Chem 1 Chapter 16-19 chapter Exam

Chemists believe that chemical reactions occur because the molecules involved in the reaction __________.
collide with each other with enough energy to break chemical bonds.
Which of the following statements is(are) true for a catalyst?
-the catalyst speeds up the reaction
-the catalyst provides a new pathway for the reaction
-the concentration of the catalyst will decrease as a reaction proceeds
-two of these
-none of the above
two of these

How many of the following are true? I At equilibrium, the concentrations of all reactants and products are equal II at equilibrium, all products and reactands coexist III at equilibrium the change in concentration over time for all reactants and products is zero IV at equilibrium, the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are zero





-none are true

Given the reaction A(g) + B(g) <--> C(g) + D(g). You have the gases A,B,C, and D at the equilibrium. Upon adding gass A, the value of K ________.
does not change as long as the temperature is constant.
The following question refers to the equilibrium shown here:
What would happen to the system if oxygen were added?
The equilibrium would shift to the right.
________ is a loss of electrons.
In the reaction 2Ca(s)+O2(g)–>2CaO(s), calcium is __________.
In the reaction 2Cs(s)+Cl2(g)–>2CsCl(s), the chlorine is _________.
The oxidation state of fluorine in F2 is ____.
The oxidation state of chromium in CrO4^2- is _____.
In which of the following compounds does nitrogen have the most positive oxidation?
The following reaction occurs in aqueous acid solution: NO3-+I- –>IO3-+NO2 is _______.
When a metal corrodes, what is happening chemically?
the metal atoms lose electrons.
In a car battery, which of the following is the electrolyte?
-PbSO4 (s)
-PbO2 (s)
-Pb (s)
-H2SO4 (aq)
-None of the above
H2SO4 (aq)
In the reaction shown below, which species is oxidized?
2NaI+Br2 –>2NaBr+I2
Which of the following is true for a galvanic cell based on the following reaction?
-The Cu^2+ ion is being reduced
-The zinc serves as the anode
-the Cu serves as the anode
-The zinc is being reduced
-Two of these
two of these
Which of the following is not true regarding the term electrolysis?
-The electrolysis of water produces hydrogen gas and oxygen gas
-Electrolysis involves forcing a current through a cell to produce a change that would otherwise not occur
-electrolysis is used to rechard a lead storage battery
-electrolysis is a process where elecetrical energy is used to produce a chemical change
-all of the above
all of the above
The conjugate base of a weak acid is _________.
a weak base
In deciding which of two acids is the stronger, one must know ________.
The equilibrium constand of each acid
The fact that HCl(aq) is a strong acid also means that Cl- is a _______.
Weak conjugate base

Which of the following is not a strong acid?





-all are strong acids


As water is heated, its [H+] increases. This meants that _____.


-the water is no longer neutral

-the water is no longer neutral and [H+]>[OH-] are correct


-none of the above

none of the above

True or False?

A substance like water that behaves as an acid or base is said to be amphibasic.


A solution where [H+]=10^-13 M is _____.



-strongly acidic


-two of these


A solution has [H+]=4.2 x 10^-3 M. The [OH-] in this solution is ______.

-4.2 x 10^-3 M

-2.4 x 10^-12 M

-1.0 x 10^-14 M

-4.2 x 10^-11 M

-none of the above

2.4 x 10^-12 M

Solid calcium hydroxide is dissolved in water until the pH of the solution is 10.94. The Hydroxide ion concentration [OH-] of the solution is ______.

-1-1 x 10^-11 M

-1.0 x 10^-13 M

-3.06 M

-8.7 x 10^-4 M

-none of the above

8.7 x 10^-4 M

What is the pH of a solution prepared by dissolving 80.0 g NaOH in enouh water to make 0.50 L of solution?





-none of the above


How many moles of pure NaOh must be used to prepare 1.0 L of a solution that has a pH=13.00?

