Chapter 7 Biology study Guide

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The Cell theory states that
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1) all living things are made up of cells 2)Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things and 3) new celss are produced from existing cells
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cell
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basic unit of all forms of life
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cell membrane
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thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
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nucleus
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the center of an atom, which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, sturcture that contains the cells genetic materials in the form of DNA
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Prokaryote
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organisms whose cells does not contain a nucleus
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eukaryote
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organism whose cells contain a nucleus
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cytoplasm
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orgin eukaryote cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokayotic cells, all of the cells’ contents
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vacuole
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cell organelle that stores matericals such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates
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lysosome
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cell oranelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can used by the rest of the cell
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cytoskeleton
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network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
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centriole
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structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
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ribosome
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cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis
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endoplasmic reticulum
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internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
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Golgi apparatus
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organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for stoage in the cell or release outdie the cell
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chloroplast
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organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that catures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
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mitcochondrion
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cell organeel that converts the chemical energy stored in food into componds that are more convenient for the cell to use
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cell wall
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Strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
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lipid bilayer
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flexible double layed sheet that makes up the cell memrane and forms a barier between the cekk and its surroundings
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selectively permeable
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property of biological membranes that allows some substances to pass across it while others cannot; also called semipermeable membrane
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Diffusion
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process by which cells become specialized in structure and function
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facilitated diffusion
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process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane throught cell membrane channels
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osmosis
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diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
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isotonic
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when the concentration of two solutions is the same
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hypertonic
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when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
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osmotic pressure
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pressure that must be applied to precent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
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aquaporin
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water channel protein in a cell
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homeostasis
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relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
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tissue
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group of similar cells that perform a particular funtion.
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organ
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group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
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organ system
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groups of organs that work together to preform a specific function
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receptor
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on or in a cell, a specific protein to whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger, such as a hormone
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to maintain homeostasis unicellular oranisms…
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grow, respond to the environment, transform energy, and reprodue.
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passive transport
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is the movement of matericals across the cell membrane without cellular energy
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active transport
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is the movement of materials against a concentration difference. it also requites energy.

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