Civics Study Questions

Politics is BEST defined as ________
a procedure for negotiating rules

Government is BEST defined as______
a procedure for enforcing rules

What is the “state of nature”?
a situation in which people can do whatever they are strong enough to get away with.

Which of the following are sources of authority?
All of these are sources of authority

Which of the following is NOT an advantage to a society of using authority?
authority can be used to collect property

Having to do all the work is an example of a(n) ______
disadvantage to the user of using authority

People in positions of authority misusing or abusing their power is an example of a(n) ________
disadvantage to society of using authority

What are some of the reasons for limiting authority?
All of these are reasons for limiting authority

Which of the following is the BEST way to choose people for positions of authority?
Hold a free and fair election

Which of the following is the BEST definition of “public goods”?
things (or actions) that are good for the group, but that are inconvenient, expensive, or even dangerous for an individual to provide.

Which of the following is the BEST definition of a “free-rider”?
someone who gets the benefits of a public good without bearing any of the burden

In a democracy, disagreeing on the public interest is allowed.
True.

Which of the following statements about the equality of citizens is TRUE?
Democracies will have different mixes of priorities regarding the equality of their citizens.

Which of the following is an example of a minority?
All of these are examples of minorities.

“Life” and “Liberty” are examples of _____
personal freedoms

Which of the following is an example of a political process?
All of these are examples of political processes.

Which of the following is NOT a government process?
A senator filibustering (blocking debate) a bill

“Might makes right” is a statement that might be heard ______
in the state of nature.

If Josefina is the coach of a baseball team, she is also qualified to be ______
she is not necessarily qualified to be any of these choices.

The president of the United States is often blamed for economic downturns. This is an example of a(n) ________
disadvantage of using authority.

A person being held by police for days without being charged a crime is an example of a(n)_______
disadvantage of using authority

Why is it important to use a democratic method of choosing someone for a position of authority?
it is the fairest way to choose the person a majority of people believe is best suited for the job.

Which of the following fits the definition of a public good?
All of these fit the definition of a public good

Which of the following is BEST considered a statement of the public interest?
“promote the general welfare”

Which of the following could be considered working for the public interest?
All of these choices could be considered working for the public interest

Why is disagreement protected in a democracy?
reasonable people can, and will, disagree on what it best for the public interest.

Is it possible for an economic freedom to also be considered a personal freedom?
Yes.

An example of respect for the idea of diversity is _____
rules that protect the rights of minorities

Which of the following could be considered a personal responsibility in the United States?
paying rent

Which of the following could be considered a civic responsibility, rather than a personal responsibility?
Obeying the law.

The type of government that combines aspects of both unitary and confederal government is called ______
federal

Which political system would seek total control over it’s citizens?
fascism

If one royal person officially makes all the decisions in a nation, that government is called a(n)_____
monarchy

In a democratic government, every citizen_____
shares the decision-making authority.

Direct democracy is most commonly found in ______
small groups of people.

The United States national government can be classified as _______
indirect democracy

In a free and fair election ______
all of the above

What is the purpose of having competing political parties?
to represent different opinions.

Which of the following statements BEST describes what is meant by limited government?
there are things the government is not allowed to do.

Constitutionally guaranteed protections against the abuse of government power are called _____
civil liberties

Which of the following is an example of an individual liberty protected in the United States?
the right to say what you think

Interpreting the individual freedoms in the Bill of Rights is the task of _______
the Supreme Court

“Checks and balances” is what Americans call ______
the system of powers shared by separate branches of government.

“Civil society” refers to _______
organizations and groups that are not part of the government

What is the “rule of law”?
limits on those who govern as well as those who are governed

An American who believes that government should not get involved in the economy, but should restrict social choices, is most likely to be a ______
conservative

Which of the following are ways that people in democracies can take part in politics and government?
All of these are ways to take part in politics and government

A person wanting to take part in politics and government in a democracy _____
can act as an individual or as part of a formal or informal group

Which of the following would be MOST likely found in a confederal government?
strong governments in towns and villages, and a relatively weak national government

A federal system of government has _____.
layers of government

The US federal system of government is one in which ______
both national and state governments derive their power from the people

All decision-making power concentrated in a council made up of high-ranking members of the military is an example of a(n)_______
oligarchy

What rights do people give up when they accept totalitarian rule?
the right to oppose the government

Why would a totalitarian government be considered to be more efficient at making decisions than a democratic one?
there are fewer impediments to passing laws

Which statement is LEAST likely to be true of a totalitarian state?
education remains in the hands of local communities

In a free and fair election, which of the following would you be LEAST likely to find?
threatening phone calls from officials telling you how to vote

Under a democratic form of government, which of the following would you be MOST likely to find?
citizens attending public meetings of elected officials.

