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Chapters 15-18 Life Span Development

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A group of unmarried women in their fifties gathers every month for a book club. At one meeting, several of the members lament on the fact that they had no sexual partners during the past year. Their lack of sexual activity can most likely be attributed to
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a lack of opportunity due to a higher male mortality rate.
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Adult learners list __________ as the most common reason for not completing their degrees
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role overload
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As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were at certain tasks, they accommodate, shifting to activities that depend more on
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accumulated knowledge.
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As processing speed slows,
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working memory declines
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Chrissy regards most experiences as controllable. She displays a committed approach to daily activities and views change as a normal part of life and a chance for personal growth. Chrissy fits the pattern of a __________ individual.
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hardy
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Complex work leads to gains in
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cognitive flexibility.
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Donna, who has engaged in little exercise in the past decade, wants to offset both the excess weight and muscle loss of middle adulthood. She should engage in
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weight-bearing exercise that includes resistance training.
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During midlife, most adults begin to
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experience life-threatening health episodes-if not in themselves, then in their partners and friends.
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In Western industrialized nations, menopause is
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assumed to be a syndrome requiring treatment.
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In a study of women ages 50 to 79, a __________ diet involving __________ was associated with greater initial weight loss and success at maintaining that loss over a seven-year period.
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low-fat; increased consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains
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John has an eye condition. Its name literally means “old eyes.” John has
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presbyopia.
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Kandilyn is unhappy with all the stressors in her life. The best approach for dealing with her stress is to use
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a mixture of problem- and emotion-centered techniques
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Late in life, __________ factors show greater decrements than __________ factors.
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fluid; crystallized
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Longitudinal research shows that from age 20 on, __________ decreases steadily
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perceptual speed
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Maria has trouble remembering where she parks her car in the large office parking lot. Therefore, she decides to park in the same area of the parking lot every day. She is using __________ knowledge.
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metacognitive
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Michael, age 50, has noticed a hearing loss, especially at high frequencies. He feels that his hearing is not as sharp as it once was. Michael probably has a condition called
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presbycusis.
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Middle-aged adults tend to be rational decision makers because they
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use practical problem-solving strategies
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Raymond, age 52, has porous bones and a very low bone density level. Raymond is at risk for
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osteoporosis
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the leading causes of death in middle age are __________ and __________
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cancer; cardiovascular disease
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Tony, age 77, married Nichole, age 24. They are not using birth control because of Tony’s advanced age. You can advise them that
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Tony produces less semen and sperm, which negatively affects fertility, but he can probably still father children.
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According to Vaillant, __________ is a major preoccupation of midlife.
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“passing the torch”
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According to parental imperative theory, after children reach adulthood,
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parents are free to express the “other-gender” side of their personalities.
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Androgyny in adulthood is associated with
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advanced moral reasoning and psychosocial maturity.
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Because Thomas is highly generative, he is also likely to
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be open-minded about differing viewpoints.`
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Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the __________ generation
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sandwich
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Compared with Caucasians, African Americans
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more often engage in certain types of generativity, such as involvement in religious groups.
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Compared with younger adults, middle-aged workers are more likely to
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help colleagues
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Denyse is calm, even-tempered, self-content, comfortable, unemotional, and hardy. She is low on which of these “big five” personality traits?
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neuroticism
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Erikson’s psychological conflict of midlife is called __________ versus __________.
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generativity; stagnation
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Generative midlifers
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us an authoritative parenting style
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Jay, age 50, is finally comfortable with himself. He is more independent, assertive, and committed to his personal values than he was in early adulthood. Jay probably believes that midlife is
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the prime of life.
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Little is known about long-term adjustment following divorce among middle-aged men, perhaps because
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most enter new relationships and remarry within a short time.
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The __________ of poverty is a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult poverty population.
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feminization
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The negative outcome of Erikson’s midlife stage, stagnation, focuses on
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self-indulgence.
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Throughout adulthood, the personality traits people assign to their current selves show
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considerable stability.
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Which of the following statements about grandparents who take full responsibility for raising grandchildren is true?
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They often experience considerable emotional and financial strain.
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Which of the following statements about launching children and moving on is true?
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Most parents adjust well to their children’s departure from the home.
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Which of the following statements about people who flexibly modify their identities in response to age-related changes yet maintain a sense of self-continuity is true?
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They score higher in self-esteem
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Which of the following statements to an adult child is most likely to promote positive ties?
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“Let us know if we can help.”
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Women who quit work in order to take care of aging parents
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generally fare poorly due to social isolation and financial strain.
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A common technique used by many older adults to compensate for their difficulties in producing language is to
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use more sentences to convey their message.
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A diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is made
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through exclusion, after ruling out other causes of dementia.
