced (Related notion of replaceability -If a worker on an assembly line quits, a machine-like organization can easily replace that worker)
there are rules that govern the way a machine is built and how it operates. There’s a finite number of things that could be wrong if something breaks- If we rationally think through the problem, we should be able to fix the machine
“Modern Officialdom”
max weber
the rules are king
Max Weber
had a theory of bureaucracy
theory of bureaucracy
doesn’t advocate for a particular organizational form as best, but it lays features of an abstract/idealized organization of a given type
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy:
1) Fixed Responsibility/Division of labor
2) Hierarchy, clearly defined
3) Centralized Decision Making
4) Closed System
*5) Rules/Documentation
6) Rational-Legal Authority
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy: division of labor
formally ascribed jobs (for every role)
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy: Hierarchy
run of centralized authority where rules stem from the top, which is determined by qualification
(controversy over CEO pay)
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy: closed system
standardize input and outputs; only work for your organization (no distractions)
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy: rules/documentation
bureau is where the rules are kept, they are stable and slow to change, they are exhaustive by covering everything, they aren’t a secret, they can be learned
Weber’s six facets of bureaucracy: rational-legal authority
reliance on info and expertise that have created a system of rules and norms, not resting in the individual. This type dominates this theory. It relies on rationality, expertise, norms and rules; Impersonal
Iron Cage
standardized, efficient,t dehumanizing
What are the forms of authority we discussed in class?
traditional, charismatic and rational-legal
Traditional/Legit Authority
power based on long-standing beliefs of who should have control
tradition>abilities, actions, behaviors
Charismatic Authority
power based on person’s personality and ability to attract and interact with followers
highly unstable
usuallly for cults
So…….. his theory of bureaucracy in my words
closed system with rational-legal authority with strict reliance on rules, division of labor, established hierarchy with centralized power, it is impersonal with rationality as the guiding force, individuality is discouraged, dominates through knowledge, without hatred or passion, without affection or enthusiasm
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
seeker of the oNE BEST WAY
Scientific Management
finding the one best way, managers are like scientists
Time and Motion Studies
observed movements/time to do things
Scientific Management: communication is about…
formalized messages
Scientific Management: four principles
1) replace rule of thumb methods with scientifically determined tasks (ways of operating)
2) scientifically select, train, and develop employees
3) provide detailed instructions and supervision for each workers
4) divid work between managers and workers
-managers develop the science
-workers do the task
How did the candy packing activity apply to scientific management and the classical approach?
like machines, but did study to find which was the one best way
Scientific Management: goal
Scientific Management: analytics
analytics should not just be driven by data, its about your perspective as leaders
you must be open to you bias being corrected
Scientific Management: analytics levels and artifacts
1) collect (surveys)
2) summarize (charts, tables, graphs)
3) analyze (correlation/regression)
4) synthesize (stories/images)
(increase value to organization with increase in amount of context, perspective, meaning)
Scientific Management: analytics levels: collect
are the data biased in some way? the method of collection sisterly bias?
does the data as collective fit the story? (i.e soy milk @ starbucks)
Scientific Management: analytics levels: summary
tables of numbers, simple stats and charts
are the data being summarized in a way that is helpful for making a decision? is there some other way to summarize the data? (one issue at a time)
Scientific Management: analytics levels: analysis
relationships between factors – models, correlations, more complex graphs and stats
what is the underlying relationship being depicted? are we looking at the right relationships?
captures info in more useful way
Scientific Management: analytics levels: Synthesis
so what? what does this mean? what should we do? what is the goal? what is the value?
