Chapter 8, African Americans Today

Research has established that
70% of all violent crimes against Whites are perpetrated by Whites.
The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups based on test scores is called
tracking.
Why do conflict theorists find the higher arrest rate of African Americans to be uprising?
The group is stereotyped by police and society.
Blacks are more likely to suffer from _____ than Whites, perhaps due to racial tensions.
hypertension
Only _____ percent of all doctorates awarded in 2008 were to African Americans.
6.1%
The view that prejudice and discrimination contribute to health care problems is taken by which of the following perspectives?
conflict
Which of the following describes a strength of the Black family, according to Robert Hill?
Compared with working class Whites, they push their children to attend college; churches are often behind grassroots organizations; Black women are often self-reliant
Black family life has been observed to have all of the following EXCEPT
a patriarchal structure
Crimes against African Americans are viewed

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as less meaningful due to
victim discounting
The percent of violent crimes against Whites perpetrated by Whites is
70%
According to _____ “Class has become more important than race in determining black life-chances in the modern world.”
William Julius Wilson
According to a 2003 Harvard University study, _____ Black students attend apartheid schools in the U.S.
1 in 6
In general, housing for Blacks
is of lower quality as measured by plumbing facilities; requires a higher percentage of income than Whites pay; is inferior in quality to White housing at all income levels
African Americans have
higher unemployment rates; a greater rate of business failure; lower paying jobs
Rosie, a Latina student, is signed up for vocational classes beginning in middle school; her counselors steer her toward more vocational classes in high school instead of toward a college preparatory classes. This phenomenon is an example of
tracking
Which of the following describes underemployment?
Jerry received a Master’s degree in engineering but worked as a technician when he couldn’t find a job as an engineer.
Reasons identified as contributing to residential segregation in the United States include
prejudiced policies of some real estate companies; ineffective enforcement of anti-bias legislation; private prejudice by home sellers
Which of the following statements about segregation in schools is FALSE?
Brown v. Board of Education eradicated segregation for good.
Whites being dealt with more leniently than Blacks, whether at the time of the arrest, indictment, conviction, sentencing, or parole, is known as
differential justice
Which of the following is typical of African American families?
strong kinship bonds
Financial lenders designate minority and racially challenging neighborhoods as poor investments in a practice called
redlining
Redlining is the practice in which financial lenders designate
housing in minority and racially changing neighborhoods as a poor investment
In the future, African American housing will likely
be primarily in all-Black neighborhoods
Data since the 1960’s indicate that
public schools are becoming increasingly segregated by race
Black sociologist Franklin Frazier viewed members of the Black middle class as
preoccupied with becoming acceptable to White society
In 2008, the percentage of jail inmates who were Black was
39%
The type of school segregation that results from residential patterns is
de facto segregation
Unemployment among young Blacks is high because of
increased competition from immigrants and illegal aliens; entry of White women into the labor force; depressed economy of the central cities
The term glass ceiling refers to
artificial barriers to promoting qualified workers
Several of the educational inadequacies African American students face today could be addressed
by better funding
If you have a job for which you are overqualified, you are
underemployed
Attempts to measure crime rates by interviewing ordinary citizens are called
victimization surveys
In the interval from 1981-2008, the percentage of doctorates awarded to African Americans
reflected a modest increase
The most consistently documented strength of the Black family is the presence of
an extended family household
Blacks progress in higher education has been inhibited by
the negative publicity about affirmative action
In 2010, the approximate percentage of single mother households among Blacks was
50%
Underemployment refers to
involuntarily working part time; intermittent employment; working at a job for which one is overqualified
Compared with Whites, Black men have higher death rates from
cancer; heart disease; stress
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