Test Answers on Chapter 20 – Flashcards

question

Penicillin was considered a miriacle drug for all of the following reasons except: 

 

A It was the first antibiotic

B it doesn't affect eukaryotic cells

C It inhibits gram-positive cell wall synthesis

D it has selective toxicity

E it kills a bacteria

answer
A. It was the first antibiotic
question

A drug that inhibits mitosis, such as griseofulvin, would be more effective against:

;

A gram positive bacteria

B Gram negative bacteria

C fungi

D wall-less bacteris

E. Mycobacteria

answer
C. Fungi
question

Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against:

A viruses

B bacteria

C fungi

D protozoa

E All of the above

answer
B. Bacteria
question

Antimicrobial peptides work by:

;

A inhibiting protein synthesis

B disrupting the plasma membrane

C complementary base pairing with DNA

D inhibiting cell-wall synthesis

E hydrolyzing peptidoglycan

answer
B Disrupting the plasma membrane
question

In what ways are semisynthetic penicillins and natural penicillins alike?

;

A both are broad spectrum

B both are resistant to penicillinase

C both are resistant to stomach acids

D both are bactericidal

D both are based on B-lactam

answer
E. Both are based on B-lactam
question

Which of the following antibiotics is not bactericidal?

;

A aminoglycosides

B cephalosporins

C polyenes

D rifampins

E penicillin

answer
C. Polyenes
question

Which of the following does not belong with the others?

;

A bacitracin

B cephalosporin

C monobactam

D Penicillin

E streptomcin

answer
E. Streptomycin
question

The antibiotic tetracycline binds to the 30s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.1. ;The effect is to:

A prevent attachment of tRNA

B prevent peptide bond formation

C prevent transcription

D stop teh ribosome from moving along the mRNA

E. prevent attachment of tRNA and mRNA

answer
B. prevent peptide bond formation
question

The antibiotic cycloheximide binds to the 60s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.2 the effect is to:

;

A prevent mRNA -ribosome binding in eukaryotes

B prevent peptide bond formation in prokaryotes

C prevent poypeptide elongation in eukaryotes

D prevent transcription in prokaryotes

E prevent ribosome formation in bacteria

;

answer
C. Prevent polypeptide elongation in eukaryotes.
question

Which of these antimicrobial agents has the fewest side effects:

A streptomycin

B tetracycline

c penicillin

D erythromycin

E chloramphenicol

answer
C. Penicillin
question

Which of the following drugs does not act by competitive inhibition?

A ethambutol

B isoniazid

C streptomycin

D sulfonimide

E tetracycline

answer
C. Streptomycin
question

Which of the following methods of action would be bacteriostatic?

;

A competitive inhibition with folic acid synthesis

B inhibition of RNA synthesis

C injury to plasma membrane

D inhibition of cell wall synthesis;

E competitive inhibition with DNA gyrase

answer
B. Inhibition of RNA synthesis
question

Which of the following antibiotics is recommended for use against gram-negative bacteria?

A polyenes

B bacitracin

C cephalosporin

D penicillin

E polymyxin

answer
E. Polymyxin
question

Which of the following antimicrobial agents is recommended for use against fungal infections?

;

A amphotericin B

B bacitracin

C Cephalosporin

D penicillin

E polymyxin

answer
A. Amphotericin B
question

More than half of our antibiotics are

;

A produced by fungi

B produced by bacteria

C synthesized in laboratories

D produced by Fleming

E Produced by eukaryotic organisms

answer
B Produced by bacteria
question

Which compound would be the most useful to treat candidiasis?

A uracil

B thymin

C flucytosine

D guanine

E Penicillin

answer
C. Flucytosine
question

Which of the following antibiotics are used to treat fungal infections;

1 aminoglycosides

2cephalosporins

3 griseofulvin

4 polyenes

5 bacitracin

A 1,2,3

B 3, 4

C 3,4,5,

D 4,5

E all of the antibiotics


answer
B. 3,4
question

Which of the following antibiotics does not interfere with cell wall synthesis?

A cephalosporins

B macrolides

C natural penicillins

d senisyntheti penicillins

E vancomycin

answer
B. Macrolides
question

The antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are:

A aminoglycosides

B chloramphenicol

C lincomycin

D macrolides

E tetracyclines

answer
E. Tetracyclines
question

Which of the following statements is false?

A fluoroquinolone inhibits DNA synthesis

B acyclovir inhibits DNA synthesis

C amantadine inhibits release of viral nucleic acid

D Interferon inhibits glycolysis

E azoles inhibit plasma membrane synthesis

;

answer
D. Interferon inhibits interferon
question

Protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because:

A their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

B They replicate insie human cells

C They dont have ribosomes

D They don't reproduce

E They have more genes than bacteria

answer
A. Their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells
question

Which of the following organisms would most likely be sensitive to natural penicillin?