Scientific Management: critiques
-management bias
-science as a political process
-also an imperfect process
Scientific Management: management bias?
power in the hands of managers without checks and balances
Scientific Management: science as a political process?
people with agendas hate data; if you already had a plan in mind, results might be bias
Scientific Management: imperfect process?
weaknesses in science (ex: small sample size)
Classical Approach: Content, Flow, Channel, Style
Content – task;
flow – vertical downward;
channel – written;
style – formal, standardized
Upward communication
content – what are subordinates doing, unsolved work problems, complaints and suggestion,
still focused on task but difficult to minimize because it is somewhat useful
maximize frequency
low workload, high trust of supervisors, positive information – shows how the classical approach is starting to struggle
maximize distortion
low trust, high aspirations (like promotions), supervisor has lots of upward influence
why does distortion exist?
because of hierarchy
the ‘perfect’ downward communication
necessary for classical approach – job instructions, job rational (how your job fits larger goals), organizational rules, appraisals of performance
how can we make the perfect downward communication effective?
we don’t know – maybe think increasing frequency…but that might overwhelm
Henri Fayol
“Father of modern operational management theory” – theory of classical management
Fayol’s theory of classical management
perspective theory – elements of management are planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling, which is not actually what managers do and instead are interpersonal, informational, decisional functions
Scalar Chain
an organization should be arranged in a strict hierarchy with limited communication in a vertical flow
horizontal communication at the same hierarchical level
Span of Control
managers most effective if they have control of a limited number of employees
Espirt de corps
no dissension in organizational ranks “all for one and one for all”
so…. fayol’s theory in my words
clear rules, highly structured, employees rewarded through equitable distribution of monetary rewards, labor strictly for goals of the organization
Systematic Soldiering
social pressure to keep productivity down and wages up
-uneven work that resulted from job training through custom and tradition
-social pressure diluted by selecting specific workers for specific jobs
-resulted from rate busting and the system of piecework pay
how to combat system soldiering
piece rate should be based on minimum standards set through time and motion studies
Human Relations Metaphor
organizations are families
(care for, nurture workers) – making sure workers are fulfilled
Human Relations: what kind of communication is important?
horizontal, worker communication/relationships are just as important as messages from managers
Human Relations: concern for productivity?
yes, but more about satisfying the needs of workers and the social environment
Human Relations: Hawthorne studies
went from giving no attention to workers to full attention on workers.
focused on human needs: social and feedback which made the workplace more interesting/fun
Hawthorne Studies’ interest
Interested in how changes in the work environment would affect the productivity of factory workers
McGregor’s Theory X
workers are lazy, self-centered, resist change, aren’t ambitious, they aren’t creative
McGregor’s Theory Y
workers don’t need the threat of punishment, they seek responsibility, work for self-actualization/fulfillment.
A lot of us would still work
McGregor’s Theories – main question
Would you work if you didn’t have to?
McGregor – How do these explanations about the nature of work fit the human relations approach
according to theory y and the human relations approach, we need to make sure the worker is happy and fulfill their self actualization
According to Theory X, what are the roles of managers and employees?
a manager influenced by the most negative aspects of classical management (McGregor thinks is incorrect) – Management responsible for: organizing money, material, and people for economic ends (he is forceful, People must be controlled and motivated to fit organizational needs). Without intervention and direction, people would be passive or resistant to the achievement of organizational needs
According to Theory Y, what are the roles of managers and employees?
managers should conceptualize workers as motivated by higher-order needs in Maslow’s triangle and as capable of independent achievements in the workplace; adheres to the precepts of the human relations movement
Employees; in human relations theories motivation: financial gain and desire to satisfy higher-order needs
Theory of Needs/Feelings
Herzberg’s Theory of Needs
neither theory x nor y; there is a difference between dissatifisication and satisfaction at work (the causes are different)
Hygiene Factors
–> Dissatisfaction
salary, working conditions, security, interpersonal relationships, status at work
Hygiene Factors and Maslow’s level of needs
these are the lower-level needs
If you have hygiene factors…
you may not be dissatisfied
threshold: “meh”
When do we notice hygiene factors?
we don’t notice them unless theres a problem
Motivation Factors
–> Satisfaction
achievement, recognition, personal growth
Motivation Factors and Maslow’s level of needs
these are the upper-level needs
Focus on motivation or hygiene factors?