The purpose of a government in an indirect democracy includes all of the following, EXCEPT ______
making money from government-owned businesses.

The maximum amount of personal freedom would be found under a ______
representative democracy

All of the following are examples of safeguards of individual civil liberties, EXCEPT _______
A not-guilty verdict

A useful definition of personal freedom in America would be to _______
“make your own decisions, as long as those choices do not interfere with anyone else’s rights.”

Which of the following is one of the commonly held ideals of American political culture?
belief in a limited government that protects individual liberties.

Which of the following most accurately describes the right of American citizens to privacy?
The Supreme Court has ruled that the right to privacy is implied in the Bill of Rights.

What principle guides the courts’ interpretation of the civil liberties found in the Bill of Rights?
finding a balance between the rights of individuals and the needs of society

Which of the following could be considered a structural way to limit government?
giving power to more than one level of government, as in federalism

Which of the following could be considered a civil society method of limiting government?
All of the above are civil society methods of limiting government

Which of the following purposes do you think political parties serve?
they assist in the decision-making process

Why is it important for citizens in a democracy to have more than one way to participate in government and politics?
It means many opportunities for one’s voice to be heard

Which of the following principles is NOT part of the constitution?
confederalism

The principle of federalism refers to the division of powers between _____
state and national governments

The power to collect taxes is an example of a(n)_____
concurrent power

An example of a government power shared by the national and state governments is the power to ______
collect taxes

The Constitution gives thew power to print money to ______
the national government

Which of the following powers are denied to all governments in the US by the Constitution?
passage of ex post facto laws

Congress has the power to introduce and pass laws. The president has the responsibility of enforcing all federal laws. This is an example of ______
separation of powers

The president vetoing a law is an example of which principle of the Constitution?
checks and balances

A strict constructionist believes that _____
the government should only exercise those powers that were intended by the Framers of the Constitution.

An example of interstate cooperation required by the Constitution would be _______
the practice of extradition

An amendment to the Constitution can be proposed by ______
a two-thirds vote of Congress

An amendment to the Constitution must be ratified by ______
three-quarters of the states

The purpose of the “first ten amendments” to the Constitution is to _______
protect the rights of individuals from the federal government.

Which amendment to the Constitution gave the national government the power to prevent states from violating the rights of their citizens?
14th amendment

Which of the following “Progressive Amendments” gave women the right to vote?
19th amendment

The two major political parties in the United States are a considered part of _______
the unwritten Constitution

The “unwritten Constitution” includes the practice of ______
judicial review

Which statement best expresses the meaning of the opening words of the Constitution, “We, the People…”?
governing authority is derived from the consent of the governed

Which quotation taken from the US Constitution provides for limiting the power of government?
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,…or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…”

Federalism is BEST described as the ______
division of powers between a national government and state governments.

Which of the following is a function of state government, but not of national government?
Maintaining a public school system

Which of the following is an example of the principle of the separation of powers?
All of the examples listed demonstrate the principle of the separation of powers

The Senate refusing to ratify a treaty, the president vetoing a law, and the Senate rejecting the nomination of a Supreme Court justice are all examples of _______
checks and balances

“Congress shall have no power….to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers…” This section of the Constitution is used to _________
justify a loose interpretation of the Constitution.

Extradition is the process by which fugitives are returned to the states from which they have fled. This is an example of ________
interstate cooperation

In what way is the Constitution a flexible document?
The Constitution can be amended.

Opposition to the new Constitution centered around its ability to act on individuals. What limits were added immediately after ratification to calm these fears?
Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is intended to protect individual freedoms and the ______
rights of those accused of crimes

The clause in the 14th amendment, “….nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law….” has been used to ______
give the federal courts the power to oversee state legislation.

Which of the following “Progressive Amendments” made the federal government more democratic?
17th Amendment (providing for the direct election of senators)

Which institution developed outside the limits of the written Constitution of the United States?
Political parties

The powers of Congress include ______
introducing and passing new laws.

An enumerated power is a power of Congress that is ______
specifically named in the Constitution.

An example of an implied power of Congress is _____
Establishing the Federal Communications Commission

Bills to raise government revenue (tax bills) must originate ______
in the House of Representatives.

Approving presidential nominations to the judiciary is a power that belongs exclusively to the ______
Senate

The number of the members of the Senate as compared to the House of Representatives is ______
smaller

Oversight and public education are examples of _______
non-legislative functions of Congress.

Having only one-third of its members stand for election at a time means that the Senate is ______
all of these are consequences of the Senate’s election schedule

The title of the presiding officer of the House of Representatives is ______
Speaker of the House

The organization of Congress into committees is important because of ______
both “a” and “b” are reasons for the organization of Congress into committees.