-10.0 mol 

-13.0 mol

-1.0 mol

-0.10 mol

-none of the above

0.10 mol

Determine the volume of 0.100 M NaOh needed to titrate 20.0 mL of 0.400 M CHl.

-5.00 mL

-60.0 mL

-80.0 mL

-20.0 mL

-40.0 mL

80.0 mL

A solution has a pH of 6.49. The pOH of this solution is ______.




-3.2 x 10^-8

-none of the above


Which of the following is the strongest conjugate base?

-C2H3O2- or CH3COO-



-all the same


C2H3O2- or CH3COO-

A solution with a pH of 3 is how many times as acidic as a solution with a pH of 4?

-15 times as acidic

-100 times as acidic

-80 times as acidic

-10 times as acidic

-12 times as acidic

10 times as acidic

A solution with a pH of 2 is how many times more acidic as a solution with a pH of 4?







Which statement is true for a strong acid solution with a concentration great that 1.0 M?




-two of these

-none of the above

Two of these

Which of the following is not an example of spontaneous radioactive process?



-positron production

-electron capture



If a nucleus captures an electron, describe how the atomic number will change.

-It will increase by two

-it will decrease by two

-it will decrease by one

-it will not change because the electron has such a small mass

-it will increase by one

it will decrease by one

Beta partices are ____.




-helium nuclei



Choose the particle having a relative mass of 1 amu and no charge.


-beta particle

-alpha particle


-none of the above


When the uranium-235 nucleus is struck with a neutron, the zinc-72 and the amsrium-160 nuclei are produced along with some neutrons. How many neutrons are produced?







The atomic particle having a mass of 1 amu and a charge of 1+ is _____.

-an electron

-an alpha particle

-a neutron

-a proton

-none of the above

a proton

The cesium-131 nuclide has a half-life of 30 years. After 90 years, about 6 g remain. The original mass of the cesium-131 sample is closest to ____.

-50 g

-40 g

-60 g

-30 g

-70 g

50 g

The half-life of a radioactive nuclide is ______.

-the period of time it takes to reduce the radioactivity by 100%

-that period of time in which 25% fo the original number of atoms undergoes radioactive decay

-that period of time in which 50% of the original number of atoms undergoes radioactive decay

-the time at which the isotope becomes nonradioactive

-none of the above

that period of them in which 50% of the original number of atoms undergoes radioactive decay

The iodine-131 nuclide has a half-life of 8 days. If you originally have a 625 g sample, after 2 months you will have approximately _______.

-less than 1 g

-20 g

-5 g

-40 g

 -10 g

5 g

When the palladium-106 nucleus is struck with an alpha particle, a proton is produced along with a new element. What is this new element?





-none of the above


Stontium-90 from radioactive fallout is a helath threat because, like _______, it is incorporated into bone.







True or False?

Nuclear fusion uses heavy nuclides such as 238 as fuel.



A breeder reactor is one that produces 238U from 239U.

                                                      92           92

A nuclear reactor is really just a source of heat to change water to steam.

Complete the table for these radioactive particles:

Name   Charge   Mass Number




Name   Charge   Mass Number

Alpha      2                 4       

Beta       -1                0     

Gamma    0                 0     

Lithium-8 is a beta producer. The product nuclide is _____.

8 Be


Whn 14N is bombarded by (and absorbs) a proton, a


 new nuclide is produced plus and alpha particle. The nuclide produced is _______.

11 C

When 230Th decays by producing an alpha particle, the


product nuclide is _______.

226 Ra


A sample of a radioactive element decays to 25% of its original number of radioactive nuclides in 12 years. Wha is the half-life of this radioactive element?
6 years
A particular radioactive element has a half-life of 10.0 days. What percent of the original sample is left after 30.0 days?
What radioactive nuclide is often used to date wooden artifacts?



14 C

A sample of helium gas occupies 2.65 L at 1.20 atm. What pressure would this sample of gas exert in a 1.50 L container at the same temperature?