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After cardiovascular disease and cancer, the most common killer among the aged is/are
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respiratory diseases.
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Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it greatly affects
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enjoyment of life.
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Aimee is coordinating a continuing education program for older adults. Which of the following pieces of advice should she follow?
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Relate new material to what older adults have already learned by drawing on their experiences.
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An extended falloff in cognitive performance or in emotional investment in life is
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Correct a sign of loss of vitality and impending death.
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Arn recently retired from an assembly line job. To facilitate cognitive functioning, Arn should
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develop stimulating leisure activities.
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At age 65 and older, the death rate from unintentional injuries is
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at an all-time high.
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Because he has mobility problems, Mr. Dow has a phone that can be dialed and answered by voice commands. This is an example of
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assistive technology.
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Compared to their agemates, older adults with the cognitive, reflective, and emotional qualities that make up wisdom are
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more favorably adjusted to aging.
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Depression
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can lead to cognitive deterioration.
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Difficulties with prospective memory seen in the laboratory do not appear in real life because older adults often compensate for declines in working memory by
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relying on external memory aids.
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How do men and women compare in their physical health after age 85?
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Men are less likely to be impaired because only the sturdiest men have survived.
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Mental abilities that decline at an earlier age typically depend on __________ intelligence, while those that are sustained longer in life depend on __________ intelligence
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fluid; crystallized
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Michael and Franklin moved into a homelike housing arrangement for seniors who require more care than can be provided at home. They have moved into
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assisted living.
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Mr. Embrel has a blood clot blocking a blood vessel. This is known as
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stroke
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Older adults who __________ adapt more favorably and feel better about it.
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generate new, problem-centered coping strategies for aging
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Ray’s actual competence and performance in dealing with life’s challenges indicate his __________ age
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functional
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Wanda, age 77, has difficulty shopping for and preparing her food and paying her bills. Wanda needs help with
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instrumental activities of daily living.
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Which of the following statements about sexuality in late adulthood is true?
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Most healthy older adult couples report continued, regular sexual enjoyment.
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According to Erikson, when the psychological conflict of late adulthood is resolved negatively, adults experience
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despair.
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Added years of longevity and health plus financial stability have granted an active, opportunistic time of life to so many older adults that some experts believe a new phase of late adulthood has evolved, known as
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the Third Age.
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Although Ida is mostly self-reliant, she does not often resist her son’s unnecessary help. Ida probably feels that
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her son’s help brings about social contact.
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Among the strongest risk factors for late-life depression is
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physical illness resulting in disability.
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Being deeply religious
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seems to fortify the mind-body connection near life’s end, with the frailest displaying the greatest resilience.
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Both men and women describe closer bonds with __________ than with __________.
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sisters; brothers
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Christine treats her aging mother like a child, calls her names, and often threatens to move her into a nursing home. Christine is engaged in which type of elder abuse
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emotional abuse
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Erikson’s widow, Joan Erikson, suggested an additional stage of psychosocial development called
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gerotranscendence.
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Figures underestimate the actual incidence of elder abuse because
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most abusive acts take place in private, and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain
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For most contemporary seniors, retirement
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is a time of opportunity and personal growth.
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Having __________ is an especially strong predictor of mental health among the elderly.
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friends
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Involvement in leisure activities and, especially, __________ is related to better physical health and reduced mortality.
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volunteer service
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Mr. Sarandon recalls past experiences with the goal of achieving a greater self-understanding. Mr. Sarandon is engaged in
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life review.
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Mr. Suko is 80 years old. He is argumentative, bitter, and regretful. He has a tendency to blame others for his personal failures. According to Erikson, Mr. Suko’s behavior disguises
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self-contempt.
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Optimal aging is
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facilitated by societal contexts that promote effective person-environment fit
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Self-__________ is a key feature of integrity.
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acceptance
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The baby boomers are approaching late life with the conviction that their old age will not begin until
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80
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Today, retirement
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is not a single event but rather a dynamic process with multiple transitions.
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Which of the following statements about preventing elder maltreatment is true?
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Prevention programs offer caregivers education and respite services, such as elder day care and in-home help.
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_________ increases the odds of living longer.
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Availability of social support
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Give to and guide the next generation, commitement extends beyond self.
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Generativity chracteristics
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turning bad life events into good, giving back, personal renewal or enlightenment.
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Highly Generative chracteristics
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Place own comfort and security above challenge and scarafice, self-centered, lack concern with young people, little interest in work
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Stagnation chracteristics
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Midlife changes are developmental transitions or crises
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Stage View
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Midlife Chnages are simply adaptations to normal life events
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Life Events View
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What one hopes or fears becoming.
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Possible Selves