After its introduction, congressional leaders usually refer a proposed bill to _______
a standing committee

Members of Congress employ staffers to help them _______
all of these are reasons for employing a staff

A committee can take all of the following actions on a bill, EXCEPT _______
sign it into law

The US Constitution allocates the power to make laws to the _____
legislative branch

The power of Congress to declare war is a(n) _______
enumerated power

The Senate must confirm presidential appointees to office. This process allows the Senate to _____
“check” the executive and judicial branches

Most bills in Congress are handled by _____
the committees of the House and Senate.

Which of the following is TRUE of Congress’s power of oversight?
Congressional oversight activities generally take place at the committee and subcommittee levels.

The most common place for a bill to die is _____
in committee

When can a proposed legislation (bill) be defeated by opponents?
all of the above

Congress was designed to be ______
representative of diverse interests and constituencies.

Article _____ of the Constitution describes the powers of the president
II (second)

A candidate for president must be _____
at least 35 years old

A political party’s presidential candidate is selected by ______
delegates at the party’s national convention.

Presidents are elected ______
indirectly, by the Electoral College

The process by which a president is removed from office starts with _________
impeachment

Which of the following presidential powers is NOT found in the Constitution?
leadership of a political party

Federal judges, executive officers, and ambassadors are all appointed by the president, subject to the confirmation of _________
the Senate

As chief diplomat, the president can _________
all of the above

Besides the president, who is the only nationally elected leader in the United States?
vice-president

Article II, Section 3 states that the president “shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed.” This is the constitutional basis for the president’s role as ___________
chief executive

The federal bureaucracy is part of which branch of the government?
executive branch

To implement legislation means to ________
put it into effect and enforce it.

Which of the following groups does the president most rely on for advice?
Executive Office of the President

The president and the Congress differ in their _________
all of the above

Which of the following presidential powers is a check of authority of the judiciary?
power to pardon

Which of the following people would NOT be able to run for president under the Constitution?
The governor of Hawaii, born in Japan

How does the Constitution limit presidential power?
both “a” and “b”

The strongest voice in shaping foreign policy belongs to ________
the president

When the president is managing the federal bureaucracy and its many programs and employees, he is acting as
_______
chief executive

In recent years, presidents have come to rely most heavily on the advice of _______
the Executive Office of the President

A president might persuade Congress to pass a certain bill by ______
threatening to veto other bills Congress is eager to see enacted.

Among the executive branch’s checks on the legislative branch is the president’s power to ______
veto bills that have been passed by both House and Senate.

Which of the following officeholders could a president NOT dismiss?
a federal court of appeals judge.

Executive enforcement of judicial rulings can be considered an example of _________
checks and balances

Under which of the following circumstances does a president usually experience a reduction of political power?
the economy is doing poorly, with high unemployment rates.

Eligible voters can vote for all of the following, EXCEPT ________
president and vice-president

Other than the US Supreme Court, all federal courts were established by ______
Congress

The ability to review the decisions of lower courts is called _________
appellate jurisdiction

Federal courts can “check” the other branches of the federal government and of state governments by ________
All of the above are ways in which the courts can “check” the other branches

In order to be considered valid, a Supreme Court decision must be agreed to by _______
five of the nine justices

The legal document that explains the legal reasoning behind a Supreme Court decision is called ________
the majority opinion

Which of the following factors might influence a judge’s decision as to how to resolve a case before him or her?
All of the factors listed might influence a judge’s decision as to how to resolve a case before him or her

The Constitution requires that federal judges must _______
There are no constitutional requirements in order to be a federal judge.

Relationships among private individuals or companies are governed by _______
civil law

The case in which the Supreme Court claimed the power of judicial review (the authority to declare a law unconstitutional) was _______
Marbury v. Madison

Constitutionally guaranteed protections against ________ are called civil liberties
the abuse of government power

Civil rights laws are laws governments make in order to protect ________
the rights of minorities from discrimination.

Federal district courts do not try military cases, claims brought against the U.S. government, or tax disputes between citizens and the government because __________
Congress has created specialized courts to deal with such cases.

Which of the following CORRECTLY states the relationship between the federal and state judiciaries?
the two generally operate separately, although federal courts may overrule state court decisions that violate the U.S. Constitution or federal law.

Which of the following is TRUE of the Supreme Court?
The Court decides which cases it will hear

Judges that rule against elected officials in order to make rules that emphasize equality and personal liberty are said to be engaging in
judicial activism.

When the Supreme Court hands down a decision in a case that upholds a previous ruling, the justices are said to be following which principle?
stare decisis.

A Democratic faced with a Republican-majority Senate is trying to appoint judges to the federal bench. Which of the following is the most likely reason that his appointments might be blocked?
A president is more likely to appoint judges who would agree with him ideologically.