-2.12 atm

-1.20 atm

-3.31 atm

-0.679 atm

-none of the above

2.12 atm

A gas has a volume of 5.0 L at a certain pressure. How must the pressure be changed to double the volume of the gas at constant temperature?

-There is not enough infromation to decide

-the pressure must be doubled

-the pressure must be quadrupled

-the pressure must be halved

-none of the above

The pressure must be halved

A helium balloon has a volume of 2.30 L at 23.5 degrees C and a pressure of 1.00 atm at sea level. The ballon is released and floats upward. At a certain height the atmospheric pressure is 0.810 atm and the temperature is 12.0 degrees C. Calculate the volume of the Balloon.

-2.21 L

-2.84 L

-1.45 L

-2.73 L

-None of the above

2.73 L

The valve between a 5.00 L tank containing O2(g) at 9.00 atm and a 7.00 L tank containing Ne(g) at 6.00 atm is opened. Calculate the final pressure in the tanks assuming constant temperature.

-5.80 atm

-7.50 atm

-7.75 atm

-7.25 atm

-none of the above

7.25 atm

A gas sample is held at constant pressure. The gass occupies 3.62 L of volume when the temperature is 21.6 degrees C. Determine the temperature at which the volume of the gas is 3.45 L.

-309 K

-294 K

-326 K

-281 K

-20.6 K

281 K

The lowest possible temperature that can be reached is ______.

-273 degrees C

-0 degress C

– -273 degrees K

– -273 degrees C

– 273 K

-273 degrees C

A sample of a gas in a container fitted with a piston has a temperature above 0 degrees C. The Celsius temperature is doubled. What is true about the ratio of final volume to initial volume for the gas?

-It is less than 2:1

-it is 1:2

-it is 1:1

-it is 2:1

-it is greater than 2:1

It is less than 2:1

If the temperature of an ideal gas is raised from 100 degrees C to 200 degrees C, while the pressure remains constant, the volume _____.

-remains the same

-increases by a factor of 100


-goes to 1/2 the original volume

-none of the above

none of the above

Which of the following will give a graph with a straight line and a y-intercept of 0?

-Volume vs. temperature (K)

-volume vs. 1/temperature (degrees C)

-volume vs. temperature (degrees C)

-volume vs. 1/temperature (K)

-none of the above

volume vs. temperature (K)

Gaseous chlorine is held in two seperate containers at identical temperature and pressure. The volume of container 1 is 1.30 L, and it contains 6.70 mol of the cas. The volume of container 2 is 2.20 L. How many moles of the gas are in container 2?

-3.96 mol

-19.2 mol

-11.3 mol

-0.427 mol

-none of the above

11.3 mol

One mole of CO2 at STP will occupy _____.

-44 L

-1.0 L

-22.4 L

-24.5 L

-44 g

22.4 L

Which of the following statements is true of 19.0 g of F2(g) at STP?

-It occupies a volume of 22.4 L

-It only exists in the form of ions

-It contains 6.02 x 10^23 molecules

-It contains the same number of molecules as 1/2 mol of O2(g) at STP

-none of the above

It contains the same number of molecules as 1/2 mol of O2 (g) at STP

You are holding two balloons, an orange balloon and a blue balloon. The orange balloon is filled with neon (Ne) gas, and the blue balloon is filled with argon (Ar) gas. The orange balloon has twice the volume of the blue balloon. Which of the following best represents the mass ratio of Ne:Ar in the balloons?







Amole of a gas at STP has a volume of 22.4 L. If the volume increases to 29.1 L aand the pressure is changed to 813 torr, calculate the new temperature.

-226 K

-462 K

-379 K

-792 K

-519 K

379 K

At 25.0 L sample of gas at STP is heated to 55 degrees C at 605 torr. What is the new volume?

-76 L

-56 L

-17 L

-38 L

-3.4 L

38 L

A 6.34 L sample of carbon monoxide is collected at 55 degrees C and 0.892 atm. What volume will the gas occupy at 1.05 atm and 20 degress C?