A L forms

B streptococcus pyogenes

C penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae

D penicillium

E mycoplasma

answer
B. Streptococcus pyogenes
question

Which of the following statements about drug resistance is false?

A it may be carried on a plasmid

B it may be transferred from one bacterium to another during conjugation

C it may be due to enzymes that degrade some antibiotics

D it is found only in gram-negative bacteria

E it may be due to increased uptake of a drug

answer
D. It is found only in gram-negative bacteria.
question

Which of the following does not constitute an advantage of using two antibiotics together?

 

A it can prevent drug resistance

B It lessens the toxicity of individual drugs

C two are always twice as effective as one

D it allows treatment to be provided prior to diagnosis

E  all of the above are advantages

answer
C. Two are always twice as effective as one
question

The structure of the influenza drug Tamiflu and Salic acid, the substrate for influenza virus's neuramidase, are shown in figure 20.6. ;What is the method of action of Tamiflu?

;

A inhibits cell wall synthesis

B inhibits plasma membrane synthesis

C inhibits synthesis of neuramidase

D competitive inhibition

E prevents synthesis of virus spikes

answer
D. Competitive inhibition
question

The antibiotic chloramphenicol Binds to the 50s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.3. ;The effect is to

;

A prevent attachment of tRNA

B prevent peptide bond formation

C prevent transcrition

D stop ribosome from moving along the mRNA

E prevent polypeptide formation in eukaryotes.

answer
A. Prevent attachment of tRNA
question

Drug resistance occurs;

;

A because bacteria are normal microbiota

B when antibiotics are used indiscriminately

C against antibiotics and not against synthetic chemotherapeutic agents

D when antibiotics are taken after symptons disappear

E all of the above

;

answer
B. when antibiotics are used indiscriminately
question

Which of the following would be selective against the tubercle bacillus?

A bacitracin - inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

B ethambutol-inhibits mycolic acid synthesis

C streptogramin inhibits protein synthesis

D Streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis

D Vancomycin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

answer
B. ethambutol- inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
question

In the presence of penicillin, a cell dies because

A it lacks a cell wall

B it plasmolyzes

C it undergoes osmotic lysis

D it lacks a cell membrane

E its contents leak out

answer
C. It undergoes osmotic lysis
question

Lamisil is an allylamine used to treat dermatonycoses. ;Lamisil's method of action is similar to that of 

A polymyxin B

B azole antibiotics

C echinocandins

D griseofulvin

E bactracin

answer
B Azole antibiotics
question

Niclosamide prevents ATP generation in mitochondria.  You would expect this drug to be effective against

A gram-negative bacteria

B gram-positive bacteria 

C helminths

D mycobacterium tuberculosis

E viruses

answer
C Helminths
question

Which of the following statements about drugs that competitively inhibit DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase is false?

A they cause mutations

B they are used against viral infections

C they can affect hot cell DNA

D they are too dangerous to use

E they interfere with protein synthesis

answer
D They are too dangerous to use.
question

Which of the following does not affect eukaryotic cells?

A antiprotozoan drugs

B antihelminthic drugs

C antifungal drugs

D nucleotide analogs

E semisynthetic penicillins

answer
E. semisynthetic penicillins
question

Mebendazole is used to treat cestode infections.  It interfers with microtubule formation; therefore, it would not affect

 

A bacteria

B fungi

C helminths

D human cells

E protozoa 

 

answer
A. bacteria
question

Which of the following antibiotics causes misreading of mRNA

A aminoglycoside-changes shape of 30s units

B chloramphenicol-inhibits peptide bonds at 50s subunit

C oxazolidinine-prevents formation of 70s ribosome

D streptogamin - prevents release of peptide from 70s ribosome

E tetracyclines - bind with 30s subunit

answer
A. aminoglycoside changes shape of 30s units
question

The antibiotic actinomycin D binds between adjacent G-C pairs, thus interfering with

A transcription

B translation

C cellular respiration

D plasma membrane function

E peptide bond formation

 

answer
A. transcription
question

Use of antibiotics in animal feed leads to antibiotic-resistance bacteria because

A bacteria from other animals replace those killed by the antibiotics

B the few surviving bacteria that are affected by the antibiotics develop immunity to the antibiotics, which they pass on to their progeny

C the antibiotics cause new mutations to occur in the surviving  bacteria which results in reistance

D the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce and their progeny repopulate the host

E the antibiotics persist in soil and water

answer
D the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria, but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce, and their progeny repopulate the host animal.
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question