The 1st amendment guarantees freedom of the press. Why would the Supreme Court allow the government to limit this freedom?
the government may censor the press in the interest of national and military security

Which of the following represents an instance where the government can limit what people say?
None of these are examples of permissible limitations on the freedom of speech

Which of the following most accurately describes the right of American citizens to privacy?
The Supreme Court has ruled that the right to privacy is implied in the Bill of Rights.

Which of the following is NOT an example of the ways the media serves as a linkage institution for government?
Reporting on sports or entertainment celebrities

Why is a free press important to a democratic society?
all of the above

Which amendment to the Constitution protects the freedom of the press?
1st amendment

Acquiring political knowledge, listening to statements from respected public leaders, and determining what is in their own best interest are all ways in which Americans can _____
form political opinions

Which of the following are ways in which public opinion is measured in America?
polls and surveys

Why are random samples used in public opinion polls?
to ensure that every person in the population has an equal chance of being picked for the poll

Why are multiple-choice questions used in public opinion polls?
They are easier for pollsters to measure

Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with polling methods?
Unfavorable ratings for candidates

Why would a public official pay attention to what a poll says?
All of the above are reasons why a public official would pay attention to polls

The tendency to report on events from a liberal point of view is an example of
bias

In the media, what is the role of a “gatekeeper”?
to decide what kind of stories will be covered

When will the media’s impact on public opinion be strongest?
when the media focuses on a story that is new to the public.

What is the most common way for Americans to receive their news?
Internet

Television is a(n) _____ medium
audio-visual

Most television stations, radio stations, and newspapers in the United States are ________
owned by private companies

A disadvantage of privately owned media is its _______
dependence on advertising revenues to function and make a profit

It is more difficult to report on Congress than on the president because ___________
There are more members of Congress

What does “off the record” mean?
Information that cannot be published at all?

Which of the following is a way politicians in America attempt to influence the media?
They try to “spin” the news

Which of the following are factors that might influence a person’s political opinions?
all of these can be considered factors

Which of the following techniques for measuring public opinion requires careful question design?
public opinion polls

Quantifying answers to public opinion poll questions is easier when the questions are _________
multiple-choice questions

Which of the following could be considered a shortcoming of a poll?
inability to distinguish between legitimate responses and lies.

The purpose of random sampling in a poll is to ensure that ________
the sample is a representative cross-section of the public.

Under which circumstances would a politician be most likely to ignore the results of a public opinion poll on a particular subject when making policy regarding that subject?
the poll indicates that public opinion on the subject was volatile and liable to change quickly.

Which of the following could be considered indicators of media bias?
all of the above are indicators of bias

When the editor of a newspaper chooses to publish a story on the economy rather than a story on health care, she is exercising ________
the gatekeeper function

A citizen would be most likely to get reliable political news from which website?
“The New York Times” website

The Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board has just announced a cut in interest rates. Which talk show host is BEST qualified to explain the economic reasoning behind the cut?
an economist

The consolidation of the American news industry with media conglomerates has led to fears that the news industry will ________
censor news that is unfavorable to advertisers

Because the American news industry is dependent on advertising revenues to function and make a profit, decisions about news items may depend on _________
how entertaining it is

A reporter covering Congress will probably try hardest to get an interview with _______
one of the party leaders

Legal reporters provide an important service by _______
interpreting court decisions and explaining legal reasoning.

A “spin doctor” on a talk show will try to _________
interpret an event to make the politician who hired him look good

Why are political parties created?
all of these are reasons why political parties are created

Positive activities of political parties include ________
holding party members responsible for their performance in office.

Which of the following is an example of a political party aggregating interests?
Creating a coalition of various groups to pass a bill

Negative aspects of political parties may include _________
governing in their own interests rather than the public interest.

What is ticket-splitting?
voting for candidates from different parties in the same election.

Why does the United States only have two major political parties?
the first-past-the-post electoral system.

In a single-member district/plurality voting electoral system, what does a candidate need to win an election?
a plurality of the vote

Each major political party in America is organized by ______________
function AND geographic region.

What is a party platform?
a written outline of the party’s ideals and policy proposals

How are members of the party-in-the-electorate selected?
by themselves

A single-issue interest group, by definition ________
is involved in activities that center around a narrowly defined subject.

An economic interest group works to _______
gain economic advantages for its members.

Why are political parties considered an important part of a democratic political system?
they provide a way of organizing political debate and resolving political conflict.

The two-party system in America leads to the creation of political parties that are _________
broad coalitions of people with similar interests

Which of the following could be seen as a weakness of a two-party system?
all of these are weaknesses

Which of the following best describes the practice of “ticket-splitting”
A voter choosing the presidential nominee of one major party, but choosing congressional nominees of the other major party

A member of which of the following demographic groups is most likely to support a Republican presidential candidate?
white males

The Democratic Party today is generally considered more liberal than the Republican Party because it normally supports __________
extending the “social safety net”

All of these are reasons why third parties tend to remain minor, EXCEPT _________
difficulties in finding serious issues.