-5.46 L

-4.82 L

-6.10 L

-1.96 L

-none of the above

4.82 L

What volume is occupied by 19.8 g of methane, CH4 at 27 degrees C and 1.59 atm?

-1.71 L

-27.7 L

-not enough data to calculate

-302 L

-18.9 L

18.9 L

Which of the following statement is true concerning ideal gases?

-a gas exerts pressure as a result of the collisions of the gas molecules with the walls of the container

-the gas particles in a sample exert attracton for one another

-the temperature of the gas sample is dierectly related to the average velocity of the gas particles

-at STP, 1.0 L of Ar(g) contains about twice the number of atoms as 1.0 L of Ne(g) because the molar mass of Ar is about twice that of Ne

-All of these are false

a gas exerts pressure as a result of the collisions of the gas molecules with the walss of the container

An ideal gas is a hypothetical substance consisting of particles with ______ volume and _____ attraction for one another.

-small; strong

-zero; no

-small; weak

-large; weak

-large; strong

zero; no

A gas is collected over water at a certain temperature. The total pressure is 762 torr. The partial pressure of the gas collected is ___.

-745 torr

-17 torr

-762 torr

-779 torr

-none of the above

745 torr

When electrons are shared unequally, chmists characterize these types of bonds as ____.

-polar covalent

– ionic

-pure covalent


-none of the above

polar covalent

Chemical bonds formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions are called _____.

-ionic bonds

-coordinate bonds

-covalent bonds

-magnetic bonds

-none of the above

ionic bonds

Atoms with greatly differing electronegativity values are expected to form _____.

-nonpolar covalent bonds

-ionic bodns

-no bonds

-triple bonds

-polor covalent bonds

ionic bonds

Metals typically have ______ electronegativity values.





-two of these


Nonmetal elements typically have ______ electronegativity.





-none of the above


The electron pair in a C-F bond could be considered ______.

-closer to F because fluorine has a higher electronegativity than carbon

-an inadequate model because the bond is ionic

-closer to C because carbon has a larger radius and thus exerts greater control over the shared electron pair

-colser to C because carbon has a lower electronegativity than fluorine

-centrally located directly between the C and F

Closer to F because fluorine has a higher electronegativity than carbon

Which of the following bonds would be the most polar without being considered ionic?







Carbon Dioxide has ______ bonds.


-polar covalent



-none of the above

polar covalent

Which of the following compounds contains an ionic bond?







The most electromagnetive element is ___.






Which of these is not an ionic compound?

Which of the following contains only nonpolar bonds?







The number of polar covalent bonds in NH3 is ____.





-none of the above


If atom X forms a diatomic molecule with itself, the bond is _____.

-polar covalent

-nonpolar covalent

-polar coordinate covalent


-none of the above

nonpolar covalent

When a molecule has a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge, it is said to have a ______.

-magnetic attraction

-polyatomic ion

-double bond

– diatomic bond

-dipole moment

dipole moment

One of the most important characteristics of the water molecule is its _____, which allows it to surround and attract both positive and negative ions.







A phosphorus atom needs to gain _____ electrons to achieve a boble gas configuration.







Which of the following ions has the same electron configuration as an argon atom?







The electron configuration for the bromide ion is identical to that of ________.





-none of the above


When they reach chemically, the alkali metals (Group 1) ________.

-gain one electron

-gain or lose seven electrons

-gain seven electrons

-lose one electron

lose one electron

How many lone pairs of electrons are in the Lewis structure for ammonia, NH3?







The lewis structure for which of the following contains the greatest number of lone pairs of electrons?







Which of the following has a double bond?







Which of the following has a triple bond?







Which of the following is an example of a homogeneous equilibrium?





-none of the above


Consider the reaction:


Which species is the conjugate base?





none of these


Which of the following is a conjugate acid-base pair?

-NH4+ / NH3

-H3O+ / OH-

-HCl / OCl-

-H2SO4 / SO4^-2

-none of these

NH4+ / NH3

Choose the case that is not a conjugate acid-base pair.