Penicillin was considered a miriacle drug for all of the following reasons except: 

 

A It was the first antibiotic

B it doesn't affect eukaryotic cells

C It inhibits gram-positive cell wall synthesis

D it has selective toxicity

E it kills a bacteria

answer
A. It was the first antibiotic
question

A drug that inhibits mitosis, such as griseofulvin, would be more effective against:

;

A gram positive bacteria

B Gram negative bacteria

C fungi

D wall-less bacteris

E. Mycobacteria

answer
C. Fungi
question

Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against:

A viruses

B bacteria

C fungi

D protozoa

E All of the above

answer
B. Bacteria
question

Antimicrobial peptides work by:

;

A inhibiting protein synthesis

B disrupting the plasma membrane

C complementary base pairing with DNA

D inhibiting cell-wall synthesis

E hydrolyzing peptidoglycan

answer
B Disrupting the plasma membrane
question

In what ways are semisynthetic penicillins and natural penicillins alike?

;

A both are broad spectrum

B both are resistant to penicillinase

C both are resistant to stomach acids

D both are bactericidal

D both are based on B-lactam

answer
E. Both are based on B-lactam
question

Which of the following antibiotics is not bactericidal?

;

A aminoglycosides

B cephalosporins

C polyenes

D rifampins

E penicillin

answer
C. Polyenes
question

Which of the following does not belong with the others?

;

A bacitracin

B cephalosporin

C monobactam

D Penicillin

E streptomcin

answer
E. Streptomycin
question

The antibiotic tetracycline binds to the 30s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.1. ;The effect is to:

A prevent attachment of tRNA

B prevent peptide bond formation

C prevent transcription

D stop teh ribosome from moving along the mRNA

E. prevent attachment of tRNA and mRNA

answer
B. prevent peptide bond formation
question

The antibiotic cycloheximide binds to the 60s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.2 the effect is to:

;

A prevent mRNA -ribosome binding in eukaryotes

B prevent peptide bond formation in prokaryotes

C prevent poypeptide elongation in eukaryotes

D prevent transcription in prokaryotes

E prevent ribosome formation in bacteria

;

answer
C. Prevent polypeptide elongation in eukaryotes.
question

Which of these antimicrobial agents has the fewest side effects:

A streptomycin

B tetracycline

c penicillin

D erythromycin

E chloramphenicol

answer
C. Penicillin
question

Which of the following drugs does not act by competitive inhibition?

A ethambutol

B isoniazid

C streptomycin

D sulfonimide

E tetracycline

answer
C. Streptomycin
question

Which of the following methods of action would be bacteriostatic?

;

A competitive inhibition with folic acid synthesis

B inhibition of RNA synthesis

C injury to plasma membrane

D inhibition of cell wall synthesis;

E competitive inhibition with DNA gyrase

answer
B. Inhibition of RNA synthesis
question

Which of the following antibiotics is recommended for use against gram-negative bacteria?

A polyenes

B bacitracin

C cephalosporin

D penicillin

E polymyxin

answer
E. Polymyxin
question

Which of the following antimicrobial agents is recommended for use against fungal infections?

;

A amphotericin B

B bacitracin

C Cephalosporin

D penicillin

E polymyxin

answer
A. Amphotericin B
question

More than half of our antibiotics are

;

A produced by fungi

B produced by bacteria

C synthesized in laboratories

D produced by Fleming

E Produced by eukaryotic organisms

answer
B Produced by bacteria
question

Which compound would be the most useful to treat candidiasis?

A uracil

B thymin

C flucytosine

D guanine

E Penicillin

answer
C. Flucytosine
question

Which of the following antibiotics are used to treat fungal infections;

1 aminoglycosides

2cephalosporins

3 griseofulvin

4 polyenes

5 bacitracin

A 1,2,3

B 3, 4

C 3,4,5,

D 4,5

E all of the antibiotics


answer
B. 3,4
question

Which of the following antibiotics does not interfere with cell wall synthesis?

A cephalosporins

B macrolides

C natural penicillins

d senisyntheti penicillins

E vancomycin

answer
B. Macrolides
question

The antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are:

A aminoglycosides

B chloramphenicol

C lincomycin

D macrolides

E tetracyclines

answer
E. Tetracyclines
question

Which of the following statements is false?

A fluoroquinolone inhibits DNA synthesis

B acyclovir inhibits DNA synthesis

C amantadine inhibits release of viral nucleic acid

D Interferon inhibits glycolysis

E azoles inhibit plasma membrane synthesis

;

answer
D. Interferon inhibits interferon
question

Protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because:

A their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

B They replicate insie human cells

C They dont have ribosomes

D They don't reproduce

E They have more genes than bacteria

answer
A. Their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells
question

Which of the following organisms would most likely be sensitive to natural penicillin?