Compared with political parties in multiparty democracies, American political parties are _________
less clearly identified with consistent political ideologies.

Based on your knowledge of American political parties, which of the following statements concerning party platforms is most likely to be TRUE?
The parties generally adhere to their platforms both during the campaign and while in office.

Congressional committee assignments are one way that political parties demonstrate control over _________
party members in Congress

The party-in-the-electorate is made up of people who __________
vote for a party’s candidates.

Interest groups representing business people and investors are often among the most successful lobbying groups in Washington, D.C. for all of the reasons listed EXCEPT ___________
the members of these groups make up the majority of voters in many districts

Lobbying is the term given to the activities of interest groups that seek to influence the making and implementation of public policy and to persuade government officials to support a group’s position. These activities are directed at the _________
all of these are targets of lobbying

The interest group tactic of “lobbying the grassroots” refers to interest groups’ efforts to _________
win the support of ordinary people, who can then be mobilized to pressure government officials

Which branch of government held the MOST power under the original state constitutions?
legislative

Which state’s original constitution was considered the MOST conservative?
Maryland

State constitutions today share which of the following features?
separation of powers

Which of the following is considered a primary function of state government?
Enforcement of laws regarding the public safety

Maintaining a(n) _________ is one of the ways in which state governments provide public safety.
police force

One of the ways state governments regulate business is by ___________
all of the above

Local governments are formed by _________
citizens petitioning the state government

Creating solutions for local problems is an advantage of the __________ system of government.
federal

Article ______ of the U.S. Constitution governs the federal/state relationship.
VI (sixth)

Which of the following is NOT a category of state political culture in the United States?
collectivistic

The functions of state legislatures include ______
all of the above

State legislatures today are more likely to be ________
full-time professionals

A plural executive is formed when __________
there are several officials that fill the executive administrative function.

Governors have all of the following in common with presidents EXCEPT ____________
the role as chief diplomat

How many different judicial systems are there in the United States
51; one for each of the 50 states and one national system.

Under the Missouri Plan, state judges are selected by ___________
a combination of all three methods

Which of the following functions are local governments responsible for meeting?
education

In 2002, there were almost _________ local governments in the United States
87,900

The idea that local governments are the creation of state legislatures is called __________
Dillon’s Rule

Local governments can be based on ____________
both “a” and “b”

Generally, local governments get the least amount of funding from ___________
Income tax

The sovereign status of Native American tribes is known as ______
domestic dependent nations.

Territorial governments MUST have popularly elected officials.
False

Federalism allows increased ___________
all of the above

The Constitution’s preservation of state governments is accomplished through ______
federalism

The American colonies decided to make their new states republic because they _________
believed that a republic was the best model to safeguard individual rights, mitigate tyranny, and keep government accountable to the public

According to classical republican political theory, which democratic republics would function BEST?
small republics, with people who had similar interests

Which was NOT a precedent that led state constitution writers to include the idea of separation of powers in the first state constitutions?
US Constitution

Over which of the following domains of governance do state governments NOT have authority?
Providing for the common defense of the country

The most likely reasons for a state to provide specialized law enforcement agencies is __________
both “a” and “b”

Which of the following departments would be included in a state government’s public safety function?
Department of Emergency Management

Which of the following is an example of the state regulation of business?
public service and utilities commissions

Why do states grant charters to corporations?
regulate intrastate business, as allowed by the U.S. Constitution.

The supervision of local governments is a function of state governance because __________
local governments derive their authority from state governments.

Which of the following is a reasonable explanation for the ease with which some state constitutions can be amended?
state constitutions can be amended by a state referendum

Explanations for the diversity of political cultures across states include ___________
different historical paths of social and economic development.

States are responsible for conducting elections because __________
both “a” and “b”

Which of the following legislative duties is considered part of legislative oversight of governors?
budget approval

Which of the following was an effect of the Supreme Court’s “one person, one vote” ruling in “Baker v. Carr” (1962)?
state government grew involved in more areas of governance

The plural executive is MOST similar to _________
the president’s cabinet

The governor of a state can call-up the National Guard to protect lives and property in times of emergency because the state has the authority to _________
protect public safety

Why are governors sometimes considered an important part of their state’s judicial system?
All of these are reasons why governors are considered part of the judicial system

State judges follow precedents of federal laws because __________
the national supremacy clause mandates that the Constitution and federal law is supreme.

Local governments derive their power from ___________
the state government through a charter.

Special district governments are created so that ________
all of the above

Which of the following is a most likely effect of federal grants to state and local governments?
the federal government can control access to money by state and local governments.