can’t just focus on one or the other, have to provide both
underlying notion of human relations
job satisfaction –> job performance
Problems with Human Relations approach
1) imperially, doesn’t always hold/work
2) principles can be misused
-you can’t say satisfaction = production
Likert’s Four Organizational Systems
1) Participative Organization
2) Consultative Organization
3) Benevolent Authoritative
4) Exploitative Authoritative
Likert’s Four Organizational Systems: Participative
(Human Resources Approach)
decision making and control at every organizational level
Likert’s Four Organizational Systems: Consultative
(Human Relations Approach)
top level decision making and control with employee input
Likert’s Four Organizational Systems: Benevolent
(Classical Approach)
motivation through economic and ego awards, limited communication
Likert’s Four Organizational Systems: Exploitative Authoritative
(Classical Approach)
motivation through threats and fear; top level decision making and control
Human Resources concerned with
human and productivity
Human Resources ‘Metaphor?’
consideration of how workers can contribute to the workplace not only through just “working” or “feeling” but also through thinking and participating in many aspects of organizational functioning
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid
combination of classical and human relations that maximizes resources
Person – Production
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid: Low-Low
Impoverished Management
-minimum to get by
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid: High-Low
Country Club Management
-harmony, avoid conflict, focus on happiness
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid: Low-High
Authority Compliance
-downward communication, more task oriented than people oriented
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid: Equal
Middle of Road Management
-still lacking in both areas, a compromise, moderate levels
Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid: High-High
Team Management
-teamwork, interdependence
What do Blake & Mouton claim is the best approach to leadership in their model?
Team Management
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Model 1
Job Satisfaction –> Job Performance
(Human Relations)
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Model 2
Job Satisfaction <-- Job Performance
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Model 3
Job Satisfaction <--> Job Performance
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Model 4
Job Satisfaction <-- ? --> Job Performance
What is the ‘x factor’ in Model 4?
role ambiguity,
commitment to the organization
Model 4 – “X Factor” : Role ambiguity
if i know what my job/role is, i’ll do better and be happier
Model 4 – “X Factor” : Self-Esteem
am i a worthwhile person?
Model 4 – “X Factor” : commitment to the organization
i believe in my organization
Model 4 – good explanation?
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Model 5
Job Satisfaction <-(?)-> Job Performance
Model 5 – “?”: Moderators
Moderators: factor that intensifies or weakens other relationship/factors
Job Satisfaction and Performance: Integrated Model
a) Job Satisfaction <-a- Job Performance b) Job Satisfaction -b-> Job Performance
Define the two types of Moderators depending on direction
a) Autonomy
b) Conscientiousness
Explain the two types of Moderators depending on direction
Autonomy – having control over your work, choices paying off can make you happier
Conscientiousness – there are some people who really want to do a good job (very focused, has a mindset), will perform better if they’re happy while working
a negative evaluation of someone’s behavior which means you are not talking about positive feedback
(they’ve done something/responsible for a behavior you want them to change)
Primary and secondary goal of feedback
Primary: get person to change their behavior
Secondary: to be able to vent without ruining the relationship
Guidelines for Feedback
positive –> negative –> positive
focus on behavior, not the person
give reasons why behavior should change, not for what you want
give benefits from their perspective
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
(Bottom to top)
1) Physiological
2) Safety
3) Love/Belonging
4) Esteem
5) Self Actualization
Must lower-order needs be satisfied before higher-order needs can be?
Hierarchy of Needs: Level 1
living wage that allows people to buy adequate food or clothing; physical conditions that don’t violate human body
Hierarchy of Needs: Level 2
wages to procure shelter; healthy working conditions
Hierarchy of Needs: Level 3
relationships with coworkers and managers
Hierarchy of Needs: Level 4
external – public recognition and attention (compensation and reward structures)
internal – sense of accomplishment, achievement, confidence (provision of challenging jobs for employees to achieve and excel)
Hierarchy of Needs: Level 5
provision of jobs that allow an individual to exercise responsibility and creativity in the work place, be all you can
According to Blake and Mouton’s model, should all managers adopt a team management approach? Why or why not?
“Blake and Mouton believe that all managers within an organization should adopt a team management approach because such an approach would maximize concern for both production and people”
lower-level needs must be satisfied before an individual can move on to higher-level needs
What is total quality management?
Some don’t believe that TQM has enhanced competitiveness, programs have been discontinued because of failure to produce results.
a system of management based on the principle that every staff member must be committed to maintaining high standards of work in every aspect of a company’s operations.