A L forms

B streptococcus pyogenes

C penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae

D penicillium

E mycoplasma

answer
B. Streptococcus pyogenes
question

Which of the following statements about drug resistance is false?

A it may be carried on a plasmid

B it may be transferred from one bacterium to another during conjugation

C it may be due to enzymes that degrade some antibiotics

D it is found only in gram-negative bacteria

E it may be due to increased uptake of a drug

answer
D. It is found only in gram-negative bacteria.
question

Which of the following does not constitute an advantage of using two antibiotics together?

 

A it can prevent drug resistance

B It lessens the toxicity of individual drugs

C two are always twice as effective as one

D it allows treatment to be provided prior to diagnosis

E  all of the above are advantages

answer
C. Two are always twice as effective as one
question

The structure of the influenza drug Tamiflu and Salic acid, the substrate for influenza virus's neuramidase, are shown in figure 20.6. ;What is the method of action of Tamiflu?

;

A inhibits cell wall synthesis

B inhibits plasma membrane synthesis

C inhibits synthesis of neuramidase

D competitive inhibition

E prevents synthesis of virus spikes

answer
D. Competitive inhibition
question

The antibiotic chloramphenicol Binds to the 50s subunit of the ribosome as shown in figure 20.3. ;The effect is to

;

A prevent attachment of tRNA

B prevent peptide bond formation

C prevent transcrition

D stop ribosome from moving along the mRNA

E prevent polypeptide formation in eukaryotes.

answer
A. Prevent attachment of tRNA
question

Drug resistance occurs;

;

A because bacteria are normal microbiota

B when antibiotics are used indiscriminately

C against antibiotics and not against synthetic chemotherapeutic agents

D when antibiotics are taken after symptons disappear

E all of the above

;

answer
B. when antibiotics are used indiscriminately
question

Which of the following would be selective against the tubercle bacillus?

A bacitracin - inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

B ethambutol-inhibits mycolic acid synthesis

C streptogramin inhibits protein synthesis

D Streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis

D Vancomycin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

answer
B. ethambutol- inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
question

In the presence of penicillin, a cell dies because

A it lacks a cell wall

B it plasmolyzes

C it undergoes osmotic lysis

D it lacks a cell membrane

E its contents leak out

answer
C. It undergoes osmotic lysis
question

Lamisil is an allylamine used to treat dermatonycoses. ;Lamisil's method of action is similar to that of 

A polymyxin B

B azole antibiotics

C echinocandins

D griseofulvin

E bactracin

answer
B Azole antibiotics
question

Niclosamide prevents ATP generation in mitochondria.  You would expect this drug to be effective against

A gram-negative bacteria

B gram-positive bacteria 

C helminths

D mycobacterium tuberculosis

E viruses

answer
C Helminths
question

Which of the following statements about drugs that competitively inhibit DNA polymerase or RNA polymerase is false?

A they cause mutations

B they are used against viral infections

C they can affect hot cell DNA

D they are too dangerous to use

E they interfere with protein synthesis

answer
D They are too dangerous to use.
question

Which of the following does not affect eukaryotic cells?

A antiprotozoan drugs

B antihelminthic drugs

C antifungal drugs

D nucleotide analogs

E semisynthetic penicillins

answer
E. semisynthetic penicillins
question

Mebendazole is used to treat cestode infections.  It interfers with microtubule formation; therefore, it would not affect

 

A bacteria

B fungi

C helminths

D human cells

E protozoa 

 

answer
A. bacteria
question

Which of the following antibiotics causes misreading of mRNA

A aminoglycoside-changes shape of 30s units

B chloramphenicol-inhibits peptide bonds at 50s subunit

C oxazolidinine-prevents formation of 70s ribosome

D streptogamin - prevents release of peptide from 70s ribosome

E tetracyclines - bind with 30s subunit

answer
A. aminoglycoside changes shape of 30s units
question

The antibiotic actinomycin D binds between adjacent G-C pairs, thus interfering with

A transcription

B translation

C cellular respiration

D plasma membrane function

E peptide bond formation

 

answer
A. transcription
question

Use of antibiotics in animal feed leads to antibiotic-resistance bacteria because

A bacteria from other animals replace those killed by the antibiotics

B the few surviving bacteria that are affected by the antibiotics develop immunity to the antibiotics, which they pass on to their progeny

C the antibiotics cause new mutations to occur in the surviving  bacteria which results in reistance

D the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce and their progeny repopulate the host

E the antibiotics persist in soil and water

answer
D the antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria, but the few that are naturally resistant live and reproduce, and their progeny repopulate the host animal.