When referring to tribal governments, the term “sovereignty” means __________
tribes are free to govern themselves, subject to congressional legislation.

A government-to-government relationship with tribal governments can be held by ___________
the national government

US territories must be ___________
under the control of the U.S

The ancient Romans contributed two important concepts to politics: citizenship and ___________
written laws

Citizenship is defined as legal membership in a self-governing community with
________ and responsibilities.
full and equal rights

Being a citizen in the United States depends on _________
none of these are conditions of citizenship

Which of the following is a right that only US citizens have?
right to vote in federal elections

Which of the following is an example of a personal right?
freedom of association

Which of the following is NOT a political right?
right to privacy

The rights to own property, join a labor union, and establish a business are all _________
economic rights

The term __________ applies generally to those protections from the abuse of government power enjoyed by everyone in America
civil liberties

What is the doctrine of “selective incorporation”?
the principle that applies the Bill of Rights to state governments.

_____________ are laws governments make in order to protect the rights of minorities from discrimination
civil rights laws

The landmark civil rights case of “Brown v. Board of Education” rendered invalid the decision in which Supreme Court case?
“Plessy v. Ferguson”

The purpose of affirmative action programs is to ________reverse the effects of years of discrimination against
reverse the effects of years of discrimination against racial minorities and women.

The duties that citizens have to their country are known as _________
civic responsibilities

Which of the following is a personal responsibility?
Taking care of yourself and your family

What is the BEST definition of “civic virtue”?
the behavior skills and habits of citizens that are constructive to democracies

Globalization refers to the ________
changes in transportation and communication technologies since the 1980s.

What is “public discourse”?
talking with others about politics and government.

One of the great contributions of Rome to political philosophy was the idea of __________
citizenship

The difference between a personal right and a political right considers __________
the political impact and intent of the action

Why is freedom of expression so important to the functioning of a democracy?
both “a” and “b”

Which of the following rights would be considered a POLITICAL right?
fair trial

In what case did the Surpreme Court issue an opinion with these words: “We conclude that in the field of education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”?
“Brown v. Board of Education”

The doctrine of selective incorporation, as applied to date by the Supreme Court, permits states to restrict _________
a few of an individual’s Bill of Rights freedoms.

The Supreme Court’s decision in “Miranda v. Arizona” (1966) was based mainly on __________
the incorporation of due process rights in the Bill of Rights so as to make them apply to the states.

According to the Constitution, when may limitations be placed on the freedom of the press?
the government may censor the press in the interest of national and military security.

When would the government be allowed to limit what people say?
None of these are examples of permissible limitations on the freedom of speech.

Which of the following statements BEST expresses the right to privacy?
The Supreme Court has ruled that the right to privacy is implied in the Bill of Rights.

Government programs that promote preferential treatment for members of groups that have historically suffered from discrimination are known as __________
affirmative action programs

The responsibility of citizenship includes the duty to _________
obey the law

When might a citizen have to consider his or her own interests and desires less important than the public good?
when called to jury duty

Which of the following indicates that people are avoiding their civic responsibilities?
All of these are evidence that people are avoiding their civic responsibilities

Which of the following is evidence that someone is evading a personal responsibility?
not supporting their children

Which of the following is something that a US citizen can do but a permanent resident can NOT do?
vote in a federal election

When and why are limits placed on rights?
when they need to be balanced against the needs and rights of others

How is a civic virtue different from other kinds of virtue?
the goal is to promote democracy

Events that take place in other countries _________
can affect people and events in the United States, so we need to pay attention.

Learning the key phrases and stories of a political culture, ___________
both “a” and “b”

Which of the following means that there is a limited quantity of something?
scarcity

Which of the following describes human effort in economics?
Human effort is one of the resources of production

What does the term human capital refer to?
the specialized skills and knowledge of some workers

Which of the following terms is used for what you lose when using resources for something else?
opportunity cost

Which of the following are the three basic economic questions?
What to produce? How to produce? For whom to produce?

When markets or governments make economic decisions about how to most efficiently convert their resources into goods and services, what basic economic question are they answering?
How to produce?

When markets or governments make economic decisions about what goods and services their resources will be used to make, what basic economic question are they answering?
What to produce?

When markets and governments decide how wealth, money, and goods and services are distributed, what basic economic question are they answering?
For whom to produce?

In a market economy, which of the following answers the three basic economic questions?
the markets

For whom are goods and services produced in a market economy?
for those who decide to purchase them at the prices offered.

In a command economy, which of the following determines for whom goods and services are produced?
the government

What do we call an economy that is both partly command and partly market?
a mixed economy

What do consumers and businesses in a market economy seek to do?
benefit maximization

Which of the following is the BEST definition of “profit”?
Profit is the amount by which revenues exceed production costs.