** • A compressive approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of product through on going refinements in response to continuous feedback
o Everyone was making little comments and it was to much, so they do team-based now
How does total quality management exemplify the principles of a human resources approach?
high productivity and high human needs
Are total quality management and team-based organizing appropriate in every situation?
not in every situation
What situations are particularly suited to team-based organizing?
work that cuts across functional lines,
a diverse and complex organizational environment
a rapidly changing workplace in which innovation is critical
What metaphor characterizes systems approaches?
Organizations as (biological) organisms
What does the systems metaphor suggest about organizations?
organizations are not self-contained. interaction with the environment is necessary for survival (interrelationship and reliance on one another)
Systems Approach: components
-hierarchical ordering
Systems Approach: components: hierarchical ordering
not authoritative, systems within systems
Systems Approach: components: permeability
info allowed to flow in and out, boundary can be weak or strong
Systems Approach: processes
-Process of Exchange
-Process of Feedback
Systems Approach: processes: Input-Throughput-Output
input: materials/info from environment through permeable boundaries
throughput: system works on inputs with transformational process
output: returned changed/transformed output to environment
Systems Approach: processes: Process of Exchange
input and output activities require process of exchange with environment outside of systems boundaries
Systems Approach: processes: Process of Feedback
1) Corrective (deviation-reducing)
2) Positive, Growth (deviation-amplifying); system changes its functioning for growth
Systems Approach: processes: Process of Feedback – Positive, Growth example
visting campus online before physically visiting when making a decision
Systems Approach: properties
-negative entropy
-requisite variety “matching complexity”
Systems Approach: properties: Holism
system>sum of its parts (synergy)
you’re better together than you are on your own; it’s not just about the components
Systems Approach: properties: Equifinality
there are a variety of ways to reach system goal; there is no “one best way”
Systems Approach: properties: Negative Entropy
closed systems run down; open systems survive and grow with permeable boundaries
ability of systems to sustain themselves and grow
Systems Approach: properties: Requisite Variety
“matching complexity” – system must be as complex as its environment
Weick’s Model of Organizing:
ecological change (some new piece of info) –> enactment –> selection –> retention
Weick’s Model of Organizing two questions
1) How does the organization make sense of the information?
-how organizations make decision, can’t decide unless it understands the choices
2) How does that understanding change the organization?
-process of understanding is a creative process
Weick’s Model of Organizing two questions – answers
1) assembly rule, talking to each other, communication cycles
2) overtime as encountering new info, they are developing, retaining, refining assembly rules
-creates established way of operating
Assembly rules
ways of doing things
Weick’s Model of Organizing: Sensemaking
way of describing how organizations process information
there are existing templates, history of organization
-assembly rules
-to create meaning
process of individuals creating the environment that confronts them through social interaction and sensemaking
if a new assembly works (__1__), they keep it (__2__),
1 = selection
2 = retention
noise and mess
-organizations tell a story about this mess
-not just being perceived differently, also enacting
-changing the info (what is relevant? what does it mean?)
Weick’s model and the Ayole case
#1) with help of outside agents, interpreted info differently
#2) as new issues arise, they can address them using the new ways of fixing the pump
highly stable –> highly volatile organizational forms
more interaction, fewer establishments
highly stable (–> highly volatile)
highly stable: more established assembly rules, info is the same
(highly stable –>) highly volatile
highly volatile: new info – more communication and less well established assembly rules, reinventing when more rigorative communication/sensemaking
Loosely-Coupled Organic Organization
highly volatile
5 Organizational Forms for Systems Approach

thought he said we don’t have to know this**

1) rigid bureaucracy in highly stable environments
2) project teams and task force
3) matrix organization
-research and products
4) project organization
5) loosely-coupled organic organizations
how do assembly rules change as we move across the continuum from more to less stable environments? How does the amount of communication change we move across the continuum from more to less stable environments?
assembly rules less established,
communication increases
How do these different organizational forms illustrate the idea that organizational systems are linked to their environments?