-OH-, O^2-

-HCO3-, CO3^-2


-H3PO4, HPO4

-H3O+, H2O


Answer the following question that refers to the unbalanced reaction shown below as it occurs in acidic solution:


Determine the coefficient for water in the balanced equation for the reaction.







The following reaction occurs in aqueous acid solution:


In the unbalanced equation, the coefficient of water is _______.







Which has the higher [H+], 0.20 M NaOH or 0.10 M Ca(OH)2?

-the answer depends on the volumes of the respective solutions

-0.20 M NaOH

-the [H+]’s are equal

-0.10 M Ca(OH)2

The [H+]’s are equal

Choose the pair of concentrations that cannot be in a given aqueous solution at 23 degrees C.

-[H+]=10^-3 M, [OH-]=10^11 M

-[H+]=10^-13 M, [OH-]=1 M

-[H+]=10 M, [OH-]=10^-15 M

-[H+]=10^-7 M, [OH-]=10^-7

-all these can exist

all these can exist

A solution has [OH-]=2.8 x 10^-7 M. The [H+] in this solution is _____.

-2.8 x 10^-7 M

-1.0 x 10^-7 M

-3.6 x 10^-8 M

-1.0 M

-none of the above

3.6 x 10^-8 M

Calculate the [H+] in a solution that has the pH of 8.95.

-8.9 x 10^6 M

-1.1 x 10^-2 M

-1.1 x 10^-9 M

-1.0 x 10^-7 M

-none of the above

1.1 x 10^-9 M

Calculate the [OH-] in a solution that has a pH of 3.70.

-5.0 x 10^-1 M

-1.0 x 10^-7 M

-5.0 x 10^-11 M

-5.0 x 10^-4 M

-none of the above

5.0 x 10^-11 M

When the uranium-235 nucleus is struck with a neutron, the cesium-144 and strontium-90 nuclei are produced along with some neutrons and electrons.

How many neutrons are produced?






How many electrons are produced?






2 neutrons


4 electrons

Convert 3.6 x 10^2 atm to torr.

-13.000 torr

-25 torr

-0.47 torr

-270,000 torr

-53,000 torr

270,000 torr

Perform the following coversion of pressure units.

5.0 x 10^9Pa=________atm

-4.3 x 10^4

-1.7 x 10^5

-9.8 x 10^4

-4.9 x 10^4

-2.5 x 10^4

4.9 x 10^4

Aballon has a volume of 1.20 L at 24.0 degrees C. The balloon is heated to 48.0 degrees C. Calculate the new volume of the balloon.

-1.20 L

-1.70 L

-1.30 L

-2.10 L

-2.40 L

1.30 L

Use the following information to answer the next questions.

A gas occupies 30. L at 2.0 atm pressure and 27 degrees C

Calculate its volume if the pressure is decreased to 1.0 atm at a constant temperature.

-15 L

-79 L

-45 L

-60 L

-120 L

Calculate its volume if the pressure remains at 2.0 atm, but the temperature is raised to 54 degrees C.

-86 L

-12 L

-51 L

-44 L

-33 L

Calculate its volume at STP.

-33 L

-18 L

-45 L

-29 L

-55 L

60 L


33 L


55 L

Given the equation A(g)<–>B(g)+2C(g). At a particulate temperature, K=1.4 x 10^5

If you mixed 1.2 mol B, 0.050 mol C, and 0.003 mol A in a 1 container, in which direction would the reaction initially proceed?

-the mixture is in the equilibrium state

-to the left

-to the right

-cannot tell from the information given

Calculate the concentration of the silver ion in a saturated solution of silver chloride, AgCl (Ksp=1.6 x 10^-10)

-1.3 x 10^-5

-1.6 x 10^-10

-8.0 x 10^-11

-5.4 x 10^-4

-none of the above

to the right


1.3 x 10^-5

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