Which of the following means “the general willingness of consumers to buy a specific quantity of a product at different prices”?
demand

Which of the following means “the general willingness of businesses to make and sell a specific quantity of a product at various prices”?
supply

What is the price at which the quantity demanded by consumers is equal to the quantity supplied by businesses called?
market price

Goods and services (like the police, the army, and parks) that are for the benefit of all people and are provided by the government are called __________
public goods and services

Which of the following is the term that describes the ability of a seller to influence prices instead of merely being forced to accept market prices?
market power

If there is only a single seller or supplier in a market, this is called _________
monopoly

What is the term that describes when a market with few sellers has price agreements such that the sellers cooperate with each other in order to avoid competition?
collusion

When was the Federal Reserve System established?
1913

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) __________
insures customer deposits if a bank fails.

Which of the following is the definition for recession?
a nation’s economy decreases in size for at least six months.

cycle of expansion and contraction phases that a nation’s economy experiences over time is __________
a business cycle

What is the difference between a recession and a depression?
depressions are longer and more severe than recessions

Inflation is a decrease in _________
the value of money

Who of the following is considered to be unemployed?
Any able-bodied person without a full-time job who is seeking a full-time job

The way the government uses taxes and spending to stabilize the economy is called __________
fiscal policy

The Federal Reserve System is in charge of _________
monetary policy

The Super Bowl is often played in stadiums that seat over 80,000 people. Why do tickets for the Super Bowl sell for thousands of dollars when there are so many tickets?
there is a limited quantity of tickets.

The workers in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Germany, and Japan are the highest paid and most productive workers in the world. Which of the
following statements CORRECTLY states why?
they have more human capital because of their education, training, and experience

In economic terms. how does a worker make himself or herself more valuable to employers?
increase his or her human capital

A person bought a company that had been losing money, bought new machinery, and changed the product to be more stylish. After two years, the business is now making a huge profit. What is the term for people who do this?
entrepreneurs.

Why do you think that economics is often said to be the science that studies choices?
limited resources make choices necessary

All large modern economies answer most of the basic economic questions of what to produce, how, and for whom by _________
permitting competition in the markets of a market economy

From 1945 until 1989 East Germany had a mostly command economy and West Germany had a mostly market economy. (In 1990, the two countries merged.) In East Germany, there were good basic services, roads, buses, and railways. But in West Germany, there was all of these, plus people were more affluent and had many consumer goods. What BEST explains why this was TRUE?
market economies allocate the scarce resources to produce what consumers really want

In command economies, which of the following makes the final decision whether to produce cheap cars for the working class or luxury cars for the rich and powerful?
government officials

Why are economies never purely market or command economies?
neither market nor command economic systems are perfect.

If the American government were to stop funding Social Security, public schools, and all public transportation, how would this affect our economy?
Our economy would become less of a command and more of a market economy

If the government of the United States took over the auto and steel industries, how would this affect our economy?
Our mixed economy would become less of a market and more of a command economy

One of the 2002 candidates for chancellor of Germany, Edmund Stoiber, argued that Germany should improve its economy by increasing competition through less government involvement in the markets. Thus, he was proposing that the German mixed economy become __________.
less of a command economy and more of a market economy, like the United States.

Sony has sold the same number of television sets each month for almost a year. However, in one month that number suddenly doubled while other brands did not have increased sales. Which of the following is the MOST LIKELY explanation for this increase in quantity demanded?
reduced prices of Sony televisions resulted in an increase in the quantity demanded

Assuming that demand remains unchanged, how would consumers react to an increase in the market price of a product?
consumers would buy less of the product

Why do businesses try to sell more products or try to sell products at higher prices?
they want to increase revenues

Assuming that all other things remain unchanged, how would suppliers react to a price increase for their product?
they would increase production of the product

In a market economy, who (or what) determines the market price?
competition

How does the market determine the price and the quantities supplied and demanded?
competition among suppliers and consumers eventually brings the market to an equilibrium price

Why do governments supply public goods and services, instead of selling them to those people who use them?
everyone benefits from most of them, so everyone pays for them through their taxes

Why do governments provide some goods and services in market economies?
all needed services cannot be adequately provided by businesses.

Which of the following is one way that a few businesses can gain some control over their market?
secretly cooperate with one another

Why do many governments in countries with market economies control or outlaw monopolies?
monopolies can make excessive profits by overcharging consumers.