sense making helps the organization fit its environment
Network Analysis
large patterns of relationships among people – has to account for emergence character
shaping to environments
ex) clap at the same beat – adjusted our temps
Network Content
the stuff that is flowing through the linkeages in the network
Material can flow through a network as can many types of information or intangibles (affection or influence)
Network Mode
the communication medium through which network linkages are maintained: Written, Face-to-face, Communication technologies has increased the number of possible network modes (wireless, hyperlinks)
Level of Analysis
Intraorganizational networks – look at connections among individuals within given organization
Interorganizational networks – consider links among many organizations
Network Density
Highly dense: many interconnections among network members
Less dense: more loosely interconnected
Link Strength
Strong link: great deal of communication flowing between two people; one that has endured over long period of time; one in which the exchange is deemed important by network participants
An organization and its sub-orgs is a set of nodes connected to a root node. A root perspective is a point of reference that can be established at any node in a network, including an organization root of one.
Link Symmetry
whether the two nodes involved in the link have the same kind of relationship with each other
ex) Supervisor/subordinate relationship is asymmetrical; coworker relationship is symmetrical
the number of different kinds of content that flow through a particular link- Two organizations that share material resources, information, and personnel
The idea of a clique is relatively simple. At the most general level, a clique is a sub-set of a network in which the actors are more closely and intensely tied to one another than they are to other members of the network. In terms of friendship ties, for example, it is not unusual for people in human groups to form “cliques” on the basis of age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion/ideology, and many other things.
Mike doesn’t talk to anyone in the network
Dan serves as a bridge to individuals outside of the group
Ernest talks to 2 people who have radically different connections within the network
Network Centrality
Centrality is a key concept in network studies. As the everyday use of the term implies, it means that a person or organization is in some way a focal point or main figure in whatever group of people or organizations is being considered…network analysts hypothesize that centrality may be an indicator of power if it is assumed that the person or organization is a “gatekeeper” and/or a gathering point for information, with the information contributing to power because of its importance.
example of network centrality
Bob and Sam, both of whom have five close friends, more than anyone else on the playground. However, Bob’s five friends have no other friends besides Bob, whereas Sam’s five friends all have several other friends in addition to Sam. Intuitively, we tend to assume that Sam is more central in the overall network of playground friendships than Bob. Similarly, an organization connected to organizations that have many other connections is assumed to be more central. It is in effect a kind of “friends of friends” analysis.
Social Collectivity
organizations are social places, made up of people
goals aren’t unitary, there might be an overarching goal
Coordinating Activity
they have to solicit contributions from individuals but they have to organize them in some way
rules and resources the organization has created over time
ex) organizational chart, who supervises whom
Environmental Embedding
the organizational environment, and physical environment, is constituted with other organizations
ex) UT’s relationship with the state legislature
Is one approach or lens better than the others? Why or why not?
Neither approach nor lens is better than the other. While lenses can focus our attention on some things at the expense of others, we still need to look at organizations through all 5 lenses. They work together by complimenting one another and giving us different outlooks.
Was Weber critical of Bureaucracy?
Although skeptical about some of the tenants of bureaucracy, Weber believed that bureaucratic organizations would eventually dominate in society because of their technical superiority
the Western Electric case (exemplifies the human relations approach)
google – Smith (P) began working for Western Electric Company (D) in 1950. In 1975 he began to suffer serious respiratory problems due to exposure to second hand tobacco smoke at work. By 1980 Western Electric had adopted a policy of protecting nonsmokers from smokers at the recommendation of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Smith filed suit in August 1980, seeking to enjoin Western Electric from exposing him to tobacco smoke in the workplace. The plaintiff alleged that he had been handicapped by his susceptibility to second hand tobacco smoke and alleged that defendant had breached its common law duty to provide a safe workplace. The trial court granted Western Electric’s motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief could be granted and Smith appealed.
What are the key elements of case analysis we will use in this class? Explain them
In thinking through the case, how did we start?
•Analysis: make sense of the problem
•Application: take theory from the class and utilize it
•Projection – what is going to happen in the organization
we started using a consultant mindset
Clique (again)
cliques are communication networks within a system. Cliques are made up of a tight cluster of nodes

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