chapter 8 African Americans today

de facto segregation
segregation that is the result of residential patterns

acting white
taking school seriously and accepting the authority of teachers and administrators

aparthied schools
all-black schools

class
as defined by max weber, people who share smilar levels of wealth

differential justice
whites being dealt with more leniently than blacks whether at the time of arrest, indictment, conviction, sentencing, or parole

gerrymandering
redrawing districts bizarrely to create politically adventatous outcomes

redlining
the pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially challenging neighborhoods

tracking
the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria; decreases white black interaction blacks more likely to have a learning disability classified

underemployment
working at a job for which the worker is overqualified, involuntary working part time instead of full time, or being intermittently employed

victim discounting
tendency to view crime as less socially significant if the victim is viewed as less worthy

victimization surveys
annual attempts to measure crime rates by interviewing ordinary citizens who may or may not have been crime victims

wealth
an inclusive term encompassing all of persons material assets including land and other types of property

zoning laws
legal provisions stipulating land use and the architectural design of housing often used to keep racial minorities and low income people out of suburban areas

milliken v bradley
improper to order detroit and the suburbs to have a joint metropolitan busing solution

civil rights project
1/6 of students go to apartheid schools, 1/4 in northeast and midwest

montgomery county maryland
64%students are white and gifted, 49 amd 67 asain were id and only 8 latino and 4 black

hbucs
historically black college university–> 105 schools account for 1/5 of all black college graduates

reverse in progress for blacks in higher education
1. reductions in financial aid and more reliance on loans
2. pushing for higher standards in education achievement whithout providing remedial courses has locked out may
3. employment opportunities have continued to lure young people who must contribute to their family’s income and who have otherwise might have done to college
4. negative publicity about affirmative action may have discouraged some african americans from even considering college
5. attention to what appears to be a growing number of racial incidents on predominantly white college campuses

gap not closing
only 6.1% of all docterates awarded in 2008 were to native born african americans reflecting the moderate increase from 3.9 percent in 1981

income
salaries wages and other money recieved

in 2009
blacks median income was 32,584 and whites was 54,461; lag present since ww11; 25.8 percent blacks lived below the poverty level compared to the 9.4 percent of whites; blacks are 3 times more likely to be poor

wealth
greater disparity between whites and blacks; white assets are 13 times greater than blacks–> less likely to have savings account, mutual funds, own a buisness or a car

employment
higher unemployment for blacks since the 1940s,

in 2011
black unemployment rate was 15.5 percent compared to whites 7.9–> blacks are fired first

blacks aged 16-24
unemployment hit 35 percent equivelent to the great depression national average

factors for unemployment
many live in the economy of the central cities
immigrants and illegal aliens present increased competition
white middle class women entered the work force
illegal activites at which youths find they can make more money have become more prevalent

underemployment
12.4 percent of total population are black and yetr they are underrepresented in high status and high paying occupations; rose from 4 percent in 1939 to 11 percent in 2009

two parent hoseholds
are in 4/10 childrens lives

strengths of african american familes
1. strongkinship bonds
2. a strong orientation
3. adaptability of family roles
4. strong achievement orientation
5. strong religious orientation

the negro familym
known as the moynihan report outlined a tangle of pathology with the black family at its core ; 2 studies stable black families project and national survey of black americans sought to learn how black families encounter problems and resolve them successfully with internal resources

middle class
2009,