How do governments correct for negative externalitites?
they can impose fines for the damage or ensure that businesses do not cause such damage in the first place

An economy grows, reaches a peak, then begins a downturn, followed by a period of negative growth (a contraction), that ends in a trough before the next
upturn. These ups and downs in an economy are often referred to as _________
business cycles

All of the following are correctly paired with their phase of the business cycle, EXCEPT _________
rising employment: recovery phase

The economy has reached the lowest point in the business cycle. Unemployment is at an all-time high, but new unemployment claims start to decrease. This phase in the business cycle is called the _________
trough phase

Which of the following BEST describes inflation?
The value of money decreases

Measures that the federal government takes to stabilize the economy are ___________
fiscal policy

Fiscal policies are actions taken by the government to influence the economy through taxing or spending. To help the economy to come out of a recession, Congress can pursue a fiscal policy that ________
lowers taxes

Inflation is rising. Which fiscal policy strategy would the federal government MOST LIKELY use to stabilize the economy?
decrease government spending and/or raise taxes.

Increasing and decreasing the money supply through monetary policy is generally done by the __________
Federal Reserve

Which type of policy would the Federal Reserve use if the economy were entering a recession?
loose monetary policy

A tight monetary policy means ___________
the Federal Reserve wants to decrease the amount of money in the economy

Foreign policy is the decisions made that primarily affect a country’s __________
relations with other countries.

America’s “national interest” can be defined as ___________
All of these are acceptable definitions of the national interest

In American foreign policy, the president is _______
all of the above

The president’s role as commander-in-chief of the armed forces assures civilian control of __________
military policy

The president CANNOT __________
declare war

The president’s personal foreign affairs staff is known as the _________
National Security Council

An executive agreement is like a treaty, EXCEPT that it ____________
does not require the approval of the Senate.

An example of a constitutionally enumerated power of Congress in the conduct of foreign policy is ___________
declaring war

The Senate has the constitutional power of ___________
confirming presidential appointments.

Which of the following is a case of the legislative branch imposing a “check” on the executive’s power to conduct foreign policy?
the power of the purse

Foreign policy, law enforcement, and space exploration are all basic services provided by the _________
federal bureaucracy

Most of the day-to-day work of the federal departments is done at the _________
sub-unit level

An iron triangle is a __________
stable, permanent relationship between agencies, congressional committees, and an interest group.

A loose, impermanent relationship between agencies, congressional committees, experts, and interest groups is known as an
issue network

Which of the following organizations is responsible for the conduct of American diplomacy?
Department of State

The National Security Act of 1947 created the __________
Department of Defense

Which of the following organizations is CORRECTLY matched to the global issue with which it must now deal?
Treasury Department – international finance

Which of the following services do think tanks NOT provide?
training for military forces

An economic interest group might lobby for a provision in a trade agreement that would ___________
gain economic advantages for its members

A citizen can BEST stay informed about global events by ______________
watching, listening to, and reading a variety of sources.

Which of the following terms INCLUDES the other three?
foreign policy

Which of the following is NOT a statement of American national interest?
“I can make a lot of money investing in hedge funds.”

Uncertainty over the limits on presidential power is caused primarily by the fact that ___________
the constitutional definition of those powers is broad and unspecific.

In a dispute between the various actors in American foreign policy, which actor is most likely to win?
the president

If a president believes that emergency conditions require a quick decision regarding an agreement with another country, he can make a decision without Senate approval via ___________
an executive agreement

Why do presidents depend so heavily on the National Security Council advisor for foreign policy advice?
The National Security Council advisor is appointed by the president

The responsibilities of the Secretary of State are most likely to overlap with those of the _________
president’s National Security Council advisor

The most effective way for both houses of Congress to prevent the president from following a particular foreign policy would be to ___________
cut off budget support for that policy.

Which of the following factors accounts for the fact that the power and prestige of the presidency have grown since the beginning of the 20th century?
All of these are factors in the growth of the presidency

Which of the following powers of Congress has had little effect on the conduct of foreign policy over the last 50 years?
the power to declare war

The confirmation process allows the Senate to ___________
judge the abilities of many of the president’s appointees to public office

When the Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I, it was ____________
refusing to ratify a treaty

A member of the House of Representatives wishing to influence foreign policy would MOST LIKELY want which of the following committee assignments?
foreign affairs

Why would the Secretary of State be likely to quarrel with the Secretary of Defense?
they share responsibility for aspects of foreign policy

A persistent pattern of close relations among the Department of Defense, the Senate and House Committees on the armed forces, and defense industry contractors, with the intent of dominating policy-making in the sphere of defense, would be considered a(n) __________.
iron triangle

Why would a department that is traditionally focused on domestic issues become involved in foreign policy-making?
both “a” and “b”

How are think tanks different from universities?
both “a” and “b”

Interest groups representing businesses and investors are often among the most successful lobbying groups in foreign policy. Why would this be considered a problem?
these groups’ members contribute heavily to many legislators’ campaigns and in so doing gain greater access to legislators

Which of the following could be considered indicators of an entertainment bias in news reporting?
all of the above are indicators of bias

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out